Esta es la versión HTML de un fichero adjunto a una solicitud de acceso a la información 'Copyright trilogue'.


 
  
 
 
 

Council of the 
 
 

 European Union 
   
 
Brussels, 30 November 2018 
(OR. en) 
    15057/18 
 
Interinstitutional File: 
 
 
2016/0280(COD) 
LIMITE 
 
AUDIO 115 

COMPET 837 
CULT 158 
EDUC 452 
 
 
PI 174 
RECH 514 
TELECOM 444 
CODEC 2190 
DIGIT 243 
 
NOTE 
From: 
Presidency 
To: 
Permanent Representatives Committee 
Subject: 
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on 
Copyright in the Digital Single Market 
- Update of negotiating mandate 
 
 
I.  
INTRODUCTION 
On 25 May 2018, Coreper granted the Presidency a mandate (9134/18) to start negotiations with the 
European Parliament (EP) on the above mentioned proposal with a view to reaching a first reading 
agreement. The EP adopted its negotiating mandate on 12 September 2018 (11520/18). 
Trilogue negotiations started on 2 October 2018. Meanwhile two more trilogues took place on 
25 October and 26 November 2018, and a number of technical meetings were held. The 4th trilogue 
is scheduled to take place on 3 December.  
In the negotiations held so far, good progress was achieved on the chapter on exceptions and 
limitations, and on the chapter of out of commerce works. The remuneration chapter has been 
discussed in quite some detail, and exploratory talks were held on the controversial provisions of 
Article 11 and Article 13.  
 
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The 5th trilogue is scheduled for 13 December 2018. In preparation for that 5th trilogue, which is 
intended to be the final trilogue, the Presidency seeks a partial update of the negotiating mandate as 
suggested in part II of this note.   
II.    PRESIDENCY SUGGESTIONS ON SPECIFIC ISSUES 
(a)  Exceptions and limitations  
In the chapter on exceptions and limitations, Article 3a (mandatory or optional nature) is one open 
issue. The decisions on the question will be left to the final overall compromise.  
The only two further open provisions in this chapter are the EP provisions on public domain 
(Article 5(1a)), and on "exception hopping" (Article 6(1) EP text).  
The Presidency will continue to oppose these provisions. 
(i)   Public domain Article 5(1a), row 151 
However, given the importance of public domain for the EP, the Presidency asks Member States for 
flexibility for negotiating a text along the following lines (text provided by the Services of the 
Commission as technical assistance to both co-legislators):  
"Article 5(1a): Member States shall provide that, when the term of protection of a work 
of visual art has expired, any material resulting from an act of reproduction of that work 
shall not be subject to copyright or related rights, unless the material resulting from that 
act  of  reproduction  is  original  in  the  sense  that  it  is  the  author's  own  intellectual 
creation. 
 
Recital (new) The expiry of the term of protection of a work entails the entry of that 
work  into  the  public  domain  and  the  expiry  of  the  rights  that  Union  copyright  law 
provides to that work. In the field of visual arts, the circulation of faithful reproductions 
of works in the public domain contributes to the access to and promotion of culture (or 
access  to  cultural  heritage).  In  the  digital  environment,  the  protection  of  these 
reproductions through copyright or related rights is inconsistent with the expiry of the 
copyright  protection of  works.  In addition,  differences between the national  copyright 
laws governing the protection of these reproductions give rise to legal uncertainty and 
affect  the  cross-border  dissemination  of  works  of  visual  arts  in  the  public  domain. 
Therefore, it should be clarified that certain reproductions of works of visual arts in the 
public domain should not  be protected by copyright  or related  rights.  This  should not 
prevent cultural heritage institutions from selling reproductions, such as postcards." 
 
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(ii) "Exception hopping" (Article 6(1) EP text), row 154 
As regards "exception hopping" the Presidency suggests working in the direction of a clarification 
in the recitals along the lines of the jurisprudence.  
(b)  Out of commerce works and Extended collective licencing 
In the out of commerce chapter, the only issues still open, are the "fall back exception" 
(Article 7(1a) and related provisions), and Article 9a (Extended collective licencing). On these two 
matters, the Presidency will continue negotiations on the basis of the feedback given by Coreper on 
23 November 2018.   
(c)   Confirmation of provisionally agreed parts of the text  
With a view to avoiding overloading Coreper at a later point, the Presidency invites Coreper to 
confirm those parts of the text on which compromises have already been provisionally agreed, see 
the rows indicated in "GREEN" in the fourth column of the table set out in the ANNEX to this note.  
 
III.    CONCLUSION 
The Permanent Representatives' Committee is thus invited to  
•  approve the Presidency approach on (i) Public domain, and (ii) exception hopping,  
 
and  
 
•  confirm the provisionally agreed GREEN parts of the 4-column table set out in the Annex.  
 
 
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ANNEX I 
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 
on copyright in the Digital Single Market  
COM (2016) 593 final - 2016/0280 (COD) 
PART 1: CITATIONS AND RECITALS 
Cell in green: The text can be deemed as already agreed 
Cell in yellow: The issue needs further discussion at technical level 
Cell in red: The issue needs further discussion in depth at the trilogue meetings 
Note: 
Differences between the EP's position and the Commission's proposal are highlighted in Bold/Italics. Deletions are marked with 
strikethrough. 
Differences between the Council's position and the Commission's proposal are highlighted in Bold/Underlined. 
Deletions are marked with strikethrough.  
 
 
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EP TEXT 
Row 
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1. 
Proposal for a  
Proposal for a  
Proposal for a  
 
DIRECTIVE OF THE 
DIRECTIVE OF THE 
DIRECTIVE OF THE 
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 
AND OF THE COUNCIL 
AND OF THE COUNCIL 
AND OF THE COUNCIL 
on copyright in the Digital Single  on copyright in the Digital Single  on copyright in the Digital Single 
Market 
Market 
Market 
(Text with EEA relevance) 
(Text with EEA relevance) 
(Text with EEA relevance) 
2. 
THE EUROPEAN 
THE EUROPEAN 
THE EUROPEAN 
 
PARLIAMENT AND THE 
PARLIAMENT AND THE 
PARLIAMENT AND THE 
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN  COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN  COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN 
UNION, 
UNION, 
UNION, 
3. 
Having regard to the Treaty on 
Having regard to the Treaty on 
Having regard to the Treaty on 
 
the Functioning of the European 
the Functioning of the European 
the Functioning of the European 
Union, and in particular 
Union, and in particular 
Union, and in particular 
Article 114 thereof, 
Article 114 thereof, 
Article Articles 53(1), 62 and 
114 thereof 
4. 
Having regard to the proposal 
Having regard to the proposal 
Having regard to the proposal 
 
from the European Commission, 
from the European Commission, 
from the European Commission, 
 
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5. 
After transmission of the draft 
After transmission of the draft 
After transmission of the draft 
 
legislative act to the national 
legislative act to the national 
legislative act to the national 
parliaments, 
parliaments, 
parliaments, 
6. 
Having regard to the opinion of 
Having regard to the opinion of 
Having regard to the opinion of 
 
the European Economic and 
the European Economic and 
the European Economic and 
Social Committee1, 
Social Committee1, 
Social Committee1
7. 
Having regard to the opinion of 
Having regard to the opinion of 
Having regard to the opinion of 
 
the Committee of the Regions2, 
the Committee of the Regions2, 
the Committee of the Regions2
8. 
Acting in accordance with the 
Acting in accordance with the 
Acting in accordance with the 
 
ordinary legislative procedure, 
ordinary legislative procedure, 
ordinary legislative procedure, 
9. 
Whereas: 
Whereas: 
Whereas: 
 
10. 
(1)  The Treaty provides for the  (1)  The Treaty provides for the  (1)  The Treaty provides for the   
establishment of an internal 
establishment of an internal 
establishment of an internal 
market and the institution of a 
market and the institution of a 
market and the institution of a 
system ensuring that competition 
system ensuring that competition 
system ensuring that competition 
in the internal market is not 
in the internal market is not 
in the internal market is not 
distorted. Harmonisation of the 
distorted. Harmonisation of the 
distorted. Harmonisation of the 
laws of the Member States on 
laws of the Member States on 
laws of the Member States on 
copyright and related rights 
copyright and related rights 
copyright and related rights 
                                                 
1 
OJ C , , p. . 
2 
OJ C , , p. . 
 
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should contribute further to the 
should contribute further to the 
should contribute further to the 
achievement of those objectives. 
achievement of those objectives. 
achievement of those objectives. 
11. 
(2)  The directives which have 
(2)  The directives which have 
(2)  The directivesDirectives 
 
been adopted in the area of 
been adopted in the area of 
which have been adopted in the 
copyright and related rights 
copyright and related rights 
area of copyright and related 
provide for a high level of 
contribute to the functioning of 
rights provide for a high level of 
protection for rightholders and 
the internal market, provide for a  protection for rightholders and 
create a framework wherein the 
high level of protection for 
create a framework wherein the 
exploitation of works and other 
rightholders, facilitate the 
exploitation of works and other 
protected subject-matter can take 
clearance of rights and create a 
protected subject-matter can take 
place. This harmonised legal 
framework wherein the 
place. This harmonised legal 
framework contributes to the 
exploitation of works and other 
framework contributes to the 
good functioning of the internal 
protected subject-matter can take 
good functioning of the internal 
market; it stimulates innovation, 
place. This harmonised legal 
market; it stimulates innovation, 
creativity, investment and 
framework contributes to the 
creativity, investment and 
production of new content, also in  good functioning of the a truly 
production of new content, also in 
the digital environment. The 
integrated internal market; it 
the digital environment. The 
protection provided by this legal 
stimulates innovation, creativity, 
protection provided by this legal 
framework also contributes to the  investment and production of new  framework also contributes to the 
Union's objective of respecting 
content, also in the digital 
Union's objective of respecting 
and promoting cultural diversity 
environment, with a view to 
and promoting cultural diversity 
while at the same time bringing 
avoiding fragmentation of the 
while at the same time bringing 
the European common cultural 
internal market. The protection 
the European common cultural 
heritage to the fore. Article 
provided by this legal framework  heritage to the fore. Article 
167(4) of the Treaty on the 
also contributes to the Union's 
167(4) of the Treaty on the 
Functioning of the European 
objective of respecting and 
Functioning of the European 
Union requires the Union to take 
promoting cultural diversity while  Union requires the Union to take 
 
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cultural aspects into account in its  at the same time bringing the 
cultural aspects into account in its 
action. 
European common cultural 
action. 
heritage to the fore. Article 
167(4) of the Treaty on the 
Functioning of the European 
Union requires the Union to take 
cultural aspects into account in its 
action. 
12. 
(3)  Rapid technological 
(3)  Rapid technological 
(3)  Rapid technological 
 
developments continue to 
developments continue to 
developments continue to 
transform the way works and 
transform the way works and 
transform the way works and 
other subject-matter are created, 
other subject-matter are created, 
other subject-matter are created, 
produced, distributed and 
produced, distributed and 
produced, distributed and 
exploited. New business models 
exploited, and relevant 
exploited. New business models 
and new actors continue to 
legislation needs to be future 
and new actors continue to 
emerge. The objectives and the 
proof so as not to restrict 
emerge. The objectives and the 
principles laid down by the Union  technological development. New  principles laid down by the Union 
copyright framework remain 
business models and new actors 
copyright framework remain 
sound. However, legal uncertainty  continue to emerge. The 
sound. However, legal uncertainty 
remains, for both rightholders and  objectives and the principles laid 
remains, for both rightholders and 
users, as regards certain uses, 
down by the Union copyright 
users, as regards certain uses, 
including cross-border uses, of 
framework remain sound. 
including cross-border uses, of 
works and other subject-matter in  However, legal uncertainty 
works and other subject-matter in 
the digital environment. As set 
remains, for both rightholders and  the digital environment. As set 
out in the Communication of the 
users, as regards certain uses, 
out in the Communication of the 
Commission entitled ‘Towards a 
including cross-border uses, of 
Commission entitled ‘Towards a 
modern, more European 
works and other subject-matter in  modern, more European 
 
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copyright framework’3, in some 
the digital environment. As set 
copyright framework’3, in some 
areas it is necessary to adapt and 
out in the Communication of the 
areas it is necessary to adapt and 
supplement the current Union 
Commission entitled 'Towards a 
supplement the current Union 
copyright framework. This 
modern, more European 
copyright framework. keeping a 
Directive provides for rules to 
copyright framework'3in some 
high level of protection of 
adapt certain exceptions and 
areas it is necessary to adapt and 
copyright and related rights. 
limitations to digital and cross-
supplement the current Union 
This Directive provides for rules 
border environments, as well as 
copyright framework. This 
to adapt certain exceptions and 
measures to facilitate certain 
Directive provides for rules to 
limitations to digital and cross-
licensing practices as regards the 
adapt certain exceptions and 
border environments, as well as 
dissemination of out-of-
limitations to digital and cross-
measures to facilitate certain 
commerce works and the online 
border environments, as well as 
licensing practices as regards the 
availability of audiovisual works 
measures to facilitate certain 
dissemination of out-of-
on video-on-demand platforms 
licensing practices as regards the 
commerce works and the online 
with a view to ensuring wider 
dissemination of out-of-
availability of audiovisual works 
access to content. In order to 
commerce works and the online 
on video-on-demand platforms 
achieve a well-functioning 
availability of audiovisual works 
with a view to ensuring wider 
marketplace for copyright, there 
on video-on-demand platforms 
access to content. In order to 
should also be rules on rights in 
with a view to ensuring wider 
achieve a well-functioning 
publications, on the use of works 
access to content. In order to 
marketplace for copyright, there 
and other subject-matter by online  achieve a well-functioning and 
should also be rules on rights in 
service providers storing and 
fair marketplace for copyright, 
publications, on the use of works 
giving access to user uploaded 
there should also be rules on 
and other subject-matter by online 
content and on the transparency 
rights in publications, on the 
service providers storing and 
of authors' and performers' 
exercise and enforcement of the 
giving access to user uploaded 
contracts. 
use of works and other subject-
content and on the transparency 
                                                 

COM(2015) 626 final. 
 
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matter by on online service 
of authors' and performers' 
providers storing and giving 
contracts. 
access to user uploaded content 
providers’ platforms and on the 
transparency of authors' and 
performers' contracts and of the 
accounting linked with the 
exploitation of protected works 
in accordance with those 
contracts.
 
13. 
(4)  This Directive is based 
(4)  This Directive is based upon,  (4)  This Directive is based 
 
upon, and complements, the rules  and complements, the rules laid 
upon, and complements, the rules 
laid down in the Directives 
down in the Directives currently 
laid down in the Directives 
currently in force in this area, in 
in force in this area, in particular 
currently in force in this area, in 
particular Directive 96/9/EC of 
Directive 96/9/EC of the 
particular Directive 96/9/EC of 
the European Parliament and of 
European Parliament and of the 
the European Parliament and of 
the Council4, Directive 
Council4, Directive 2000/31/EC 
the Council44, Directive 
2001/29/EC of the European 
of the European Parliament and  2000/31/EC of the European 
Parliament and of the Council6, 
of the Council5, Directive 
Parliament and of the Council5, 
Directive 2006/115/EC of the 
2001/29/EC of the European 
Directive 2001/29/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the 
Parliament and of the Council6 , 
European Parliament and of the 
Council7, Directive 2009/24/EC 
Directive 2006/115/EC of the 
Council6, Directive 2006/115/EC 
                                                 

Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases (OJ L 77, 27.3.1996, p. 20–28). 

Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in 
particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (OJ L 178, 17.07.2000, p. 1–16). 


Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in 
the information society (OJ L 167, 22.6.2001, p. 10–19). 
 
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of the European Parliament and of  European Parliament and of the 
of the European Parliament and of 
the Council8, Directive 
Council7, Directive 2009/24/EC 
the Council7, Directive 
2012/28/EU of the European 
of the European Parliament and of  2009/24/EC of the European 
Parliament and of the Council9 
the Council8, Directive 
Parliament and of the Council8, 
and Directive 2014/26/EU of the 
2012/28/EU of the European 
Directive 2012/28/EU of the 
European Parliament and of the 
Parliament and of the Council9 
European Parliament and of the 
Council10. 
and Directive 2014/26/EU of the 
Council9 and Directive 
European Parliament and of the 
2014/26/EU of the European 
Council10 . 
Parliament and of the Council10. 
14. 
(5)  In the fields of research, 
(5)  In the fields of research, 
(5)  In the fields of research, 
 
education and preservation of 
innovation, education and 
education and preservation of 
cultural heritage, digital 
preservation of cultural heritage, 
cultural heritage, digital 
technologies permit new types of 
digital technologies permit new 
technologies permit new types of 
uses that are not clearly covered 
types of uses that are not clearly 
uses that are not clearly covered 
by the current Union rules on 
covered by the current Union 
by the current Union rules on 
exceptions and limitations. In 
rules on exceptions and 
exceptions and limitations. In 
addition, the optional nature of 
limitations. In addition, the 
addition, the optional nature of 
exceptions and limitations 
optional nature of exceptions and  exceptions and limitations 
                                                 

Directive 2006/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on rental right and lending right and on certain rights related to 
copyright in the field of intellectual property (OJ L 376, 27.12.2006, p. 28–35). 

Directive 2009/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the legal protection of computer programs (OJ L 111, 
5.5.2009, p. 16–22). 

Directive 2012/28/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on certain permitted uses of orphan works (OJ L 299, 
27.10.2012, p. 5–12). 
10 
Directive 2014/26/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on collective management of copyright and related 
rights and multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use in the internal market (OJ L 84, 20.3.2014, p. 72–98). 
 
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provided for in Directives 
limitations provided for in 
provided for in Directives 
2001/29/EC, 96/9/EC and 
Directives 2001/29/EC, 96/9/EC 
2001/29/EC, 96/9/EC and 
2009/24/EC in these fields may 
and 2009/24/EC in these fields 
2009/24/EC in these fields may 
negatively impact the functioning  may negatively impact the 
negatively impact the functioning 
of the internal market. This is 
functioning of the internal market.  of the internal market. This is 
particularly relevant as regards 
This is particularly relevant as 
particularly relevant as regards 
cross-border uses, which are 
regards cross-border uses, which 
cross-border uses, which are 
becoming increasingly important 
are becoming increasingly 
becoming increasingly important 
in the digital environment. 
important in the digital 
in the digital environment. 
Therefore, the existing exceptions  environment. Therefore, the 
Therefore, the existing exceptions 
and limitations in Union law that 
existing exceptions and 
and limitations in Union law that 
are relevant for scientific 
limitations in Union law that are 
are relevant for scientific 
research, teaching and 
relevant for innovation, scientific  research, teaching and 
preservation of cultural heritage 
research, teaching and 
preservation of cultural heritage 
should be reassessed in the light 
preservation of cultural heritage 
should be reassessed in the light 
of those new uses. Mandatory 
should be reassessed in the light 
of those new uses. Mandatory 
exceptions or limitations for uses 
of those new uses. Mandatory 
exceptions or limitations for uses 
of text and data mining 
exceptions or limitations for uses 
of text and data mining 
technologies in the field of 
of text and data mining 
technologies in the field of 
scientific research, illustration for  technologies in the field of 
scientific research, illustration for 
teaching in the digital 
innovation and scientific 
teaching in the digital 
environment and for preservation  research, illustration for teaching 
environment and for preservation 
of cultural heritage should be 
in the digital environment and for  of cultural heritage should be 
introduced. For uses not covered 
preservation of cultural heritage 
introduced. For uses not covered 
by the exceptions or the limitation  should be introduced. For uses 
by the exceptions or the limitation 
provided for in this Directive, the  not covered by the exceptions or 
provided for in this Directive, 
exceptions and limitations 
the limitation provided for in this  theThe exceptions and limitations 
existing in Union law should 
Directive, the exceptions and 
existing in Union law should 
 
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continue to apply. Directives 
limitations existing in Union law 
continue to apply, including to 
96/9/EC and 2001/29/EC should 
should continue to apply. 
text and data mining, education 
be adapted. 
Therefore, existing well-
and preservation activities, as 
functioning exceptions in those 
long as they do not limit the 
fields should be allowed to 
scope of the mandatory 
continue to be available in 
exceptions laid down in this 
Member States, as long as they 
Directive and on condition that 
do not restrict the scope of the 
their application does not 
exceptions or limitations 
adversely affect nor circumvent 
provided for in this Directive. 
the mandatory rules set out in 
Directives 96/9/EC and 
this Directive. Directives 
2001/29/EC should be adapted. 
96/9/EC and 2001/29/EC should 
be adapted. 
15. 
(6)  The exceptions and the 
(6)  The exceptions and the 
(6)  The exceptions and the 
 
limitation set out in this Directive  limitation limitations set out in 
limitation set outprovided for in 
seek to achieve a fair balance 
this Directive seek to achieve a 
this Directive seek to achieve a 
between the rights and interests of  fair balance between the rights 
fair balance between the rights 
authors and other rightholders on 
and interests of authors and other  and interests of authors and other 
the one hand, and of users on the 
rightholders on the one hand, and  rightholders on the one hand, and 
other. They can be applied only in  of users on the other. They can be  of users on the other. They can be 
certain special cases which do not  applied only in certain special 
applied only in certain special 
conflict with the normal 
cases which do not conflict with 
cases which do not conflict with 
exploitation of the works or other  the normal exploitation of the 
the normal exploitation of the 
subject-matter and do not 
works or other subject-matter and  works or other subject-matter and 
unreasonably prejudice the 
do not unreasonably prejudice the  do not unreasonably prejudice the 
legitimate interests of the 
legitimate interests of the 
legitimate interests of the 
rightholders. 
rightholders. 
rightholders. 
 
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16. 
(7)  The protection of 
(7)  The protection of 
(7)  The protection of 
 
technological measures 
technological measures 
technological measures 
established in Directive 
established in Directive 
established in Directive 
2001/29/EC remains essential to 
2001/29/EC remains essential to 
2001/29/EC remains essential to 
ensure the protection and the 
ensure the protection and the 
ensure the protection and the 
effective exercise of the rights 
effective exercise of the rights 
effective exercise of the rights 
granted to authors and to other 
granted to authors and to other 
granted to authors and to other 
rightholders under Union law. 
rightholders under Union law. 
rightholders under Union law. 
This protection should be 
This protection should be 
This protection should be 
maintained while ensuring that 
maintained while ensuring that 
maintained while ensuring that 
the use of technological measures  the use of technological measures  the use of technological measures 
does not prevent the enjoyment of  does not prevent the enjoyment of  does not prevent the enjoyment of 
the exceptions and the limitation 
the exceptions and the limitation 
the exceptions and the limitation 
established in this Directive, 
established in this Directive, 
established in this Directive, 
which are particularly relevant in 
which are particularly relevant in 
which are particularly relevant in 
the online environment. 
the online environment. 
the online environment.. 
Rightholders should have the 
Rightholders should have the 
Rightholders should have the 
opportunity to ensure this through  opportunity to ensure this through  opportunity to ensure this through 
voluntary measures. They should 
voluntary measures. They should 
voluntary measures. They should 
remain free to choose the format 
remain free to choose the format 
remain free to choose the format 
and the modalities to provide the 
and the modalities to provide the 
and the modalities to 
beneficiaries of the exceptions 
beneficiaries of the exceptions 
provideappropriate means of 
and the limitation established in 
and the limitation established in 
enabling the beneficiaries of the 
this Directive with the means to 
this Directive with the means to 
exceptions and the limitation 
benefit from them provided that 
benefit from them provided that 
established in this Directive with 
such means are appropriate. In the  such means are appropriate. In the  the means to benefit from them 
absence of voluntary measures, 
absence of voluntary measures, 
provided that such means are 
Member States should take 
Member States should take 
appropriate. In the absence of 
 
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appropriate measures in 
appropriate measures in 
voluntary measures, Member 
accordance with the first 
accordance with the first 
States should take appropriate 
subparagraph of Article 6(4) of 
subparagraph of Article 6(4) of 
measures in accordance with the 
Directive 2001/29/EC. 
Directive 2001/29/EC. 
first subparagraph of Article 6(4) 
of Directive 2001/29/EC
including where works and 
other subject-matter are made 
available through on-demand 
services

17. 
(8)  New technologies enable 
(8)  New technologies enable the 
(8)  New technologies enable 
 
the automated computational 
automated computational analysis  the automated computational 
analysis of information in digital 
of information in digital form, 
analysis of information in digital 
form, such as text, sounds, images  such as text, sounds, images or 
form, such as text, sounds, images 
or data, generally known as text 
data, generally known as text and  or data, generally known as text 
and data mining. Those 
data mining. Those technologies 
and data mining. Those 
technologies allow researchers to 
allow researchers to process Text  technologies allow researchers to 
process large amounts of 
and data mining allows the 
process large amounts of 
information to gain new 
reading and analysis of large 
information with a view to 
knowledge and discover new 
amounts of digitally stored 
gaingaining new knowledge and 
trends. Whilst text and data 
information to gain new 
discoverdiscovering new trends. 
mining technologies are prevalent  knowledge and discover new 
Whilst text and data mining 
across the digital economy, there 
trends. Whilst text and data 
technologies are prevalent across 
is widespread acknowledgment 
mining technologies are prevalent  the digital economy, there is 
that text and data mining can in 
across the digital economy, there 
widespread acknowledgment that 
particular benefit the research 
is widespread acknowledgment 
text and data mining can in 
community and in so doing 
that text and data mining can in 
particular benefit the research 
encourage innovation. However, 
particular benefit the research 
community and in so doing 
 
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in the Union, research 
community and in so doing 
encouragesupport innovation. 
organisations such as universities  encourage innovation. However, 
However, in the Union, These 
and research institutes are 
in the Union, research 
technologies benefit research 
confronted with legal uncertainty 
organisations such as universities  organisations such as universities 
as to the extent to which they can  and research institutes are 
and well as cultural heritage 
perform text and data mining of 
confronted with legal uncertainty 
institutions, which may also 
content. In certain instances, text 
as to the extent to which they can  carry out research institutesin 
and data mining may involve acts  perform text and data mining of 
the context of their main 
protected by copyright and/or by 
content. In certain instances, text 
activities. However, in the 
the sui generis database right, 
and data mining may involve acts  Union, such organisations and 
notably the reproduction of works  protected by copyright and/or by 
institutions are confronted with 
or other subject-matter and/or the  the sui generis database right, 
legal uncertainty as to the extent 
extraction of contents from a 
notably the reproduction of works  to which they can perform text 
database. Where there is no 
or other subject-matter and/or the  and data mining of content. In 
exception or limitation which 
extraction of contents from a 
certain instances, text and data 
applies, an authorisation to 
database. Where there is no 
mining may involve acts 
undertake such acts would be 
exception or limitation which 
protected by copyright and/or by 
required from rightholders. Text 
applies, an authorisation to 
the sui generis database right, 
and data mining may also be 
undertake such acts would be 
notably the reproduction of works 
carried out in relation to mere 
required from rightholders. Text 
or other subject-matter and/or the 
facts or data which are not 
and data mining may also be 
extraction of contents from a 
protected by copyright and in 
carried out in relation to mere 
database. Where there is no 
such instances no authorisation 
facts or data which are not 
exception or limitation which 
would be required. 
protected by copyright and in 
applies, an authorisation to 
such instances no authorisation 
undertake such acts would be 
would be required. 
required from rightholders. 
[Last phrase of recital (8) of the 
 
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COM proposal was moved to new 
recital (8a) Council's text -see 
following row 18] 

18. 
 
 
(8a)  Text and data mining may 
 
also be carried out in relation to 
 
mere facts or data which are not 
protected by copyright and in 
 
such instances no authorisation 
would be is  required under 
 
copyright law. There may also 
 
be instances of text and data 
mining which do not involve 

 
acts of reproduction or where 
the reproductions made fall 

 
under the The new exception 
should be without prejudice to the 
 
existing mandatory exception for 
temporary acts of reproduction 
laid down in Article 5(1) of 
Directive 2001/29/EC, which 
should continue to apply to text 
and data mining techniques which 
do not involve the making of 
copies beyond the scope of that 
exception. 
[First phrase of new recital (8a) 
 
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was taken from recital (8) (last 
phrase), second phrase of new 
recital (8a) was taken from 
recital (10) (second phrase)] 

19. 
 
(8a)  For text and data mining to   
 
occur, it is in most cases 
necessary first to access 
information and then to 
reproduce it. It is generally only 
after that information is 
normalised that it can be 
processed through text and data 
mining. Once there is lawful 
access to information, it is when 
that information is being 
normalised that a copyright-
protected use takes place, since 
this leads to a reproduction by 
changing the format of the 
information or by extracting it 
from a database into a format 
that can be subjected to text and 
data mining. The copyright-
relevant processes in the use of 
text and data mining technology 
is, consequently, not the text and 
data mining process itself which 

 
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consists of a reading and 
analysis of digitally stored, 
normalised information, but the 
process of accessing and the 
process by which information is 
normalised to enable its 
automated computational 
analysis, insofar as this process 
involves extraction from a 
database or reproductions. The 
exceptions for text and data 
mining purposes provided for in 
this Directive should be 
understood as referring to such 
copyright-relevant processes 
necessary to enable text and data 
mining. Where existing 
copyright law has been 
inapplicable to uses of text and 
data mining, such uses should 
remain unaffected by this 
Directive. 

20. 
(9)  Union law already provides  (9)  Union law already provides  (9)  Union law already provides   
certain exceptions and limitations  certain exceptions and limitations  for certain exceptions and 
covering uses for scientific 
covering uses for scientific 
limitations covering uses for 
research purposes which may 
research purposes which may 
scientific research purposes which 
apply to acts of text and data 
apply to acts of text and data 
may apply to acts of text and data 
 
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mining. However, those 
mining. However, those 
mining. However, those 
exceptions and limitations are 
exceptions and limitations are 
exceptions and limitations are 
optional and not fully adapted to 
optional and not fully adapted to 
optional and not fully adapted to 
the use of technologies in 
the use of technologies in 
the use of technologies in 
scientific research. Moreover, 
scientific research. Moreover, 
scientific research. Moreover, 
where researchers have lawful 
where researchers have lawful 
where researchers have lawful 
access to content, for example 
access to content, for example 
access to content, for example 
through subscriptions to 
through subscriptions to 
through subscriptions to 
publications or open access 
publications or open access 
publications or open access 
licences, the terms of the licences  licences, the terms of the licences  licences, the terms of the licences 
may exclude text and data 
may exclude text and data 
may exclude text and data 
mining. As research is 
mining. As research is 
mining. As research is 
increasingly carried out with the 
increasingly carried out with the 
increasingly carried out with the 
assistance of digital technology, 
assistance of digital technology, 
assistance of digital technology, 
there is a risk that the Union's 
there is a risk that the Union's 
there is a risk that the Union's 
competitive position as a research  competitive position as a research  competitive position as a research 
area will suffer unless steps are 
area will suffer unless steps are 
area will suffer unless steps are 
taken to address the legal 
taken to address the legal 
taken to address the legal 
uncertainty for text and data 
uncertainty for text and data 
uncertainty for text and data 
mining. 
mining. 
mining. 
 
21. 
(10)  This legal uncertainty 
(10)  This legal uncertainty 
(10)  This legal uncertainty 
 
should be addressed by providing  should be addressed by providing  should be addressed by providing 
for a mandatory exception to the 
for a mandatory exception for 
for a mandatory exception to the 
right of reproduction and also to 
research organisations to the 
exclusive right of reproduction 
the right to prevent extraction 
right of reproduction and also to 
and also to the right to prevent 
 
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from a database. The new 
the right to prevent extraction 
extraction from a database. The 
exception should be without 
from a database. The new 
new exception should be without 
prejudice to the existing 
exception should be without 
prejudice to the existing 
mandatory exception on 
prejudice to the existing 
mandatory exception on 
temporary acts of reproduction 
mandatory exception on 
temporary acts of reproduction 
laid down in Article 5(1) of 
temporary acts of reproduction 
laid down in Article 5(1) of 
Directive 2001/29, which should 
laid down in Article 5(1) of 
Directive 2001/29, which should 
continue to apply to text and data  Directive 2001/29, which should 
continue to apply to text and data 
mining techniques which do not 
continue to apply to text and data  mining techniques which do not 
involve the making of copies 
mining techniques which do not 
involve the making of copies 
going beyond the scope of that 
involve the making of copies 
going beyond the scope of that 
exception. Research organisations  going beyond the scope of that 
exception. In line with the 
should also benefit from the 
exception. Research organisations  existing European research 
exception when they engage into 
should also benefit from the 
policy, which encourages 
public-private partnerships. 
exception when they engage into 
universities and research 
public-private partnerships. 
institutes to develop 
Educational establishments and 
collaborations with the private 
cultural heritage institutions that  sector, Researchresearch 
conduct scientific research 
organisations should also benefit 
should also be covered by the 
from the exception when they 
text and data mining exception, 
engage into their research 
provided that the results of the 
activities are carried out in the 
research do not benefit an 
framework of public-private 
undertaking exercising a decisive  partnerships. While research 
influence upon such
 
organisations and cultural 
organisations in particular. In 
heritage institutions should 
the event that the research is 
remain the beneficiaries of the 
carried out in the framework of a  exception, they should be able 
 
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public-private partnership, the 
to rely on their private partners 
undertaking participating in the 
for carrying out text and data 
public-private partnership 
mining, including by using their 
should also have lawful access to  technological tools
the works and other subject 
matter. The reproductions and 

[The second phrase of recital (10) 
extractions made for text and 
of the COM proposal was moved 
data mining purposes should be 
to new recital (8a) - see row 18] 
stored in a secure manner and in 
a way that ensures that the 
copies are only used for the 
purpose of scientific research.
 
22. 
(11)  Research organisations 
(11)  Research organisations 
(11)  Research organisations 
 
across the Union encompass a 
across the Union encompass a 
across the Union encompass a 
wide variety of entities the 
wide variety of entities the 
wide variety of entities the 
primary goal of which is to 
primary goal of which is to 
primary goal of which is to 
conduct scientific research or to 
conduct scientific research or to 
conduct scientific research or to 
do so together with the provision 
do so together with the provision 
do so together with the provision 
of educational services. Due to 
of educational services. Due to 
of educational services. The term 
the diversity of such entities, it is 
the diversity of such entities, it is 
"scientific research" within the 
important to have a common 
important to have a common 
meaning of this Directive covers 
understanding of the beneficiaries  understanding of the beneficiaries  both the natural sciences and 
of the exception. Despite different  of the exception. Despite different  the human sciences. Due to the 
legal forms and structures, 
legal forms and structures, 
diversity of such entities, it is 
research organisations across 
research organisations across 
important to have a common 
Member States generally have in 
Member States generally have in 
understanding of the beneficiaries 
common that they act either on a 
common that they act either on a 
of the exception.research 
 
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not for profit basis or in the 
not for profit basis or in the 
organisations. They should for 
context of a public-interest 
context of a public-interest 
example cover entities such as 
mission recognised by the State. 
mission recognised by the State. 
research institutes, hospitals 
Such a public-interest mission 
Such a public-interest mission 
carrying out research, 
may, for example, be reflected 
may, for example, be reflected 
universities, including 
through public funding or through  through public funding or through  university libraries, or other 
provisions in national laws or 
provisions in national laws or 
higher education institutions. 
public contracts. At the same 
public contracts. At the same 
Despite different legal forms and 
time, organisations upon which 
time, organisations upon which 
structures, research organisations 
commercial undertakings have a 
commercial undertakings have a 
across the Member States 
decisive influence allowing them 
decisive influence allowing them 
generally have in common that 
to exercise control because of 
to exercise control because of 
they act either on a not for profit 
structural situations such as their 
structural situations such as their 
basis or in the context of a public-
quality of shareholders or 
quality of shareholders or 
interest mission recognised by the 
members, which may result in 
members, which may result in 
State. Such a public-interest 
preferential access to the results 
preferential access to the results 
mission may, for example, be 
of the research, should not be 
of the research, should not be 
reflected through public funding 
considered research organisations  considered research organisations  or through provisions in national 
for the purposes of this Directive.  for the purposes of this Directive.  laws or public contracts. At the 
same timeConversely
organisations upon which 
commercial undertakings have a 
decisive influence allowing them 
to exercise control because of 
structural situations such as their 
quality of shareholders or 
members, which may result in 
preferential access to the results 
 
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of the research, should not be 
considered research organisations 
for the purposes of this Directive. 
23. 
 
 
(11a) Cultural heritage 
 
institutions should be 
understood as covering publicly 
accessible libraries, museums 
and archives regardless of the 
type of works and other subject 
matter which they hold in their 
permanent collections, as well 
as film or audio heritage 
institutions. They should 
include, among others, national 
libraries and national archives. 
They should also include 
educational establishments and 
public sector broadcasting 
organisations, as far as their 
archives and publicly accessible 
libraries are concerned. 

24. 
 
 
(11b) Research organisations 
 
and cultural heritage 
institutions, including the 
persons attached thereto, 
should be covered by the text 

 
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and data mining exception 
regarding content to which they 
have lawful access. Lawful 
access should be understood as 
covering access to content based 
on open access policy or 
through contractual 
arrangements between 
rightholders and research 
organisations or cultural 
heritage institutions, such as 
subscriptions, or through other 
lawful means. For instance, in 
cases of subscriptions taken by 
research organisations or 
cultural heritage institutions, 
the persons attached thereto 
covered by these subscriptions 
would be deemed to have lawful 
access. Lawful access also 
covers access to content that is 
freely available online. 

25. 
 
 
(11c) Research organisations 
 
and cultural heritage 
institutions may in certain 
cases, for example for 
subsequent verification of 

 
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scientific research results, need 
to retain the copies made under 
the exception for the purposes 
of carrying out text and data 
mining. In such cases, the 
copies should be stored in a 
secure environment and not be 
retained for longer than 
necessary for the scientific 
research activities. Member 
States may determine, at 
national level and after 
discussions with relevant 
stakeholders, further concrete 
modalities for retaining the 
copies, including the possibility 
to appoint trusted bodies for 
the purpose of storing such 
copies. In order not to unduly 
restrict the application of the 
exception, these modalities 
should be proportionate and 
limited to what is needed for 
retaining the copies in a safe 
manner and preventing 
unauthorised uses. Uses for the 
purpose of scientific research 
other than text and data 

 
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mining, such as scientific peer 
review and joint research, 
should remain covered, where 
applicable, by the exception or 
limitation provided for in 
Article 5(3)(a) of Directive 
2001/29/EC. 

26. 
(12)  In view of a potentially high  (12)  In view of a potentially high  (12)  In view of a potentially high   
number of access requests to and 
number of access requests to and 
number of access requests to and 
downloads of their works or other  downloads of their works or other  downloads of their works or other 
subject-matter, rightholders 
subject-matter, rightholders 
subject-matter, rightholders 
should be allowed to apply 
should be allowed to apply 
should be allowed to apply 
measures where there is risk that 
measures where there is risk that 
measures wherewhen there is 
the security and integrity of the 
the security and integrity of the 
risk that the security and integrity 
system or databases where the 
system or databases where the 
of the systemtheir systems or 
works or other subject-matter are 
works or other subject-matter are 
databases where the works or 
hosted would be jeopardised. 
hosted would be jeopardised. 
other subject-matter are hosted 
Those measures should not 
Those measures should not 
wouldcould be jeopardised. 
exceed what is necessary to 
exceed what is necessary to 
ThoseSuch measures could for 
pursue the objective of ensuring 
pursue the objective of ensuring 
example be used to ensure that 
the security and integrity of the 
the security and integrity of the 
only persons having lawful 
system and should not undermine  system and should not undermine  access to their data can access 
the effective application of the 
the effective application of the 
it, including through IP address 
exception. 
exception. 
validation or user 
authentication. These
 measures 
should not exceed what is 
necessary to pursue the objective 
 
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of ensuring the security and 
integrity of the systemhowever 
remain proportionate to the 
risks involved
 and should not 
undermine the effective 
application of the 
exceptionprevent or make 
excessively difficult text and 
data mining carried out by 
researchers

27. 
(13)  There is no need to provide  (13)  There is no need to provide  (13)  There is no need toIn view 
 
for compensation for rightholders  for compensation for rightholders  of the nature and scope of the 
as regards uses under the text and  as regards uses under the text and  exception, which is limited to 
data mining exception introduced  data mining exception introduced  entities carrying out scientific 
by this Directive given that in 
by this Directive given that in 
research any potential harm to 
view of the nature and scope of 
view of the nature and scope of 
rightholders created through 
the exception the harm should be 
the exception the harm should be 
this exception should be 
minimal. 
minimal. 
minimal. Therefore, Member 
States should not
 provide for 
compensation for rightholders as 
regards uses under the text and 
data mining exception introduced 
by this Directive given that in 
view of the nature and scope of 
the exception the harm should be 
minimal. 
 
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28. 
 
 
(13a) In addition to their 
(13a) In 
addition 
to 
their 
significance in the context of 
significance  in  the  context  of 
scientific research, text and 
scientific  research,  text  and  data 
data mining techniques are 
mining  techniques  are  widely 
widely used both by private and  used  both  by  private  and  public 
public entities to analyse large 
entities  to  analyse  large  amounts 
amounts of data in different 
of  data  in  different  areas  of  life 
areas of life and for various 
and 
for 
various 
purposes, 
purposes, including for 
including 
for 
government 
government services, complex 
services, 
complex 
business 
business decisions and the 
decisions and the development of 
development of new 
new  applications  or  technologies. 
applications or technologies. 
Rightholders  should  remain  able 
Rightholders should remain 
to license the uses of their works 
able to license the uses of their 
and  other  subject-matter  falling 
works and other subject-matter  outside  the  scope  of  the 
falling outside the scope of the 
mandatory exception provided for 
mandatory exception provided 
in  this  Directive  and  the  existing 
for in this Directive and the 
exceptions 
and 
limitations 
existing exceptions and 
provided 
for 
in 
Directive 
limitations provided for in 
2001/29/EC.  At  the  same  time, 
Directive 2001/29/EC. At the 
consideration  should  be  given  to 
same time, consideration should  the fact that users of text and data 
be given to the fact that users of  mining  techniques  may  be  faced 
text and data mining techniques  with  legal  uncertainty  as  to 
may be faced with legal 
whether  temporaryreproductions 
uncertainty as to whether 
and  extractions  which  are  a  part 
temporary reproductions and 
of  the  process  of  made  for  the 
 
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extractions which are a part of 
purposes  of  text  and  data  mining 
the process of text and data 
may  be  carried  out  on  publicly 
mining may be carried out on 
available  and  lawfully  accessed 
publicly available and lawfully 
works and other subject-matter, in 
accessed works and other 
particular when the reproductions 
subject-matter, in particular 
or  extractions  made  for  the 
when the reproductions or 
purposes  of  the  technical  process 
extractions made for the 
may not fulfil all the conditions of 
purposes of the technical 
the 
existing 
exception 
for 
process may not fulfil all the 
temporary acts of reproduction in 
conditions of the existing 
Article 
5(1) 
of 
Directive 
exception for temporary acts of  2001/29/EC.  
reproduction in Article 5(1) of 
Directive 2001/29/EC. In order 

In order to provide for more legal 
to provide for more legal 
certainty  in  such  cases  and  to 
certainty in such cases, this 
encourage  innovation  also  in  the 
Directive should enable the 
private  sector,  this  Directive 
Member States to provide 
should [enable the Member States 
under certain conditions for an  to] 
provide 
under 
certain 
exception or limitation for 
conditions  for  an  exception  or 
temporary reproductions and 
limitation 
for 
extractions of works and other 
temporaryreproductions 
and 
subject-matter, insofar as these  extractions  of  works  and  other 
form a part of the text and data  subject-matter,  insofar  as  these 
mining process and the copies 
form a part of the for the purposes 
made are not kept beyond that 
of  text  and  data  mining  process 
process. This optional exception  and allow the copies made are not 
or limitation should only apply 
to be kept beyond that process as 
 
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when the work or other 
long as necessary for the text and 
subject-matter is accessed 
data  mining  purposes.  This 
lawfully by the beneficiary, 
optional  exception  or  limitation 
including when it has been 
should only apply when the work 
made available to the public 
or 
other 
subject-matter 
is 
online, and insofar as the 
accessed 
lawfully 
by 
the 
rightholders have not reserved 
beneficiary, including when it has 
the right to make reproductions  been made available to the public 
and extractions for text and 
online,  and  insofar  as  the 
data mining, for example by 
rightholders have not reserved the 
agreement, unilateral 
rights  to  make  reproductions  and 
declaration, including through 
extractions  for  text  and  data 
the use of machine readable 
mining 
for 
example 
by 
metadata or by the use of 
agreement,  unilateral  declaration, 
technical means. Rightholders 
including  through  the  use  of 
should be able to apply 
machine  readable  metadata  or  by 
measures to ensure that their 
the use of technical means.  in an 
reservations in this regard are 
appropriate  manner.  In  the 
respected. This optional 
case  of  content  that  has  been 
exception or limitation should 
made  publicly  available  online, 
leave intact the mandatory 
it  should  only  be  considered 
exception for text and data 
appropriate  to  reserve  the 
mining for research purposes 
rights  by  the  use  of  machine 
laid down in this Directive. 
readable  metadata.  In  other 
cases,  it  may  be  appropriate  to 
reserve  the  rights  by  other 
means,  such  as  this  may  be 
expressed 

by 
contractual 
 
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agreements 
or 
unilateral 
declaration,  as  appropriate
Rightholders  should  be  able  to 
apply  measures  to  ensure  that 
their  reservations  in  this  regard 
are  respected.  This  [optional] 
exception  or  limitation  should 
leave  intact  the  mandatory 
exception  for  text  and  data 
mining for research purposes laid 
down in this Directive, as well as 
the 
existing 
exception 
for 
temporary acts of reproduction in 
Article 
5(1) 
of 
Directive 
2001/29/EC. 
[wording to be adapted once 
decided whether Article 3a is 
optional or mandatory] 

29. 
 
(13a)  To encourage innovation 
 
 
also in the private sector, 
Member States should be able to 
provide for an exception going 
further than the mandatory 
exception, provided that the use 
of works and other subject 
matter referred to therein has 

 
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not been expressly reserved by 
their rightholders including by 
machine readable means. 

30. 
(14)  Article 5(3)(a) of Directive 
(14)  Article 5(3)(a) of Directive 
(14)  Article 5(3)(a) of Directive 
 
2001/29/EC allows Member 
2001/29/EC allows Member 
2001/29/EC allows Member 
States to introduce an exception 
States to introduce an exception 
States to introduce an exception 
or limitation to the rights of 
or limitation to the rights of 
or limitation to the rights of 
reproduction, communication to 
reproduction, communication to 
reproduction, communication to 
the public and  making available 
the public and  making available 
the public and  making available 
to the public for the sole purpose 
to the public for the sole purpose 
to the public of works and other 
of, among others, illustration for 
of, among others, illustration for 
subject matter in such a way 
teaching. In addition, Articles 
teaching. In addition, Articles 
that members of the public may 
6(2)(b) and 9(b) of Directive 
6(2)(b) and 9(b) of Directive 
access them from a place and a 
96/9/EC permit the use of a 
96/9/EC permit the use of a 
time individually chosen by 
database and the extraction or re-
database and the extraction or re-
them (‘making available to the 
utilization of a substantial part of 
utilization of a substantial part of 
public’), for the sole purpose of, 
its contents for the purpose of 
its contents for the purpose of 
among others, illustration for 
illustration for teaching. The 
illustration for teaching. The 
teaching. In addition, Articles 
scope of those exceptions or 
scope of those exceptions or 
6(2)(b) and 9(b) of Directive 
limitations as they apply to digital  limitations as they apply to digital  96/9/EC permit the use of a 
uses is unclear. In addition, there 
uses is unclear. In addition, there 
database and the extraction or re-
is a lack of clarity as to whether 
is a lack of clarity as to whether 
utilization of a substantial part of 
those exceptions or limitations 
those exceptions or limitations 
its contents for the purpose of 
would apply where teaching is 
would apply where teaching is 
illustration for teaching. The 
provided online and thereby at a 
provided online and thereby at a 
scope of those exceptions or 
distance. Moreover, the existing 
distance. Moreover, the existing 
limitations as they apply to digital 
framework does not provide for a  framework does not provide for a  uses is unclear. In addition, there 
 
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cross-border effect. This situation  cross-border effect. This situation  is a lack of clarity as to whether 
may hamper the development of 
may hamper the development of 
those exceptions or limitations 
digitally-supported teaching 
digitally-supported teaching 
would apply where teaching is 
activities and distance learning. 
activities and distance learning. 
provided online and thereby at a 
Therefore, the introduction of a 
Therefore, the introduction of a 
distance. Moreover, the existing 
new mandatory exception or 
new mandatory exception or 
legal framework does not provide 
limitation is necessary to ensure 
limitation is necessary to ensure 
for a cross-border effect. This 
that educational establishments 
that educational establishments 
situation may hamper the 
benefit from full legal certainty 
benefit from full legal certainty 
development of digitally-
when using works or other 
when using works or other 
supported teaching activities and 
subject-matter in digital teaching 
subject-matter in digital teaching 
distance learning. Therefore, the 
activities, including online and 
activities, including online and 
introduction of a new mandatory 
across borders. 
across borders. 
exception or limitation is 
necessary to ensure that 
educational establishments 
benefit from full legal certainty 
when using works or other 
subject-matter in digital teaching 
activities, including online and 
across borders. 
31. 
(15)  While distance learning and  (15)  While distance learning and  (15)  While distance learning and   
cross-border education 
cross-border education 
cross-border education 
programmes are mostly 
programmes are mostly 
programmes are mostly 
developed at higher education 
developed at higher education 
developed at higher education 
level, digital tools and resources 
level, digital tools and resources 
level, digital tools and resources 
are increasingly used at all 
are increasingly used at all 
are increasingly used at all 
education levels, in particular to 
education levels, in particular to 
education levels, in particular to 
 
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improve and enrich the learning 
improve and enrich the learning 
improve and enrich the learning 
experience. The exception or 
experience. The exception or 
experience. The exception or 
limitation provided for in this 
limitation provided for in this 
limitation provided for in this 
Directive should therefore benefit  Directive should therefore benefit  Directive should therefore benefit 
all educational establishments in 
all educational establishments in 
all educational establishments 
primary, secondary, vocational 
primary, secondary, vocational 
inrecognised by a Member 
and higher education to the extent  and higher education to the extent  State, including primary, 
they pursue their educational 
they pursue their educational 
secondary, vocational and higher 
activity for a non-commercial 
activity for a non-commercial 
education. It should apply only 
purpose. The organisational 
purpose. The organisational 
to the extent they pursue their 
structure and the means of 
structure and the means of 
educational activity for a that the 
funding of an educational 
funding of an educational 
uses are justified by the non-
establishment are not the decisive  establishment are not the decisive  commercial purpose. of the 
factors to determine the non-
factors to determine the non-
particular teaching activity. The 
commercial nature of the activity.  commercial nature of the activity.  organisational structure and the 
Where cultural heritage 
means of funding of an 
institutions pursue an 
educational establishment 
educational objective and are 
areshould not be the decisive 
involved in teaching activities, it 
factors to determine the non-
should be possible for Member 
commercial nature of the activity. 
States to consider those 
institutions as an educational 
establishment under this 
exception in so far as their 
teaching activities are 
concerned.
 
32. 
(16)  The exception or limitation 
(16)  The exception or limitation 
(16)  The exception or limitation 
GREEN 
 
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should cover digital uses of works  should cover digital uses of works  for the sole purpose of 
 (16)  The exception or limitation 
and other subject-matter such as 
and other subject-matter such as 
illustration for teaching 
for the sole purpose of 
the use of parts or extracts of 
the use of parts or extracts of 
provided for in this Directive 
illustration for teaching 
works to support, enrich or 
works to support, enrich or 
should cover be understood as 
provided for in this Directive 
complement the teaching, 
complement the teaching, 
covering digital uses of works 
should cover be understood as 
including the related learning 
including the related learning 
and other subject-matter such as 
covering digital uses of works 
activities. The use of the works or  activities. The exception or 
the use of parts or extracts of 
and other subject-matter such as 
other subject-matter under the 
limitation of use should be 
works to support, enrich or 
the use of parts or extracts of 
exception or limitation should be 
granted as long as the work or 
complement the teaching, 
works to support, enrich or 
only in the context of teaching 
other subject-matter used 
including the related learning 
complement the teaching, 
and learning activities carried out  indicates the source, including 
activities.  
including the related learning 
under the responsibility of 
the authors’ name, unless that 
activities.  
educational establishments, 
turns out to be impossible for 
[…]* 
including during examinations, 
reasons of practicability. The use 
[…]* 
and be limited to what is 
of the works or other subject-
In most cases, the concept of 
necessary for the purpose of such  matter under the exception or 
illustration would therefore 
In most cases, the concept of 
activities. The exception or 
limitation should be only in the 
imply uses of parts or extracts 
illustration would therefore 
limitation should cover both uses 
context of teaching and learning 
of works only, which should not  imply uses of parts or extracts 
through digital means in the 
activities carried out under the 
substitute the purchase of 
of works only, which should not 
classroom and online uses 
responsibility of educational 
materials primarily intended 
substitute the purchase of 
through the educational 
establishments, including during 
for educational markets. When 
materials primarily intended 
establishment's secure electronic 
examinations, and be limited to 
implementing the exception or 
for educational markets. When 
network, the access to which 
what is necessary for the purpose 
limitation, Member States 
implementing the exception or 
should be protected, notably by 
of such activities. The exception 
should remain free to specify, 
limitation, Member States 
authentication procedures. The 
or limitation should cover both 
for the different categories of 
should remain free to specify, 
exception or limitation should be 
uses through digital means in the 
works or other subject-matter 
for the different categories of 
understood as covering the 
classroom where the teaching 
and in a balanced manner, the 
works or other subject-matter 
specific accessibility needs of 
activity is physically provided, 
proportion of a work or other 
and in a balanced manner, the 
subject-matter that may be 
 
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persons with a disability in the 
including where it takes place 
used for the sole purpose of 
proportion of a work or other 
context of illustration for 
outside the premises of the 
illustration for teaching. The 
subject-matter that may be 
teaching. 
educational establishment, for 
Uses allowed under the 
used for the sole purpose of 
example in libraries or cultural 
exception or limitation should be 
illustration for teaching. The 
heritage institutions, as long as 
understood to cover the specific 
Uses allowed under the 
the use is made under the 
accessibility needs of persons 
exception or limitation should be 
responsibility of the educational 
with a disability in the context of 
understood to cover the specific 
establishment, and online uses 
illustration for teaching. 
accessibility needs of persons 
through the educational 
with a disability in the context of 
establishment's secure electronic 
*[The second and third phrase of  illustration for teaching. 
network environment, the access 
recital (16) of the COM proposal 
to which should be protected, 
were moved to new recital (16a) 
*[The second and third phrase of 
notably by authentication 
Council's text - see row 33] 
recital (16) of the COM proposal 
procedures. The exception or 
were moved to new recital (16a) 
limitation should be understood 
 
Council's text - see row 33] 
as covering the specific 
accessibility needs of persons 
[provisionally agreed at technical 
with a disability in the context of 
meeting tbc at trilogue] 
illustration for teaching. 
33. 
 
 
(16a) The use of the works or 
GREEN 
other subject-matter under the 
exception or limitation should be 
 (16a) 
The use of the works 
only in the context of teaching 
or other subject-matter under the 
and learning activities carried out  exception or limitation should be 
under the responsibility of 
only in the context of teaching 
educational establishments, 
and learning activities carried out 
including during examinations or  under the responsibility of 
 
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teaching activities taking place 
educational establishments, 
outside the premises of 
including during examinations or 
educational establishments, for 
teaching activities taking place 
example in a museum, library 
outside the premises of 
or another cultural heritage 
educational establishments, for 
institution, and be limited to 
example in a museum, library 
what is necessary for the purpose  or another cultural heritage 
of such activities. The exception 
institution, and be limited to 
or limitation should cover both 
what is necessary for the purpose 
uses through digital means of 
of such activities. The exception 
works and other subject matter  or limitation should cover both 
made in the classroom and online  uses through digital means of 
uses or in other venues through  works and other subject matter 
digital means
for example 
made in the classroom and online 
electronic whiteboards or 
uses or in other venues through 
digital devices which may be 
digital meansfor example 
connected to the Internet, as 
electronic whiteboards or 
well as uses made at a distance 
digital devices which may be 
through the educational 
connected to the Internet, as 
establishment's secure electronic 
well as uses made at a distance 
networks, such as online courses  through the educational 
or access to teaching material 
establishment's secure electronic 
complementing a given course. 
networks environmentssuch as 
Secure electronic networks 
online courses or access to 
should be understood as digital 
teaching material 
teaching and learning 
complementing a given course. 
environments the access to 
Secure electronic networks 
which should be protected is 
environments should be 
 
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limited to the educational 
understood as digital teaching 
establishment's teaching staff 
and learning environments the 
and to the pupils or students 
access to which should be 
enrolled in a study programme,  protected is limited to the 
notably through appropriate 
educational establishment's 
authentication procedures, 
teaching staff and to the pupils 
including password based 
or students enrolled in a study 
authentication. 
programme, notably through 
appropriate authentication 
 
procedures, including password 
based authentication. 

[Phrases  of  new  recital  (16a) 
were  taken  from  recital  (16)  
 
(second  and  third  phrase)  of  the 
COM proposal – see row 32]
 
[provisionally agreed at  Trilogue 
26/11/2018]
 
 
34. 
 
(16a)  A secure electronic 
 
 
environment should be 
understood as a digital teaching 
and learning environment, 
access to which is limited 
through an appropriate 
authentication procedure to the 
educational establishment’s 
teaching staff and to the pupils 
or students enrolled in a study 

 
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programme. 
35. 
(17)  Different arrangements, 
(17)  Different arrangements, 
(17)  Different arrangements, 
GREEN 
based on the implementation of 
based on the implementation of 
based on the implementation of 
the exception provided for in 
the exception provided for in 
the exception provided for in 
 (17)  Different 
arrangements, 
Directive 2001/29/EC or on 
Directive 2001/29/EC or on 
Directive 2001/29/EC or on 
based  on  the  implementation  of 
licensing agreements covering 
licensing agreements covering 
licensing agreements covering 
the  exception  provided  for  in 
further uses, are in place in a 
further uses, are in place in a 
further uses, are in place in a 
Directive  2001/29/EC  or  on 
number of Member States in 
number of Member States in 
number of Member States in 
licensing  agreements  covering 
order to facilitate educational uses  order to facilitate educational uses  order to facilitate educational 
further  uses,  are  in  place  in  a 
of works and other subject-matter.  of works and other subject-matter.  uses of works and other subject-
number  of  Member  States  in 
Such arrangements have usually 
Such arrangements have usually 
matter. Such arrangements have 
order to facilitate educational uses 
been developed taking account of  been developed taking account of  usually been developed taking 
of  works  and  other  subject-
the needs of educational 
the needs of educational 
account of the needs of 
matter.  Such  arrangements  have 
establishments and different 
establishments and different 
educational establishments and 
usually  been  developed  taking 
levels of education. Whereas it is 
levels of education. Whereas it is 
different levels of education. 
account 
of 
the 
needs 
of 
essential to harmonise the scope 
essential to harmonise the scope 
Whereas it is essential to 
educational  establishments  and 
of the new mandatory exception 
of the new mandatory exception 
harmonise the scope of the new 
different  levels  of  education. 
or limitation in relation to digital 
or limitation in relation to digital 
mandatory exception or limitation  Whereas  it  is  essential  to 
uses and cross-border teaching 
uses and cross-border teaching 
in relation to digital uses and 
harmonise  the  scope  of  the  new 
activities, the modalities of 
activities, the modalities of 
cross-border teaching activities, 
mandatory exception or limitation 
implementation may differ from a  implementation may differ from a  the modalities of implementation  in  relation  to  digital  uses  and 
Member State to another, to the 
Member State to another, to the 
may differ from a Member State 
cross-border  teaching  activities, 
extent they do not hamper the 
extent they do not hamper the 
to another, to the extent they do 
the  modalities  of  implementation 
effective application of the 
effective application of the 
not hamper the effective 
may  differ  from  a  Member  State 
exception or limitation or cross-
exception or limitation or cross-
application of the exception or 
to  another,  to  the  extent  they  do 
border uses. This should allow 
border uses. This should allow 
limitation or cross-border uses. 
not 
hamper 
the 
effective 
Member States to build on the 
Member States to build on the 
Member States should for 
application  of  the  exception  or 
 
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existing arrangements concluded 
existing arrangements concluded 
example remain free to require  limitation  or  cross-border  uses. 
at national level. In particular, 
at national level. In particular, 
that the use of works and other  This should allow Member States 
Member States could decide to 
Member States could decide to 
subject matter should respect 
to 
build 
on 
the 
existing 
subject the application of the 
subject the application of the 
moral rights of authors and 
arrangements 
concluded 
at 
exception or limitation, fully or 
exception or limitation, fully or 
performers. This should allow 
national  level.  In  particular, 
partially, to the availability of 
partially, to the availability of 
Member States to build on the 
Member  States  could  decide  to 
adequate licences, covering at 
adequate licences, covering. Such  existing arrangements concluded 
subject  the  application  of  the 
least the same uses as those 
licences can take the form of 
at national level. In particular, 
exception  or  limitation,  fully  or 
allowed under the exception. This  collective licensing agreements, 
Member States could decide to 
partially,  to  the  availability  of 
mechanism would, for example, 
extended collective licensing 
subject the application of the 
adequate  licences  covering  at 
allow giving precedence to 
agreements and licences that are  exception or limitation, fully or 
least  the  same  uses  as  those 
licences for materials which are 
negotiated collectively such as 
partially, to the availability of 
allowed  under  the  exception. 
primarily intended for the 
“blanket licences”, in order to 
adequate licences, covering at 
Member  States  should  ensure 
educational market. In order to 
avoid educational establishments  least the same uses as those 
that  where  licenses  cover  only 
avoid that such mechanism results  having to negotiate individually 
allowed under the exception. 
partially the uses allowed under 
in legal uncertainty or 
with rightholders. Such licenses 
ThisMember States could 
the exception, all the other uses 
administrative burden for 
should be affordable and cover at  notably use this mechanism 
remain subject to the exception. 
educational establishments, 
least the same uses as those 
would, for example, allow 
Member  States  could  for 
Member States adopting this 
allowed under the exception. This  givingto give precedence to 
example  use  this    mechanism  to 
approach should take concrete 
mechanism would, for example, 
licences for materials which are 
give    precedence  to  licences  for 
measures to ensure that licensing 
allow giving precedence to 
primarily intended for the 
materials  which  are  primarily 
schemes allowing digital uses of 
licences for materials which are 
educational market or for sheet 
intended  for  the  educational 
works or other subject-matter for 
primarily intended for the 
music. In order to avoid that such  market or for sheet music.  
the purpose of illustration for 
educational market, or for 
mechanism results in legal 
teaching are easily available and 
teaching in educational 
uncertainty or administrative 
In  order  to  avoid  that  the 
that educational establishments 
establishments or sheet music. In  burden for educational 
possibility 
to 
subject 
the 
are aware of the existence of such  order to avoid that such 
establishments, Member States 
application  of  the  exception  to 
licensing schemes. 
mechanism results in legal 
adopting this approach should 
the  availability  of  licences  
 
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uncertainty or administrative 
take concrete measures to ensure 
results  in  legal  uncertainty  or 
burden for educational 
that rightholders make the 
administrative 
burden 
for 
establishments, Member States 
licensing schemes allowing 
educational 
establishments, 
adopting this approach should 
digital uses of works or other 
Member  States  adopting  this 
take concrete measures to ensure 
subject-matter for the purpose of 
approach  should  take  concrete 
that such licensing schemes 
illustration for teaching are easily  measures  to  ensure  that  right 
allowing digital uses of works or 
available and that educational 
holders  make  the  licensing 
other subject-matter for the 
establishments are aware of the 
schemes  allowing  digital  uses  of 
purpose of illustration for 
existence of such licensing 
works  or  other  subject-matter  for 
teaching are easily available and 
schemes. Such measures may 
the  purpose  of  illustration  for 
that educational establishments 
include the development of 
teaching  are  easily  available  and 
are aware of the existence of such  licensing schemes tailored to 
that  educational  establishments 
licensing schemes. Member 
the needs of educational 
are aware of the existence of such 
States should be able to provide 
establishments and the 
licensing 
schemes. 
Such 
for systems to ensure that there 
development of information 
licensing  schemes  measures 
is fair compensation for 
tools aimed at ensuring the 
may include the development of 
rightholders for uses under those  visibility of the existing 
licensing  schemes  tailored  to 
exceptions or limitations. 
licensing schemes. 
should  meet  the  needs  of 
Member States should be 
educational 
establishments.  
encouraged to use systems that 
and 
the 
development 
of 
do not create an administrative 
Information  tools  aiming  at 
burden, such as systems that 
ensuring  the  visibility  of  the 
provide for one-off payments. 
existing licensing schemes could 
also be developed. 

[See Council’s recital (17a) - row 
36]
  
Such 
schemes 
could, 
for 
example,  be  based  on  collective 
licensing 

or 
on 
extended 
 
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collective  licensing  in  order  to 
avoid 

educational 
establishments 
having 
to 
negotiate 
individually 
with 
rightholders.    In  order  to 
guarantee 

legal 
certainty, 
Member  States  should  specify 
under  which  conditions  an 
educational  establishment  may 
use  protected  works  or  other 
subject-matter 

under 
that 
exception and, conversely, when 
it  should  act  under  a  licensing 
scheme. 

 
[provisionally agreed at Trilogue 
26/11/2018]
 
36. 
 
 
(17a) Member States should 
GREEN 
remain free to provide that 
rightholders receive fair 

 (17a)Member 
States 
should 
compensation for the digital 
remain  free  to  provide  that 
uses of their works or other 
rightholders 
receive 
fair 
subject-matter under the 
compensation  for  the  digital  uses 
exception or limitation for 
of  their  works  or  other  subject-
illustration for teaching 
matter  under  the  exception  or 
limitation  for  illustration  for 
 
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provided for in this Directive. 
teaching  provided  for  in  this 
For the purposes of 
Directive.  For  the  purposes  of 
determining the possible level 
determining  the  possible  level  of 
of fair compensation, due 
fair  compensation,  due  account 
account should be taken, inter 
should  be  taken,  inter  alia,  of 
alia, of Member States' 
Member 
States' 
educational 
educational objectives and of 
objectives  and  of  the  harm  to 
the harm to rightholders. 
rightholders. 
Member 
States 
deciding  to  provide  for  fair 
compensation  should  encourage 
the  use  of  systems,  which  do  not 
create  administrative  burden  for 
educational establishments. 
  
[provisionally agreed at Trilogue 
26/11/2018]
 
37. 
 
(17 a)   In order to guarantee 
 
 
legal certainty when a Member 
State decides to subject the 
application of the exception to 
the availability of adequate 
licences, it is necessary to specify 
under which conditions an 
educational establishment may 
use protected works or other 

 
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subject-matter under that 
exception and, conversely, when 
it should act under a licensing 
scheme. 

38. 
(18)  An act of preservation may 
(18)  An act of preservation of a 
(18)  An act of preservation may 
 
require a reproduction of a work 
work or other subject-matter in 
require a reproduction of a work 
or other subject-matter in the 
the collection of a cultural 
or other subject-matter in the 
collection of a cultural heritage 
heritage institution may require a  collection of a cultural heritage 
institution and consequently the 
reproduction of a work or other 
institution may require a 
authorisation of the relevant 
subject-matter in the collection of  reproduction and consequently 
rightholders. Cultural heritage 
a cultural heritage institution and 
the authorisation of the relevant 
institutions are engaged in the 
consequently require the 
rightholders. Cultural heritage 
preservation of their collections 
authorisation of the relevant 
institutions are engaged in the 
for future generations. Digital 
rightholders. Cultural heritage 
preservation of their collections 
technologies offer new ways to 
institutions are engaged in the 
for future generations. Digital 
preserve the heritage contained in  preservation of their collections 
technologies offer new ways to 
those collections but they also 
for future generations. Digital 
preserve the heritage contained in 
create new challenges. In view of  technologies offer new ways to 
those collections but they also 
these new challenges, it is 
preserve the heritage contained in  create new challenges. In view of 
necessary to adapt the current 
those collections but they also 
these new challenges, it is 
legal framework by providing a 
create new challenges. In view of  necessary to adapt the current 
mandatory exception to the right 
these new challenges, it is 
legal framework by providing a 
of reproduction in order to allow 
necessary to adapt the current 
mandatory exception to the right 
those acts of preservation. 
legal framework by providing a 
of reproduction in order to allow 
mandatory exception to the right 
those acts of preservation. 
of reproduction in order to allow 
those acts of preservation by such 
 
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institutions. 
39. 
(19)  Different approaches in the 
(19)  Different approaches in the 
(19)  Different approaches in the 
 
Member States for acts of 
Member States for acts of 
Member States for acts of 
preservation by cultural heritage 
reproduction for preservation by 
preservation by cultural heritage 
institutions hamper cross-border 
cultural heritage institutions 
institutions hamper cross-border 
cooperation and the sharing of 
hamper cross-border cooperation,  cooperation and the sharing of 
means of preservation by cultural  and the sharing of means of 
means of preservation by cultural 
heritage institutions in the internal  preservation by cultural heritage 
heritagesuch institutions in the 
market, leading to an inefficient 
institutions in the internal market,  internal market, leading to an 
use of resources. 
and the establishment of cross-
inefficient use of resources. 
border preservation networks in 
the internal market 
organisations that are engaged 
in preservation
, leading to an 
inefficient use of resources. This 
can have a negative impact on 
the preservation of cultural 
heritage.
 
40. 
(20)  Member States should 
(20)  Member States should 
(20)  Member States should 
 
therefore be required to provide 
therefore be required to provide 
therefore be required to provide 
for an exception to permit cultural  for an exception to permit cultural  for an exception to permit 
heritage institutions to reproduce 
heritage institutions to reproduce 
cultural heritage institutions to 
works and other subject-matter 
works and other subject-matter 
reproduce works and other 
permanently in their collections 
permanently in their collections 
subject-matter permanently in 
for preservation purposes, for 
for preservation purposes, for 
their collections for preservation 
example to address technological 
example to address technological 
purposes, for example to address 
 
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obsolescence or the degradation 
obsolescence or the degradation 
technological obsolescence or the 
of original supports. Such an 
of original supports or to insure 
degradation of original supports. 
exception should allow for the 
works. Such an exception should 
Such an exception should allow 
making of copies by the 
allow for the making of copies by  for the making of copies by the 
appropriate preservation tool, 
the appropriate preservation tool, 
appropriate preservation tool, 
means or technology, in the 
means or technology, in any 
means or technology, in the 
required number and at any point 
format or medium, in the 
required number and at any point 
in the life of a work or other 
required number, at any point in 
in the life of a work or other 
subject-matter to the extent 
the life of a work or other subject- subject-matter to the extent 
required in order to produce a 
matter and to the extent required 
required in order to produce a 
copy for preservation purposes 
in order to produce a copy for 
copy for preservation purposes 
only. 
preservation purposes only. The 
only. Acts of reproduction 
archives of research 
undertaken by cultural heritage 
organisations or public-service 
institutions for purposes other 
broadcasting organisations 
than the preservation of works 
should be considered cultural 
and other subject-matter in 
heritage institutions and 
their permanent collections 
therefore beneficiaries of this 
should remain subject to the 
exception. Member States 
authorisation of rightholders, 
should, for the purpose of this 
unless permitted by other 
exception, be able to maintain 
exceptions or limitations 
provisions to treat publicly 
provided for by Union law
accessible galleries as museums. 
41. 
 
 
(20a) Cultural heritage 
 
institutions do not necessarily 
have the technical means or 
expertise to undertake the acts 

 
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required to preserve their 
collections themselves, 
particularly in the digital 
environment, and may 
therefore have recourse to the 
assistance of other cultural 
institutions and other third 
parties for that purpose. Under 
this exception, cultural heritage 
institutions should therefore be 
allowed to rely on third parties 
acting on their behalf and 
under their responsibility, 
including those that are based 
in other Member States, for the 
making of copies. 

42. 
(21)  For the purposes of this 
(21)  For the purposes of this 
(21)  For the purposes of this 
(21)  For the purposes of this 
Directive, works and other 
Directive, works and other 
Directive, works and other 
Directive, works and other 
subject-matter should be 
subject-matter should be 
subject-matter should be 
subject-matter should be 
considered to be permanently in 
considered to be permanently in 
considered to be permanently in 
considered to be permanently in 
the collection of a cultural 
the collection of a cultural 
the collection of a cultural 
the collection of a cultural 
heritage institution when copies 
heritage institution when copies 
heritage institution when copies 
heritage institution when copies 
are owned or permanently held by  of such works or other subject 
are owned or permanently held 
of such works or other subject-
the cultural heritage institution, 
matter are owned or permanently  by the cultural heritage 
matter are owned or permanently 
for example as a result of a 
held by the cultural heritage 
institutionsuch institutions, for 
held by such institutions, for 
transfer of ownership or licence 
institution, those organisations
example as a result of a transfer 
example as a result of a transfer 
agreements. 
for example as a result of a 
of ownership or licence 
of ownership or licence 
 
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transfer of ownership or, licence 
agreements or permanent 
agreements, legal deposit 
agreements, a legal deposit or a 
custody arrangements
obligations or permanent custody 
long-term loan . Works or other 
arrangements. 
subject matter that cultural 
heritage institutions access 

 
temporarily via a third-party 
server are not considered as 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
being permanently in their 
confirmed] 
collections. 
43. 
 
(21a)  Technological 
 
 
developments have given rise to 
information society services 
enabling their users to upload 
content and make it available in 
diverse forms and for various 
purposes, including to illustrate 
an idea, criticism, parody or 
pastiche. Such content may 
include short extracts of pre-
existing protected works or other 
subject-matter that such users 
might have altered, combined or 
otherwise transformed. 

44. 
 
(21b)  Despite some overlap with   
 
existing exceptions or 
limitations, such as the ones for 

 
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quotation and parody, not all 
content that is uploaded or made 
available by a user that 
reasonably includes extracts of 
protected works or other subject-
matter is covered by Article 5 of 
Directive 2001/29/EC. A 
situation of this type creates legal 
uncertainty for both users and 
rightholders. It is therefore 
necessary to provide a new 
specific exception to permit the 
legitimate uses of extracts of pre-
existing protected works or other 
subject-matter in content that is 
uploaded or made available by 
users. Where content generated 
or made available by a user 
involves the short and 
proportionate use of a quotation 
or of an extract of a protected 
work or other subject-matter for 
a legitimate purpose, such use 
should be protected by the 
exception provided for in this 
Directive. This exception should 
only be applied in certain special 
cases which do not conflict with 

 
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normal exploitation of the work 
or other subject-matter 
concerned and do not 
unreasonably prejudice the 
legitimate interests of the 
rightholder. For the purpose of 
assessing such prejudice, it is 
essential that the degree of 
originality of the content 
concerned, the length/extent of 
the quotation or extract used, the 
professional nature of the 
content concerned or the degree 
of economic harm be examined, 
where relevant, while not 
precluding the legitimate 
enjoyment of the exception. This 
exception should be without 
prejudice to the moral rights of 
the authors of the work or other 
subject-matter. 

45. 
 
(21c)  Information society 
 
 
service providers that fall within 
the scope of Article 13 of this 
Directive should not be able to 
invoke for their benefit the 
exception for the use of extracts 

 
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from pre-existing works provided 
for in this Directive, for the use 
of quotations or extracts from 
protected works or other subject-
matter in content that is 
uploaded or made available by 
users on those information 
society services, to reduce the 
scope of their obligations under 
Article 13 of this Directive. 

46. 
(22)  Cultural heritage 
(22)  Cultural heritage institutions  (22)  Cultural heritage 
(22)  Cultural heritage 
institutions should benefit from a 
should benefit from a clear 
institutions should benefit from a  institutions should benefit from a 
clear framework for the 
framework for the digitisation and  clear framework for the 
clear framework for the 
digitisation and dissemination, 
dissemination, including across 
digitisation and dissemination, 
digitisation and dissemination, 
including across borders, of out-
borders, of out-of-commerce 
including across borders, of out-
including across borders, of 
of-commerce works or other 
works or other subject-matter. 
of-commerce works or other 
works or other subject-matter that 
subject-matter. However, the 
However, the particular 
subject- matter. that are 
are considered out of commerce 
particular characteristics of the 
characteristics of the collections 
considered out of commerce for  for the purposes of this Directive. 
collections of out-of-commerce 
of out-of-commerce works mean 
the purposes of this Directive. 
However, the particular 
works mean that obtaining the 
that obtaining the prior consent of  However, the particular 
characteristics of the collections 
prior consent of the individual 
the individual rightholders may 
characteristics of the collections 
of out-of-commerce works, 
rightholders may be very difficult.  be very difficult. This can be due,  of out-of-commerce works
together with the amount of 
This can be due, for example, to 
for example, to the age of the 
together with the amount of 
works and other subject-matter 
the age of the works or other 
works or other subject-matter, 
works involved in mass 
involved in mass digitisation 
subject-matter, their limited 
their limited commercial value or  digitisation projects, mean that 
projects, mean that obtaining the 
commercial value or the fact that 
the fact that they were never 
obtaining the prior consent of the  prior consent of the individual 
they were never intended for 
intended for commercial use or 
individual rightholders may be 
rightholders may be very 
 
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commercial use. It is therefore 
have never been in commerce. It 
very difficult. This can be due, 
difficult. This can be due, for 
necessary to provide for measures  is therefore necessary to provide 
for example, to the age of the 
example, to the age of the works 
to facilitate the licensing of rights  for measures to facilitate the 
works or other subject-matter, 
or other subject-matter, their 
in out-of-commerce works that 
licensing of rights in use of out-
their limited commercial value or  limited commercial value or the 
are in the collections of cultural 
of-commerce works that are in the  the fact that they were never 
fact that they were never intended 
heritage institutions and thereby 
collections of cultural heritage 
intended for commercial use. It is  for commercial use or that they 
to allow the conclusion of 
institutions and thereby to allow 
therefore necessary to provide for  have never been exploited 
agreements with cross-border 
the conclusion of agreements with  measures to facilitate the 
commercially. It is therefore 
effect in the internal market. 
cross-border effect in the internal 
collective licensing of rights in 
necessary to provide for measures 
market. 
out-of-commerce works that are 
to facilitate certain uses of the 
permanently in the collections of  collective licensing of rights in 
cultural heritage institutions and 
out-of-commerce works and 
thereby to allow the conclusion of  other subject-matter that are 
agreements with cross-border 
permanently in the collections of 
effect in the internal market. 
cultural heritage institutions, and 
thereby to allow the conclusion of 
agreements with cross-border 
effect in the internal market. 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
47. 
 
(22a)  Several Member States 
 
(22a) Legal mechanisms should 
have already adopted extended 
therefore exist in all Member 
collective licencing regimes, 
States allowing for licences 
legal mandates or legal 
issued by relevant and 
presumptions facilitating the 
sufficiently representative 
licencing of out-of-commerce 
collective management 
 
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works. However considering the 
organisations to cultural 
variety of works and other 
heritage institutions, for certain 
subject-matter in the collections 
uses of out-of-commerce works 
of cultural heritage institutions 
and other subject matter, to 
and the variance between 
also apply to the rights of 
collective management practices 
rightholders that have not 
across Member States and 
mandated a representative 
sectors of cultural production, 
collective management 
such measures may not provide a 
organisation in that regard. It 
solution in all cases, for 
should be legally possible for 
example, because there is no 
those licences to cover all 
practice of collective 
territories of the Union.  
management for a certain type of 
work or other subject matter. In 

(22b)  An adapted legal 
such particular instances, it is 
framework applicable to 
therefore necessary to allow 
collective licensing may not 
cultural heritage institutions to 
provide a solution for all the 
make out-of-commerce works 
cases where cultural heritage 
held in their permanent 
institutions encounter 
collection available online under 
difficulties in obtaining all the 
an exception to copyright and 
necessary authorisations of 
related rights. While it is 
right holders for the use of out-
essential to harmonise the scope 
of-commerce works and other 
of the new mandatory exception 
subject-matter, for example, 
in order to allow cross-border 
because there is no practice of 
uses of out-of-commerce works, 
collective management for a 
Member States should 
certain type of works or other 
nevertheless be allowed to use or 
subject-matter or because the 
 
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continue to use extended 
relevant collective management 
collective licencing 
organisation is not broadly 
arrangements concluded with 
representative for the category 
cultural heritage institutions at 
of the right holders and of the 
national level for categories of 
rights concerned. In such 
works that are permanently in 
particular instances, it should 
the collections of cultural 
be possible for cultural heritage 
heritage institutions The lack of 
institutions to make out-of-
agreement on the conditions of 
commerce works and other 
the licence should not be 
subject-matter that are 
interpreted as a lack of 
permanently in their collection 
availability of licensing-based 
available online in all territories 
solutions. Any uses under this 
of the Union under a 
exception should be subject to 
harmonised exception or 
the same opt-out and publicity 
limitation to copyright and 
requirements as uses authorised 
related rights. It is important 
by a licensing mechanism. In 
that uses under that exception 
order to ensure that the 
or  limitation only take place 
exception only applies when 
when certain conditions, 
certain conditions are fulfilled 
notably as regards the 
and to provide legal certainty, 
availability of licensing 
Member States should 
solutions, are fulfilled. The lack 
determine, in consultation with 
of agreement on the conditions 
rightholders, collective 
of the licence should not be 
management organisations and 
interpreted as a lack of 
cultural heritage organisations, 
availability of licensing-based 
and at appropriate intervals of 
solutions. 
time, for which sectors and 
 
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which types of works appropriate 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
licence-based solutions are not 
confirmed] 
available, in which case the 
exception should apply. 

 
48. 
(23)  Member States should, 
(23)  Member States should, 
(23)  Member States should, 
(23)  Member States should, 
within the framework provided 
within the framework provided 
within the framework provided 
within the framework provided 
for in this Directive, have 
for in this Directive, have 
for in this Directive, have 
for in this Directive, have 
flexibility in choosing the specific  flexibility in choosing the specific  flexibility in choosing the specific  flexibility in choosing the specific 
type of mechanism allowing for 
type of mechanism allowing for 
type of mechanism, such as 
type of licensing mechanism, 
licences for out-of-commerce 
licences for out-of-commerce 
extended collective licensing or 
such as extended collective 
works to extend to the rights of 
works to extend to the rights of 
presumption of representation,  licensing or presumptionof 
rightholders that are not 
rightholders that are not 
allowing for licences for out-of-
representation, that they put in 
represented by the collective 
represented by the relevant 
commerce works to extend to the  place for the use of out-of-
management organisation, in 
collective management 
rights of rightholders that arehave  commerce works and other 
accordance to their legal 
organisation, in accordance to 
not represented by themandated 
subject matter by cultural 
traditions, practices or 
with their legal traditions, 
a representative collective 
heritage institutions, in 
circumstances. Such mechanisms  practices or circumstances. Such 
management organisation, in 
accordance with their legal 
can include extended collective 
mechanisms can include extended  accordance towith their legal 
traditions, practices or 
licensing and presumptions of 
collective licensing and 
traditions, practices or 
circumstances. Member States 
representation. 
presumptions of representation. 
circumstances. Such mechanisms  should also have flexibility in 
can include extended collective 
determining the requirements for 
licensing and presumptions of 
collective management 
representationMember States 
organisations to be sufficiently 
should also have flexibility in 
representative, as long as this is 
determining the requirements 
based on a significant number of 
for collective management 
rightholders in the relevant type 
organisations to be sufficiently 
of works or other subject-matter 
 
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representative, as long as this is  who have given a mandate 
based on a significant number 
allowing the licensing of the 
of rightholders in the relevant 
relevant type of use. Member 
type of works or other subject-
States should be free to establish 
matter who have given a 
specific rules applicable to cases 
mandate allowing the licensing 
where more than one collective 
of the relevant type of use. 
management organisation is 
Member States should be free 
representative for the relevant 
to establish specific rules 
works or other subject matter, 
applicable to cases where more 
requiring for example joint 
than one collective management  licences or an agreement between 
organisation is representative 
the relevant organisations. 
for the relevant works or other 
subject matter, requiring for 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
example joint licences or an 
confirmed] 
agreement between the relevant 
organisations

 
49. 
(24)  For the purpose of those 
(24)  For the purpose of those 
(24)  For the purpose of those 
(24)  For the purpose of those 
licensing mechanisms, a rigorous  licensing mechanisms, a rigorous 
licensing mechanisms, a rigorous  licensing mechanisms, a rigorous 
and well-functioning collective 
and well-functioning collective 
and well-functioning collective 
and well-functioning collective 
management system is important.  management system is important 
management system is important.  management system is important. 
That system includes in particular  and should be encouraged by the  That system includes in particular  That system includes in particular 
rules of good governance, 
Member States. That system 
rules of good governance, 
rules of good governance, 
transparency and reporting, as 
includes in particular rules of 
transparency and reporting, as 
transparency and reporting, as 
well as the regular, diligent and 
good governance, transparency 
well as the regular, diligent and 
well as the regular, diligent and 
accurate distribution and payment  and reporting, as well as the 
accurate distribution and payment  accurate distribution and payment 
of amounts due to individual 
regular, diligent and accurate 
of amounts due to individual 
of amounts due to individual 
 
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rightholders, as provided for by 
distribution and payment of 
rightholders, as provided for by 
rightholders, as provided for by 
Directive 2014/26/EU. Additional  amounts due to individual 
Directive 2014/26/EU. Additional  Directive 2014/26/EU.  
appropriate safeguards should be 
rightholders, as provided for by 
appropriate safeguards should be 
available for all rightholders, who  Directive 2014/26/EU. Additional  available for all rightholders, who  (24a) Additional appropriate 
should be given the opportunity to  appropriate safeguards should be 
should be given the opportunity 
safeguards should be available for 
exclude the application of such 
available for all rightholders, who  to exclude the application of such  all rightholders, who should be 
mechanisms to their works or 
should be given the opportunity to  mechanisms in relation to all 
given the opportunity to exclude 
other subject-matter. Conditions 
exclude the application of such 
their works or other subject-
the application of thesuch 
attached to those mechanisms 
licensing mechanisms or of such 
matter or to all licences, or in 
licensing mechanisms and the 
should not affect their practical 
exceptions to their works or other  relation to particular works or 
exception or limitation 
relevance for cultural heritage 
subject-matter. Conditions 
other subject-matter or to 
introduced by this Directive for 
institutions. 
attached to those mechanisms 
particular licences, at any time 
the use of out-of-commerce 
should not affect their practical 
before or under the duration of  works in relation to all their 
relevance for cultural heritage 
the licence. Conditions attached 
works or other subject-matter or 
institutions. 
to those mechanisms should not 
in relation to all licences or all 
affect their practical relevance for  uses under the exception or 
cultural heritage institutions. It is  limitation, or in relation to 
important that when a 
particular works or other subject-
rightholder excludes the 
matter or in relation to particular 
application of such mechanisms  licences or uses under the 
to one or more of their works 

exception or limitation, at any 
or other subject-matter, the 
time before or under the duration 
informed collective 
of the licence or the uses under 
management organisation does 
the exception or limitation
not continue to issue licences 
Conditions attached to those 
covering the relevant uses and 
licensing mechanisms should not 
any ongoing uses are 
affect their practical relevance for 
terminated within a reasonable  cultural heritage institutions. It is 
 
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period. Such exclusion by the 
important that when a rightholder 
rightholder should not affect 
excludes the application of such 
their claim to remuneration for  mechanisms or of such exception 
the actual use of the work or 

or limitation to one or more of 
other subject-matter. 
their works or other subject-
matter, the informed collective 
management organisation does 
not continue to issue licences 
covering the relevant uses and 
any ongoing uses are terminated 
within a reasonable period, and, 
in the case they take place 
under a collective licence,  that 
the informed collective 
management organisation does 
not continue to issue licences 
covering the relevant uses. 
Such 
exclusion by the rightholder
should not affect their claimto 
remuneration for the actual use of 
the work or other subject-matter 
under the licence.  

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
 
 
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50. 
 
 
(24a) This Directive does not 
(24a) This Directive does not 
affect the possibility for 
affect the possibility for Member 
Member States to determine 
States to determine the allocation 
the allocation of legal 
of legal responsibility for the 
responsibility for the 
compliance of the licensing and 
compliance of the licensing and  the use of out-of-commerce 
the use of out-of-commerce 
works with the conditions set out 
works with the conditions set 
in this Directive and for the 
out in this Directive and for the  compliance of the parties with the 
compliance of the parties with 
terms of those licenses. 
the terms of those licenses. 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
 
 
51. 
(25)  Considering the variety of 
(25)  Considering the variety of 
(25)  Considering the variety of 
(25)  Considering the variety of 
works and other subject-matter in  works and other subject-matter in  works and other subject-matter in  works and other subject-matter in 
the collections of cultural heritage  the collections of cultural heritage  the collections of cultural heritage  the collections of cultural heritage 
institutions, it is important that 
institutions, it is important that 
institutions, it is important that 
institutions, it is important that 
the licensing mechanisms 
the licensing mechanisms 
the licensing mechanisms 
the licensing mechanisms and the 
introduced by this Directive are 
introduced by this Directive are 
introduced by this Directive are 
exception or limitation 
available and can be used in 
available and can be used in 
available and can be used in 
introduced by this Directive are 
practice for different types of 
practice for different types of 
practice for different types of 
available and can be used in 
works and other subject-matter, 
works and other subject-matter, 
works and other subject-matter, 
practice for different types of 
including photographs, sound 
including photographs, sound 
including photographs, software,  works and other subject-matter, 
 
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recordings and audiovisual works.  recordings and audiovisual works.  phonograms, sound recordings 
including photographs, software, 
In order to reflect the specificities  In order to reflect the specificities  and audiovisual works. and 
phonograms, audiovisual works 
of different categories of works 
of different categories of works 
unique works of art, 
and unique works of art, 
and other subject-matter as 
and other subject-matter as 
irrespective of whether they 
irrespective of whether they have 
regards modes of publication and  regards modes of publication and  have ever been commercially 
ever been commercially available. 
distribution and to facilitate the 
distribution and to facilitate the 
available. Never-in-commerce 
Never-in-commerce works may 
usability of those mechanisms, 
usability of those mechanisms, 
works may include posters, 
include posters, leaflets, trench 
specific requirements and 
the solutions on the use of out-
leaflets, trench journals or 
journals or amateur audiovisual 
procedures may have to be 
of-commerce works introduced 
amateur audiovisual works, but  works, but also unpublished 
established by Member States for  by this Directive, specific 
also unpublished works or 
works or other subject-matter, 
the practical application of those 
requirements and procedures may  other subject-matter, without 
without prejudice to other 
licensing mechanisms. It is 
have to be established by Member  prejudice to other applicable 
applicable legal constraints, such 
appropriate that Member States 
States for the practical application  legal constraints, such as 
as national rules on moral rights. 
consult rightholders, users and 
of those licensing mechanisms. It  national rules on moral rights. 
When a work is available in any 
collective management 
is appropriate that Member States  When a work is available in any  of its different versions, such as 
organisations when doing so. 
consult rightholders, users 
of its different versions, such as  subsequent editions of literary 
cultural heritage institutions and  subsequent editions of literary 
works and alternate cuts of 
collective management 
works and alternate cuts of 
cinematographic works, or in any 
organisations when doing so. 
cinematographic works, or in 
of its different manifestations, 
any of its different 
such as digital and printed 
manifestations, such as digital 
formats of the same work, this 
and printed formats of the same  work or other subject-matter 
work, this work or other 
should not be considered out of  
subject-matter should not be 
commerce. Conversely, the 
considered out of  commerce. 
commercial availability of 
Conversely, the commercial 
adaptations, including other 
availability of adaptations, 
language versions or audiovisual 
including other language 
adaptations of a literary work, 
 
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versions or audiovisual 
should not preclude the 
adaptations of a literary work, 
determination of the out-of-
should not preclude the 
commerce status of a work in a 
determination of the out-of-
given language. In order to reflect 
commerce status of a work in a 
the specificities of different types 
given language. In order to 
of works and other subject-matter 
reflect the specificities of 
as regards modes of publication 
different categories types of 
and distribution and to facilitate 
works and other subject-matter as  the usability of those 
regards modes of publication and  mechanisms, specific 
distribution and to facilitate the 
requirements and procedures may 
usability of those mechanisms, 
have to be established for the 
specific requirements and 
practical application of those 
procedures may have to be 
licensing mechanisms, such as a 
established by Member States for  time period which needs to have 
the practical application of those 
been elapsed since the first 
licensing mechanisms, such as a 
commercial availability of the 
time period which needs to have  work. It is appropriate that 
been elapsed since the first 
Member States consult 
commercial availability of the 
rightholders, cultural heritage 
work. It is appropriate that 
institutionsusers and collective 
Member States consult 
management organisations when 
rightholders, users and collective 
doing so. 
management organisations when 
doing so. 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
 
 
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52. 
 
 
(25a) When determining 
(25a) When determining whether 
whether works and other 
works and other subject-matter 
subject-matter are out of 
are out of commerce, a reasonable 
commerce, a reasonable effort 
effort should be required to assess 
should be required to assess 
their availability to the public in 
their availability to the public 
the customary channels of 
in the customary channels of 
commerce, taking into account 
commerce, taking into account 
the characteristics of the 
the characteristics of the 
particular work or set of works. 
particular work or set of works.  Member States should be free to 
Member States should be free 
determine the allocation of 
to determine the allocation of 
responsibilities for making the 
responsibilities for making the 
reasonable effort. The reasonable 
reasonable effort. The 
effort should not have to be 
reasonable effort should not 
repeated over time but it should 
have to be repeated over time 
also take account of any easily 
but it should also take account 
accessible evidence of upcoming 
of any easily accessible evidence  availability of works in the 
of upcoming availability of 
customary channels of commerce. 
works in the customary 
A work-by-work assessment 
channels of commerce. A work-
should only be required when this 
by-work assessment should 
is considered reasonable in view 
only be required when this is 
of the availability of relevant 
considered reasonable in view 
information, the likelihood of 
of the availability of relevant 
commercial availability and the 
information, the likelihood of 
expected transaction cost. The 
commercial availability and the  verification of availability should 
expected transaction cost. The 
normally take place in the 
 
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verification of availability 
Member State where the cultural 
should normally take place in 
heritage institution is established, 
the Member State where the 
unless verification across borders 
cultural heritage institution is 
is considered reasonable, for 
established, unless verification 
example when there is easily 
across borders is considered 
available information that a 
reasonable, for example when 
literary work was first published 
there is easily available 
in a given language version in 
information that a literary 
another Member State. In many 
work was first published in a 
cases the out-of-commerce status 
given language version in 
of a set of works could be 
another Member State. In 
determined through a 
many cases the out-of-
proportionate mechanism, such as 
commerce status of a set of 
sampling. The limited availability 
works could be determined 
of a work, such as its availability 
through a proportionate 
in second-hand shops, or the 
mechanism, such as sampling. 
theoretical possibility to obtain a 
The limited availability of a 
licence to a work should not be 
work, such as its availability in 
considered as availability to the 
second-hand shops, or the 
public in the customary channels 
theoretical possibility to obtain 
of commerce. 
a licence to a work should not 
be considered as availability to 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
the public in the customary 
confirmed] 
channels of commerce. 
53. 
(26)  For reasons of international  (26)  For reasons of international 
(26)  For reasons of international  (26)  For reasons of international 
comity, the licensing mechanisms  comity, the licensing mechanisms  comity, the licensing mechanisms  comity, the licensing mechanism 
 
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for the digitisation and 
and the exception for the 
for the digitisation and 
and the exception or limitation 
dissemination of out-of-
digitisation and dissemination of 
dissemination of out-of-
provided for in this Directive 
commerce works provided for in 
out-of-commerce works provided  commerce works provided for in 
for the digitisation and 
this Directive should not apply to  for in this Directive should not 
this Directive should not apply to  dissemination of out-of-
works or other subject-matter that  apply to works or other subject-
works or other subject-matter that  commerce works provided for in 
are first published or, in the 
matter that are first published or, 
are first published or, in the 
this Directive should not apply to 
absence of publication, first 
in the absence of publication, first  absence of publication, first 
sets of out-of-commerce works or 
broadcast in a third country or, in  broadcast in a third country or, in 
broadcast in a third country or, in  other subject-matter when there is 
the case of cinematographic or 
the case of cinematographic or 
the case of cinematographic or 
available evidence to presume 
audiovisual works, to works the 
audiovisual works, to works the 
audiovisual works, to works the 
that they predominantly consist of 
producer of which has his 
producer of which has his 
producer of which has his 
works or other subject-matter of 
headquarters or habitual residence  headquarters or habitual residence  headquarters or habitual 
third countries, unless the 
in a third country. Those 
in a third country. Those 
residence in a third country. 
concerned collective management 
mechanisms should also not apply  mechanisms should also not apply  Those mechanisms should also 
organisation is sufficiently 
to works or other subject-matter 
to works or other subject-matter 
not apply to works or other 
representative for that third 
of third country nationals except 
of third country nationals except 
subject-matter of third country 
country, for example via a 
when they are first published or, 
when they are first published or, 
nationals except when they are 
representation agreement. This 
in the absence of publication, first  in the absence of publication, first  first published or, in the absence 
assessment can be based on the 
broadcast in the territory of a 
broadcast in the territory of a 
of publication, first broadcast in 
evidence available following the 
Member State or, in the case of 
Member State or, in the case of 
the territory of a Member State 
reasonable effort to determine the 
cinematographic or audiovisual 
cinematographic or audiovisual 
or, in the case of cinematographic  out-of-commerce status of the 
works, to works of which the 
works, to works of which the 
or audiovisual works, to works of  works, without the need to search 
producer's headquarters or 
producer's headquarters or 
which the producer's headquarters  for further evidence. A work-by-
habitual residence is in a Member  habitual residence is in a Member  or habitual residence is in a 
work assessment of the origin of 
State. 
State. 
Member Statesets of out-of-
the out-of-commerce works 
commerce works or other 
should only be required insofar as 
subject-matter when there is 
it is also required for the 
available evidence to presume 
reasonable effort to determine 
 
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that they predominantly consist  their commercial availability. 
of works or other subject-
matter of third countries, 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
unless the concerned collective 
confirmed] 
management organisation is 
sufficiently representative for 

 
that third country, for example 
via a representation agreement. 
This assessment can be based 
on the evidence available 
following the reasonable effort 
to determine the out-of-
commerce status of the works, 
without the need to search for 
further evidence. A work-by-
work assessment of the origin 
of the out-of-commerce works 
should only be required insofar 
as it is also required for the 
reasonable effort to determine 
their commercial availability

54. 
(27)  As mass digitisation 
(27)  As mass digitisation projects  (27)  As mass The contracting 
(27)  The contracting cultural 
projects can entail significant 
can entail significant investments  cultural heritage institutions 
heritage institutions and 
investments by cultural heritage 
by cultural heritage institutions, 
and collective management 
collective management 
institutions, any licences granted 
any licences granted under the 
organisations should remain 
organisations should remain free 
under the mechanisms provided 
mechanisms provided for in this 
free to agree on the territorial 
to agree on the territorial scope of 
for in this Directive should not 
Directive should not prevent them  scope of the licence, the licence 
the licence, including the 
 
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prevent them from generating 
from generating reasonable 
fee and the allowed uses. Uses 
possibility to cover all Member 
reasonable revenues in order to 
revenues in order to cover  
covered by such licence should 
States, the licence fee and the 
cover the costs of the licence and 
covering the costs of the licence 
not be for profit making 
allowed uses. Uses covered by 
the costs of digitising and 
and the costs of digitising and 
purpose, including when copies  such licence should not be for 
disseminating the works and other  disseminating the works and other  are distributed by the cultural 
profit making purpose, including 
subject-matter covered by the 
subject-matter covered by the 
heritage institution, such as in 
when copies are distributed by the 
licence. 
licence. 
the case of promotional 
cultural heritage institution, such 
material about an exhibition. At  as in the case of promotional 
the same time, as the digitisation  material about an exhibition. At 
projectsof the collections of 
the same time, as the digitisation 
cultural heritage institutions 
of the collections of cultural 
can entail significant investments  heritage institutions can entail 
by cultural heritage institutions, 
significant investments, any 
any licences granted under the 
licences granted under the 
mechanisms provided for in this 
mechanisms provided for in this 
Directive should not prevent 
Directive should not prevent 
themcultural heritage 
cultural heritage institutions from 
institutions from generating 
generating reasonable revenues 
reasonable revenues in order to 
for the exclusive purposes of 
coverfor the purposes of 
covering the costs of the licence 
covering the costs of the licence 
and the costs of digitising and 
and the costs of digitising and 
disseminating the works and other 
disseminating the works and other  subject-matter covered by the 
subject-matter covered by the 
licence. 
licence. 
 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
 
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confirmed] 
 
55. 
(28)  Information regarding the 
(28)  Information regarding the 
(28)  Information regarding the 
(28)  Information regarding the 
future and ongoing use of out-of-
future and ongoing use of out-of-
future and ongoing use of out-of-
future and ongoing use of out-of-
commerce works and other 
commerce works and other 
commerce works and other 
commerce works and other 
subject-matter by cultural heritage  subject-matter by cultural heritage  subject-matter by cultural 
subject-matter by cultural 
institutions on the basis of the 
institutions on the basis of the 
heritage institutions on the basis 
heritage institutions on the basis 
licensing mechanisms provided 
licensing mechanisms or of the 
of the licensing mechanisms 
of the licensing mechanisms 
for in this Directive and the 
exception provided for in this 
provided for in this Directive and  provided for in this Directive and 
arrangements in place for all 
Directive and the arrangements in  the arrangements in place for all 
the arrangements in place for all 
rightholders to exclude the 
place for all rightholders to 
rightholders to exclude the 
rightholders to exclude the 
application of licences to their 
exclude the application of 
application of licences to their 
application of licences or of the 
works or other subject-matter 
licences or of the exception to 
works or other subject-matter 
exception or limitation to their 
should be adequately publicised. 
their works or other subject-
should be adequately publicised. 
works or other subject-matter 
This is particularly important 
matter should be adequately 
both before a licence is granted  should be adequately publicised 
when uses take place across 
publicised. This is particularly 
and during the operation of the  both before a licence is granted 
borders in the internal market. It 
important when uses take place 
licence as appropriate. This is 
and during the operation of the 
is therefore appropriate to make 
across borders in the internal 
particularly important when uses 
licencethe use under a licence or 
provision for the creation of a 
market. It is therefore appropriate  take place across borders in the 
the exception or limitation, as 
single publicly accessible online 
to make provision for the creation  internal market. It is therefore 
appropriate. This is particularly 
portal for the Union to make such  of a single publicly accessible 
appropriate to make provision for  important when uses take place 
information available to the 
online portal for the Union to 
the creation of a single publicly 
across borders in the internal 
public for a reasonable period of 
make such information available 
accessible online portal for the 
market. It is therefore appropriate 
time before the cross-border use 
to the public for a reasonable 
Union to make such information 
to make provision for the creation 
takes place. Under Regulation 
period of time before the cross-
available to the public for a 
of a single publicly accessible 
(EU) No 386/2012 of the 
border use takes place. Under 
reasonable period of time before 
online portal for the Union to 
 
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European Parliament and of the 
Regulation (EU) No 386/2012 of 
the cross-border use takes place. 
make such information available 
Council11, the European Union 
the European Parliament and of 
This portal should facilitate the  to the public for a reasonable 
Intellectual Property Office is 
the Council11, the European 
possibility for rightholders to 
period of time before the use 
entrusted with certain tasks and 
Union Intellectual Property Office  exclude the application of 
takes place. This portal should 
activities, financed by making use  is entrusted with certain tasks and  licences to their works or other  facilitate the possibility for 
of its own budgetary measures, 
activities, financed by making use  subject-matter. Under 
rightholders to exclude the 
aiming at facilitating and 
of its own budgetary measures, 
Regulation (EU) No 386/2012 of 
application of licences to their 
supporting the activities of 
aiming at facilitating and 
the European Parliament and of 
works or other subject-matter. 
national authorities, the private 
supporting the activities of 
the Council11, the European 
Under Regulation (EU) No 
sector and Union institutions in 
national authorities, the private 
Union Intellectual Property 
386/2012 of the European 
the fight against, including the 
sector and Union institutions in 
Office is entrusted with certain 
Parliament and of the Council11, 
prevention of, infringement of 
the fight against, including the 
tasks and activities, financed by 
the European Union Intellectual 
intellectual property rights. It is 
prevention of, infringement of 
making use of its own budgetary 
Property Office is entrusted with 
therefore appropriate to rely on 
intellectual property rights. It is 
measuresmeans, aiming at 
certain tasks and activities, 
that Office to establish and 
therefore appropriate to rely on 
facilitating and supporting the 
financed by making use of its 
manage the European portal 
that Office to establish and 
activities of national authorities, 
own budgetary means, aiming at 
making such information 
manage the European portal 
the private sector and Union 
facilitating and supporting the 
available. 
making such information 
institutions in the fight against, 
activities of national authorities, 
available. 
including the prevention of, 
the private sector and Union 
infringement of intellectual 
institutions in the fight against, 
property rights. It is therefore 
including the prevention of, 
appropriate to rely on that Office 
infringement of intellectual 
to establish and manage the 
property rights. It is therefore 
European portal making such 
appropriate to rely on that Office 
                                                 
11 
Regulation (EU) No 386/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 April 2012 on entrusting the Office for Harmonization in the Internal 
Market (Trade Marks and Designs) with tasks related to the enforcement of intellectual property rights, including the assembling of public and private-sector 
representatives as a European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights (OJ L 129, 16.5.2012, p. 1–6). 
 
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information available. In 
to establish and manage the 
addition to making the 
European portal making such 
information available through 
information available. In addition 
the portal, further appropriate 
to making the information 
publicity measures may need to  available through the portal, 
be taken on a case-by-case basis  further appropriate publicity 
in order to increase the 
measures may need to be taken on 
awareness of affected 
a case-by-case basis in order to 
rightholders, for example 
increase the awareness of affected 
through the use of additional 
rightholders, for example through 
channels of communication to 
the use of additional channels of 
reach a wider public. The 
communication to reach a wider 
necessity, the nature and the 
public. The necessity, the nature 
geographic scope of the 
and the geographic scope of the 
additional publicity measures 
additional publicity measures 
should depend on the 
should depend on the 
characteristics of the relevant 
characteristics of the relevant out-
out-of-commerce works or 
of-commerce works or other 
other subject-matter, the terms  subject-matter, the terms of the 
of the licences and the existing 
licences or the type of use under 
practices in Member States. 
the exception or limitation, and 
Publicity measures should be 
the existing practices in Member 
effective without the need to 
States. Publicity measures should 
inform each rightholder 
be effective without the need to 
individually. 
inform each rightholder 
individually. 
 
 
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(-28a) In order to ensure that 
the licensing mechanisms 
established by this Directive for 
out-of-commerce works are 
relevant and function properly, 
that rightholders are 
adequately protected, that 
licences are properly publicised 
and that legal clarity is ensured 
with regard to the 
representativeness of collective 
management organisations and 
the categorisation of works, 
Member States should foster 
sector-specific stakeholder 
dialogue. 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
56. 
 
 
(28a) The measures provided 
(28a) The measures provided for 
for in this Directive to facilitate  in this Directive to facilitate the 
the collective licensing of rights  collective licensing of rights in 
in out-of-commerce works or 
out-of-commerce works or other 
other subject-matter that are 
subject-matter that are 
permanently in the collections 
permanently in the collections of 
of cultural heritage institutions  cultural heritage institutions 
should be without prejudice to 
should be without prejudice to the 
 
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the use of such works or other 
use of such works or other 
subject-matter under 
subject-matter under exceptions 
exceptions or limitations 
or limitations provided for in 
provided for in Union law or 
Union law or under other licences 
under other licences with an 
with an extended effect, where 
extended effect, where such 
such licensing is not based on the 
licensing is not based on the 
out-of-commerce status of the 
out-of-commerce status of the 
covered works or other subject 
covered works or other subject 
matter. These measures should 
matter. These measures should 
also be without prejudice to 
also be without prejudice to 
national mechanisms for the use 
national mechanisms for the 
of out of commerce works based 
use of out of commerce works 
on licences between collective 
based on licences between 
management organisation and 
collective management 
users other than cultural heritage 
organisation and users other 
institutions. 
than cultural heritage 
institutions. 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
 
57. 
 
 
(28b) Mechanisms of collective 
(28b) Mechanisms of collective 
licensing with an extended 
licensing with an extended effect 
effect allow a collective 
allow a collective management 
management organisation to 
organisation to offer licences as a 
offer licences as a collective 
collective licensing body on 
licensing body on behalf of 
behalf of rightholders irrespective 
 
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rightholders irrespective of 
of whether they have authorised 
whether they have authorised 
the organisation to do so. Systems 
the organisation to do so. 
built on such mechanisms, such 
Systems built on such 
as extended collective licensing, 
mechanisms, such as extended 
legal mandates or presumptions 
collective licensing, legal 
of representation, are a well-
mandates or presumptions of 
established practice in several 
representation, are a well-
Member States and may be used 
established practice in several 
in different areas. A functioning 
Member States and may be 
copyright framework that works 
used in different areas. A 
for all parties requires the 
functioning copyright 
availability of these 
framework that works for all 
proportionate, legal mechanisms 
parties requires the availability  for the licensing of works. 
of these proportionate, legal 
Member States should therefore 
mechanisms for the licensing of  be able to rely on solutions, 
works. Member States should 
allowing relevant licensing 
therefore be able to rely on 
organisations, which are owned 
solutions, allowing relevant 
or controlled by their rightholder 
licensing organisations, which 
members (or entities representing 
are owned or controlled by 
rightholders) or organised on a 
their rightholder members (or 
not for profit basis, to offer 
entities representing 
licences covering potentially 
rightholders) or organised on a  large volumes of works or other 
not for profit basis, to offer 
subject-matter for certain types of 
licences covering potentially 
use, and distribute the revenue 
large volumes of works or other  received to rightholders. 
subject-matter for certain types 
 
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of use, and distribute the 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
revenue received to 
confirmed] 
rightholders. 
 
58. 
 
 
(28c) In the case of some uses, 
(28c) In the case of some uses, 
together with the usually large 
together with the usually large 
amount of works involved, the 
amount of works involved, the 
transaction cost of individual 
transaction cost of individual 
rights clearance with every 
rights clearance with every 
concerned rightholder is 
concerned rightholder is 
prohibitively high and without 
prohibitively high and without 
effective collective licensing 
effective collective licensing 
mechanisms all the required 
mechanisms all the required 
transactions in these areas to 
transactions in these areas to 
enable the use of these works or  enable the use of these works or 
other subject matter are 
other subject matter are unlikely 
unlikely to take place. Extended  to take place. Extended collective 
collective licensing and similar 
licensing and similar mechanisms 
mechanisms have made it 
have made it possible to conclude 
possible to conclude agreements  agreements in areas affected by 
in areas affected by this market  this market failure where 
failure where traditional 
traditional collective licensing 
collective licensing does not 
does not provide an exhaustive 
provide an exhaustive solution 
solution for covering all works 
for covering all works and other  and other subject-matter to be 
subject-matter to be used. 
used. These mechanisms serve as 
These mechanisms serve as a 
a complement to collective 
 
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complement to collective 
management based on individual 
management based on 
mandates, by providing full legal 
individual mandates, by 
certainty to users. At the same 
providing full legal certainty to 
time, they provide a further 
users. At the same time, they 
opportunity to right holders to 
provide a further opportunity 
benefit from the legitimate use of 
to right holders to benefit from 
their works. 
the legitimate use of their 
works. 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
59. 
 
 
(28d) Given the increasing 
(28d) Given the increasing 
importance of the ability to 
importance of the ability to offer 
offer flexible licensing solutions  flexible licensing solutions in the 
in the digital age, and the 
digital age, and the increasing use 
increasing use of such schemes 
of such schemes in Member 
in Member States, it is 
States, it is beneficial to further 
beneficial to further clarify in 
clarify in Union law the status of 
Union law the status of 
licensing mechanisms allowing 
licensing mechanisms allowing 
collective management 
collective management 
organisations to conclude 
organisations to conclude 
licences, on a voluntary basis, 
licences, on a voluntary basis, 
irrespective of whether all 
irrespective of whether all 
rightholders have authorised the 
rightholders have authorised 
organisation to do so. Member 
the organisation to do so. 
States should have the ability to 
Member States should have the  maintain and introduce such 
ability to maintain and 
schemes in accordance with their 
 
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introduce such schemes in 
legal traditions, practices or 
accordance with their legal 
circumstances, subject to the 
traditions, practices or 
safeguards provided for in this 
circumstances, subject to the 
Directive and in full respect of 
safeguards provided for in this 
Union law and their international 
Directive and in full respect of 
obligations related to copyright. 
Union law and their 
These schemes would only have 
international obligations 
effect in the territory of the 
related to copyright. These 
Member State concerned, unless 
schemes would only have effect  otherwise provided for in Union 
in the territory of the Member 
law. Member States should have 
State concerned, unless 
flexibility in choosing the specific 
otherwise provided for in Union  type of mechanism allowing 
law. Member States should 
licences for works or other 
have flexibility in choosing the 
subject-matter to extend to the 
specific type of mechanism 
rights of rightholders that have 
allowing licences for works or 
not authorised the organisation 
other subject-matter to extend 
that concludes the agreement, as 
to the rights of rightholders 
long as it guarantees sufficient 
that have not authorised the 
protection of the non-member 
organisation that concludes the  rightholders. Such mechanisms 
agreement, as long as it 
may include extended collective 
guarantees sufficient protection  licensing, legal mandate and 
of the non-member 
presumptions of representation. 
rightholders. Such mechanisms  The provisions of this Directive 
may include extended collective  concerning collective licensing 
licensing, legal mandate and 
should not affect existing 
presumptions of representation.  possibilities of Member States to 
 
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The provisions of this Directive  apply mandatory collective 
concerning collective licensing 
management or other collective 
should not affect existing 
licensing mechanisms with an 
possibilities of Member States 
extended effect, such as the one 
to apply mandatory collective 
included in Article 3 of Directive 
management or other collective  93/83/EEC. 
licensing mechanisms with an 
extended effect, such as the one  
 
included in Article 3 of 
Directive 93/83/EEC. 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
60. 
 
 
(28e) It is important that such 
(28e) It is important that such 
mechanisms are only applied in  mechanisms are only applied in 
well-defined areas of uses, 
well-defined areas of uses, where 
where obtaining authorisations  obtaining authorisations from 
from rightholders on an 
rightholders on an individual 
individual basis is typically 
basis is typically onerous and 
onerous and impractical to a 
impractical to a degree that makes 
degree that makes the required  the required licensing transaction, 
licensing transaction, i.e. a 
i.e. a licence that covers all the 
licence that covers all the 
involved rightholders unlikely to 
involved rightholders unlikely 
occur due to the nature of the use 
to occur due to the nature of 
or of the types of works 
the use or of the types of works  concerned. It is equally important 
concerned. It is equally 
that the licensed use neither 
important that the licensed use 
affects adversely the economic 
neither affects adversely the 
value of the relevant rights nor 
 
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economic value of the relevant 
deprives rightholders of 
rights nor deprives rightholders  significant commercial benefits. 
of significant commercial 
Moreover, Member States should 
benefits. Moreover, Member 
ensure that appropriate safeguards 
States should ensure that 
are in place to protect the 
appropriate safeguards are in 
legitimate interests of 
place to protect the legitimate 
rightholders that are not 
interests of rightholders that 
represented by the organisation 
are not represented by the 
offering the licence. 
organisation offering the 
licence. 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
61. 
 
 
(28f) Specifically, to justify the 
(28f) Specifically, to justify the 
extended effect of the 
extended effect of the 
mechanisms, the organisation 
mechanisms, the organisation 
should be, on the basis of 
should be, on the basis of 
authorisations from 
authorisations from rightholders, 
rightholders, sufficiently 
sufficiently representative of the 
representative of the types of 
types of works or other subject-
works or other subject-matter 
matter and of the rights which are 
and of the rights which are the 
the subject of the licence. To 
subject of the licence. To ensure  ensure legal certainty and 
legal certainty and confidence 
confidence in the mechanisms 
in the mechanisms Member 
Member States may determine the 
States may determine the 
allocation of legal responsibility 
allocation of legal responsibility  for uses authorised by the licence 
for uses authorised by the 
agreement. Equal treatment 
 
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licence agreement. Equal 
should be guaranteed to all 
treatment should be guaranteed  rightholders whose works are 
to all rightholders whose works  exploited under the licence as 
are exploited under the licence 
regards, notably, access to 
as regards, notably, access to 
information on the licensing and 
information on the licensing 
the distribution of remuneration. 
and the distribution of 
Publicity measures should be 
remuneration. Publicity 
effective throughout the duration 
measures should be effective 
of the licence without the need to 
throughout the duration of the 
inform each rightholder 
licence without the need to 
individually. In order to ensure 
inform each rightholder 
that rightholders can easily retain 
individually. In order to ensure  control of their works, and 
that rightholders can easily 
prevent any uses of their works 
retain control of their works, 
that would be prejudicial to their 
and prevent any uses of their 
interests, rightholders must be 
works that would be prejudicial  given an effective opportunity to 
to their interests, rightholders 
exclude the application of such 
must be given an effective 
mechanisms to their works or 
opportunity to exclude the 
other subject-matter for all uses 
application of such mechanisms  and works or other subject-
to their works or other subject-
matter, or for specific uses and 
matter for all uses and works or  works or other subject-matter. In 
other subject-matter, or for 
such cases, any ongoing uses 
specific uses and works or other  should be terminated within a 
subject-matter. In such cases, 
reasonable period. Member States 
any ongoing uses should be 
may also decide that additional 
terminated within a reasonable  measures are appropriate to 
 
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period. Member States may 
protect rightholders. 
also decide that additional 
measures are appropriate to 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
protect rightholders. 
confirmed] 
62. 
 
 
(28g) Member States should 
(28g) Member States should 
ensure that the purpose and 
ensure that the purpose and scope 
scope of any licence granted as 
of any licence granted as a result 
a result of these mechanisms, as  of these mechanisms, as well as 
well as the possible users, 
the possible users, should always 
should always be carefully and 
be carefully and clearly defined in 
clearly defined in national 
national legislation or, if the 
legislation or, if the underlying 
underlying legislation is a general 
legislation is a general 
provision, in the licensing 
provision, in the licensing 
practices applied as a result of 
practices applied as a result of 
such general provisions, or in the 
such general provisions, or in 
licences granted. The ability to 
the licences granted. The ability  operate a licence under these 
to operate a licence under these  mechanisms should also be 
mechanisms should also be 
limited to organisations which are 
limited to organisations which 
either owned or controlled by 
are either owned or controlled 
their right holder members or 
by their right holder members 
which operate on a not for profit 
or which operate on a not for 
basis, regulated by national law 
profit basis, regulated by 
implementing Directive 
national law implementing 
2014/26/EU. 
Directive 2014/26/EU. 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
 
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confirmed] 
63. 
 
 
(28h) Given the different 
(28h) Given the different 
traditions and experiences with  traditions and experiences with 
extended collective licensing 
extended collective licensing 
across Member States and their  across Member States and their 
applicability to rightholders 
applicability to rightholders 
irrespective of their nationality  irrespective of their nationality or 
or their Member State of 
their Member State of residence, 
residence, it is important to 
it is important to ensure 
ensure transparency and 
transparency and dialogue at 
dialogue at Union level about 
Union level about the practical 
the practical functioning of 
functioning of these mechanisms, 
these mechanisms, including as  including as regards the 
regards the effectiveness of 
effectiveness of safeguards for 
safeguards for rightholders, 
rightholders, their usability and 
their usability and the potential  the potential need to lay down 
need to lay down rules to give 
rules to give such schemes cross-
such schemes cross-border 
border effect within the internal 
effect within the internal 
market. To ensure transparency, 
market. To ensure 
information about the use of such 
transparency, information 
mechanisms under this Directive 
about the use of such 
should be regularly published by 
mechanisms under this 
the Commission. Member States 
Directive should be regularly 
that have introduced such 
published by the Commission. 
mechanisms should therefore 
Member States that have 
inform the Commission about 
introduced such mechanisms 
relevant national legislation and 
 
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should therefore inform the 
its application in practice, 
Commission about relevant 
including scopes and types of 
national legislation and its 
licensing introduced on the basis 
application in practice, 
of general legislation, the scale of 
including scopes and types of 
licensing and the collective 
licensing introduced on the 
management organisations 
basis of general legislation, the 
involved. Such information 
scale of licensing and the 
should be discussed with Member 
collective management 
States in the contact committee 
organisations involved. Such 
referred to in Article 12(3) of 
information should be 
Directive 2001/29/EC. The 
discussed with Member States 
Commission should publish a 
in the contact committee 
report by 31 December 2020 on 
referred to in Article 12(3) of 
the use of such mechanisms in the 
Directive 2001/29) 
On/EC. 
Union and their impact on 
The Commission should 
licensing and rightholders. 
publish a report by 31 
December 2020 on the use of 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
such mechanisms in the Union 
confirmed] 
and their impact on licensing 
and rightholders. 

64. 
 
(28a)  In order to ensure that the   
[EP proposal covered as recital -
licensing mechanisms 
28a in line 55] 
established for out-of-commerce 
works are relevant and function 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
properly, that rightholders are 
confirmed] 
adequately protected under those 
 
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mechanisms, that licences are 
properly publicised and that 
legal clarity is ensured with 
regard to the representativeness 
of collective management 
organisations and the 
categorisation of works, Member 
States should foster sector-
specific stakeholder dialogue. 

65. 
(29)  On-demand services have 
(29)  On-demand services have 
(29)  Video-on-demand services 
(29)  Video-on-demand services 
the potential to play a decisive 
the potential to play a decisive 
have the potential to play a 
have the potential to play a 
role in the dissemination of 
role in the dissemination of 
decisive role in the dissemination  decisive role in the dissemination 
European works across the 
European works across the 
of European audiovisual works 
of audiovisual works across the 
European Union. However, 
European Union. However, 
across the European Union. 
European Union. However, the 
agreements on the online 
agreements on the online 
However, agreements the 
availability of those works, in 
exploitation of such works may 
exploitation of such works may 
availability of those works, in 
particular European works, on 
face difficulties related to the 
face difficulties related to the 
particular European works, on 
video-on-demand services 
licensing of rights. Such issues 
licensing of rights. Such issues 
video-on-demand services 
remains limited. Agreements on 
may, for instance, appear when 
may, for instance, appear when 
remains limited. Agreements on  the online exploitation of such 
the holder of the rights for a given  the holder of the rights for a given  the online exploitation of such 
works may be difficult to 
territory is not interested in the 
territory is not interested in the 
works may be difficult to 
conclude due to issues related to 
online exploitation of the work or  online exploitation of the work or  conclude due to issues face 
the licensing of rights. Such 
where there are issues linked to 
where there are issues linked to 
difficulties related to the licensing  issues may, for instance, appear 
the windows of exploitation. 
the windows of exploitation. 
of rights. Such issues may, for 
when the holder of the rights for a 
instance, appear when the holder 
given territory has low economic 
of the rights for a given territory 
incentive to exploit a work online 
is not interested in the has low 
and does not license or holds back 
 
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economic incentive to exploit a 
the online rights, which can lead 
work online exploitation of the 
to the unavailability of 
work or where there are issues 
audiovisual works on video-on-
and does not license or holds 
demand services. Other issues 
back the online rights, which 
may be linked to the windows of 
can lead to the unavailability of  exploitation. 
audiovisual works on video-on-
demand services. Other issues 

[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
may be linked to the windows of  confirmed] 
exploitation. 
66. 
(30)  To facilitate the licensing of  (30)  To facilitate the licensing of  (30)  To facilitate the licensing of  (30)  To facilitate the licensing of 
rights in audiovisual works to 
rights in audiovisual works to 
rights in audiovisual works to 
rights in audiovisual works to 
video-on-demand platforms, this 
video-on-demand platforms, this 
video-on-demand 
video-on-demand services, this 
Directive requires Member States  Directive requires Member States  platformsservices, this Directive 
Directive requires Member States 
to set up a negotiation mechanism  to should set up a negotiation 
requires Member States to set 
to provide for a negotiation 
allowing parties willing to 
mechanism, managed by an 
upprovide for a negotiation 
mechanism allowing parties 
conclude an agreement to rely on 
existing or newly established 
mechanism allowing parties 
willing to conclude an agreement 
the assistance of an impartial 
national body, allowing parties 
willing to conclude an agreement  to rely on the assistance of an 
body. The body should meet with  willing to conclude an agreement  to rely on the assistance of an 
impartial body or of one or more 
the parties and help with the 
to rely on the assistance of an 
impartial body. The body or of 
mediators. For that purpose, 
negotiations by providing 
impartial body. The participation  one or more mediators. For that  Member States may either create 
professional and external advice. 
in this negotiation mechanism 
purpose, Member States may 
a new body or rely on an existing 
Against that background, Member  and the subsequent conclusion 
either create a new body or rely  one that fulfils the conditions 
States should decide on the 
of agreements should be 
on an existing one that fulfils 
established by this Directive. 
conditions of the functioning of 
voluntary. Where a negotiation 
the conditions established by 
Member States may designate one 
the negotiation mechanism, 
involves parties from different 
this Directive. Member States 
or more competent bodies or 
including the timing and duration  Member States, those parties 
may designate one or more 
mediators. The body or the 
 
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of the assistance to negotiations 
should agree beforehand on the 
competent bodies or mediators.  mediators should meet with the 
and the bearing of the costs. 
competent Member State, should  The body or the mediators 
parties and help with the 
Member States should ensure that  they decide to rely on the 
should meet with the parties and 
negotiations by providing 
administrative and financial 
negotiation mechanism. The 
help with the negotiations by 
professional, impartial and 
burdens remain proportionate to 
body should meet with the parties  providing professional and 
external advice. Where a 
guarantee the efficiency of the 
and help with the negotiations by  external advice. The body or the  negotiation involves parties 
negotiation forum. 
providing professional, impartial  mediators could meet with the 
from different Member States, 
and external advice. Against that 
parties to facilitate the start of 
those parties should agree 
background, Member States 
negotiations or in the course of 
beforehand on the competent 
should decide on the conditions of  the negotiations to facilitate the  Member State, should they 
the functioning of the negotiation  conclusion of an agreement. 
decide to rely on the negotiation 
mechanism, including the timing 
The use of and the participation  mechanism. The body or the 
and duration of the assistance to 
in the negotiation mechanism 
mediators could meet with the 
negotiations and the bearing 
should remain voluntary and 
parties to facilitate the start of 
division of the any costs arising, 
should not affect the parties' 
negotiations or in the course of 
and the composition of such 
contractual freedom. Against 
the negotiations to facilitate the 
bodies. Member States should 
that background, Member States 
conclusion of an agreement. The 
ensure that administrative and 
should be free to decide on the 
participation in this negotiation 
financial burdens remain 
conditions of theconcrete 
mechanism and the subsequent 
proportionate to guarantee the 
functioning of the negotiation 
conclusion of agreements 
efficiency of the negotiation 
mechanism, including the timing 
should be voluntary and should 
forum. 
and duration of the assistance to 
not affect the parties' contractual 
negotiations and the bearing of 
freedom. Against that 
the costs. Member States should 
background, Member States 
ensure that administrative and 
should be free to decide on the 
financial burdens remain 
concrete functioning of the 
proportionate to guarantee the 
negotiation mechanism, including 
efficiency of the negotiation 
the timing and duration of the 
 
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forummechanism
assistance to negotiations and the 
bearing of the costs. Member 
States should ensure that 
administrative and financial 
burdens remain proportionate to 
guarantee the efficiency of the 
negotiation mechanism. 
[tentatively agreed at TM; to be 
confirmed]
 
67. 
 
(30a)  The preservation of the 
 
 
Union’s heritage is of the utmost 
importance and should be 
strengthened for the benefit of 
future generations. This should 
be achieved notably through the 
protection of published heritage. 
To this end, a Union legal 
deposit should be created in 
order to ensure that publications 
concerning the Union, such as 
Union law, Union history and 
integration, Union policy and 
Union democracy, institutional 
and parliamentary affairs, and 
politics, and, thereby, the 
Union’s intellectual record and 

 
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future published heritage, are 
collected systematically. Not only 
should such heritage be 
preserved through the creation 
of a Union archive for 
publications dealing with Union-
related matters, but it should also 
be made available to Union 
citizens and future generations. 
The European Parliament 
Library, as the Library of the 
only Union institution directly 
representing Union citizens, 
should be designated as the 
Union depository library. In 
order not to create an excessive 
burden on publishers, printers 
and importers, only electronic 
publications, such as e-books, e-
journals and e-magazines should 
be deposited in the European 
Parliament Library, which 
should make available for 
readers publications covered by 
the Union legal deposit at the 
European Parliament Library 
for the purpose of research or 
study and under the control of 

 
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the European Parliament 
Library. Such publications 
should not be made available 
online externally. 

68. 
(31)  A free and pluralist press is  (31)  A free and pluralist press is 
(31)  A free and pluralist press is   
essential to ensure quality 
essential to ensure quality 
essential to ensure quality 
journalism and citizens' access to 
journalism and citizens' access to 
journalism and citizens' access to 
information. It provides a 
information. It provides a 
information. It provides a 
fundamental contribution to 
fundamental contribution to 
fundamental contribution to 
public debate and the proper 
public debate and the proper 
public debate and the proper 
functioning of a democratic 
functioning of a democratic 
functioning of a democratic 
society. In the transition from 
society. The increasing 
society. In the transition from 
print to digital, publishers of press  imbalance between powerful 
print to digital, publishersThe 
publications are facing problems 
platforms and press publishers, 
wide availability of press 
in licensing the online use of their  which can also be news agencies,  publications online has given 
publications and recouping their 
has already led to a remarkable 
rise to the emergence of new 
investments. In the absence of 
regression of the media 
online services, such as news 
recognition of publishers of press  landscape on a regional level. In 
aggregators or media 
publications as rightholders, 
the transition from print to digital,  monitoring services, for which 
licensing and enforcement in the 
publishers and news agencies of 
the reuse of press publications 
digital environment is often 
press publications are facing 
constitutes an important part of 
complex and inefficient. 
problems in licensing the online 
their business models and a 
use of their publications and 
source of revenues. Publishers 
recouping their investments. In 
of press publications are facing 
the absence of recognition of 
problems in licensing the online 
publishers of press publications as  use of their publications and 
rightholders, licensing and 
recoupingto the providers of 
 
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enforcement in the digital 
these kind of services, making it 
environment is often complex and  more difficult for them to 
inefficient. 
recoup their investments. In the 
absence of recognition of 
publishers of press publications 
as rightholders, licensing and 
enforcement of rights in press 
publications regarding online 
uses by information society 
service providers 
in the digital 
environment isare often complex 
and inefficient. 
69. 
(32)  The organisational and 
(32)  The organisational and 
(32)  The organisational and 
 
financial contribution of 
financial contribution of 
financial contribution of 
publishers in producing press 
publishers in producing press 
publishers in producing press 
publications needs to be 
publications needs to be 
publications needs to be 
recognised and further 
recognised and further 
recognised and further 
encouraged to ensure the 
encouraged to ensure the 
encouraged to ensure the 
sustainability of the publishing 
sustainability of the publishing 
sustainability of the publishing 
industry.It is therefore necessary 
industry and thereby to 
industry. It is therefore necessary 
to provide at Union level a 
guarantee the availability of 
to provide at Union level a 
harmonised legal protection for 
reliable information. It is 
harmonised legalle-gal protection 
press publications in respect of 
therefore necessary for Member 
for press publications in respect 
digital uses. Such protection 
States to provide at Union level a  of digitalonline uses by 
should be effectively guaranteed 
harmonised legal protection for 
information society service 
through the introduction, in Union  press publications in respect of  
providers, leaving unaffected 
law, of rights related to copyright  the Union for digital uses. Such 
current copyright rules in 
 
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for the reproduction and making 
protection should be effectively 
Union law applicable to uses of 
available to the public of press 
guaranteed through the 
press publications by other 
publications in respect of digital 
introduction, in Union law, of 
users, including individual 
uses. 
rights related to copyright for the 
users. Such protection should be 
reproduction and making 
effectively guaranteed through 
available to the public of press 
the introduction, in Union law, of 
publications in respect of digital 
rights related to copyright for the 
uses in order to obtain fair and 
reproduction and making 
proportionate remuneration for 
available to the public of press 
such uses. Private uses should be  publications in respect of digital 
excluded from this reference. In 
usespublished by publishers 
addition, the listing in a search 
established in a Member State 
engine should not be considered 
in respect of online uses by 
as fair and proportionate 
information society service 
remuneration. 
providers within the meaning of 
Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the 
European Parliament and of 
the Council.12 The legal 
protection for press 
publications provided for by 
this directive should only 
benefit publishers established 
in a Member State in the 
meaning of the Treaty of the 
functioning of the European 

                                                 
12 
Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 laying down a procedure for the provision of 
information in the field of technical regulations and of rules on Information Society services (OJ L 241, 17.9.2015, p. 1–15). 

 
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Union, i.e. when they have their 
registered office, central 
administration or principal 
place of business within the 
Union

70. 
(33)  For the purposes of this 
(33)  For the purposes of this 
(33)  For the purposes of this 
 
Directive, it is necessary to define  Directive, it is necessary to define  Directive, it is necessary to define 
the concept of press publication in  the concept of press publication in  the concept of press publication 
a way that embraces only 
a way that embraces only 
in a way that embraces only 
journalistic publications, 
journalistic publications, 
journalistic publications, 
published by a service provider, 
published by a service provider, 
published by a service provider, 
periodically or regularly updated 
periodically or regularly updated 
periodically or regularly updated 
in any media, for the purpose of 
in any media, for the purpose of 
in any media, for the purpose of 
informing or entertaining. Such 
informing or entertaining. Such 
informing or entertaining.in any 
publications would include, for 
publications would include, for 
media, including on paper, in 
instance, daily newspapers, 
instance, daily newspapers, 
the context of an economic 
weekly or monthly magazines of 
weekly or monthly magazines of 
activity which constitutes a 
general or special interest and 
general or special interest and 
provision of services under 
news websites. Periodical 
news websites. Periodical 
Union law. The press 
publications which are published 
publications which are published 
publications to be covered are 
for scientific or academic 
for scientific or academic 
those whose purpose is to 
purposes, such as scientific 
purposes, such as scientific 
inform the general public and 
journals, should not be covered 
journals, should not be covered 
which are periodically or 
by the protection granted to press  by the protection granted to press  regularly updated. Such 
publications under this Directive.  publications under this Directive. 
publications would include, for 
This protection does not extend to  This protection does not extend to  instance, daily newspapers, 
acts of hyperlinking which do not  acts of hyperlinking which do not  weekly or monthly magazines of 
 
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constitute communication to the 
constitute communication to the 
general or special interest and 
public. 
public. The protection shall also 
news websites. Press 
not extend to factual information  publications contain mostly 
which is reported in journalistic 

literary works but increasingly 
articles from a press publication 
include other types of works 
and will therefore not prevent 
and subject-matter, notably 
anyone from reporting such 
photographs and videos. 
factual information. 
Periodical publications wich are 
published for scientific or 
academic purposes, such as 
scientific journals, should not be 
covered by the protection granted 
to press publications under this 
Directive. This protection does 
not extend to acts of hyperlinking 
which do not constitute 
communication to the public. 
71. 
(34)  The rights granted to the 
(34)  The rights granted to the 
(34)  The rights granted to the 
 
publishers of press publications 
publishers of press publications 
publishers of press publications 
under this Directive should have 
under this Directive should have 
under this Directive should have 
the same scope as the rights of 
the same scope as the rights of 
the same scope as the rights of 
reproduction and making 
reproduction and making 
reproduction and making 
available to the public provided 
available to the public provided 
available to the public provided 
for in Directive 2001/29/EC, 
for in Directive 2001/29/EC, 
for in Directive 2001/29/EC, 
insofar as digital uses are 
insofar as digital uses are 
insofar as digitalonline uses are 
concerned. They should also be 
concerned. They Member States 
concerned.by information 
subject to the same provisions on  should also be able to subject 
society service providers are 
 
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exceptions and limitations as 
those rights to the same 
concerned. They should not 
those applicable to the rights 
provisions on exceptions and 
extend to acts of hyperlinking 
provided for in Directive 
limitations as those applicable to 
when they do not constitute 
2001/29/EC including the 
the rights provided for in 
communication to the public. 
exception on quotation for 
Directive 2001/29/EC including 
They should also be subject to the 
purposes such as criticism or 
the exception on quotation for 
same provisions on exceptions 
review laid down in Article 
purposes such as criticism or 
and limitations as those 
5(3)(d) of that Directive. 
review laid down in Article 
applicable to the rights provided 
5(3)(d) of that Directive. 
for in Directive 2001/29/EC, 
including the exception on 
quotation for purposes such as 
criticism or review laid down in 
Article 5(3)(d) of that Directive. 
72. 
 
 
(34a) Uses of press publications   
by information society service 
providers can consist of the use 
of entire publications or articles 
but also of parts of press 
publications. Such uses of parts 
of press publications have also 
gained economic relevance. At 
the same time, where such parts 
are insubstantial, the use 
thereof by information society 
service providers may not 
undermine the investments 
made by publishers of press 

 
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publications in the production 
of content. Furthermore, 
insubstantial parts of press 
publications are not usually the 
expression of the intellectual 
creation of their authors, in 
accordance with the case law of 
the Court of Justice of the 
European Union. Therefore, it 
is appropriate to provide that 
the use of insubstantial parts of 
press publications should not 
fall within the scope of the 
rights provided for in this 
Directive. To determine the 
insubstantial nature of parts of 
press publications for the 
purposes of this Directive, 
Member States may take into 
account whether these parts are 
the expression of the 
intellectual creation of their 
authors or whether these parts 
are limited to individual words 
or very short excerpts, without 
independent economic 
significance, or both criteria. 

 
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73. 
(35)  The protection granted to 
(35)  The protection granted to 
(35)  The protection granted to 
 
publishers of press publications 
publishers of press publications 
publishers of press publications 
under this Directive should not 
under this Directive should not 
under this Directive should not 
affect the rights of the authors and  affect the rights of the authors and  affect the rights of the authors 
other rightholders in the works 
other rightholders in the works 
and other rightholders in the 
and other subject-matter 
and other subject-matter 
works and other subject-matter 
incorporated therein, including as  incorporated therein, including as  incorporated therein, including as 
regards the extent to which 
regards the extent to which 
regards the extent to which 
authors and other rightholders can  authors and other rightholders can  authors and other rightholders can 
exploit their works or other 
exploit their works or other 
exploit their works or other 
subject-matter independently 
subject-matter independently 
subject-matter independently 
from the press publication in 
from the press publication in 
from the press publication in 
which they are incorporated. 
which they are incorporated. 
which they are incorporated. 
Therefore, publishers of press 
Therefore, publishers of press 
Therefore, publishers of press 
publications should not be able to  publications should not be able to  publications should not be able to 
invoke the protection granted to 
invoke the protection granted to 
invoke the protection granted to 
them against authors and other 
them against authors and other 
them against authors and other 
rightholders. This is without 
rightholders. This is without 
rightholders. or against other 
prejudice to contractual 
prejudice to contractual 
authorised users of the same 
arrangements concluded between  arrangements concluded between 
works and other subject-
the publishers of press 
the publishers of press 
matter. This is without prejudice 
publications, on the one side, and  publications, on the one side, and 
to contractual arrangements 
authors and other rightholders, on  authors and other rightholders, on  concluded between the publishers 
the other side. 
the other side. Notwithstanding 
of press publications, on the one 
the fact that authors of the works  side, and authors and other 
incorporated in a press 
rightholders, on the other side. 
publication receive an 
appropriate reward for the use of 

 
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their works on the basis of the 
terms for licensing of their work 
to the press publisher, authors 
whose work is incorporated in a 
press publication should be 
entitled to an appropriate share 
of the new additional revenues 
press publishers receive for 
certain types of secondary use of 
their press publications by 
information society service 
providers in respect of the rights 
provided for in Article 11(1) of 
this Directive. The amount of the 
compensation attributed to the 
authors should take into account 
the specific industry licensing 
standards regarding works 
incorporated in a press 
publication which are accepted 
as appropriate in the respective 
Member State; and the 
compensation attributed to 
authors should not affect the 
licensing terms agreed between 
the author and the press 
publisher for the use of the 
author’s article by the press 

 
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publisher. 
74. 
(36)  Publishers, including those 
(36)  Publishers, including those 
(36)  Publishers, including those 
 
of press publications, books or 
of press publications, books or 
of press publications, books or 
scientific publications, often 
scientific publications, often and 
scientific publications, often 
operate on the basis of the 
music publications, operate on 
operate on the basis of the 
transfer of authors' rights by 
the basis of the transfer of 
transfer of authors' rights by 
means of contractual agreements.  authors' rights by means of 
means of contractual agreements 
In this context, publishers make 
contractual agreements with 
or statutory provisions. In this 
an investment with a view to the 
authors. In this context, 
context, publishers make an 
exploitation of the works 
publishers make an investment 
investment with a view to the 
contained in their publications 
and acquire rights, in some fields  exploitation of the works 
and may in some instances be 
including rights to claim a share  contained in their publications 
deprived of revenues where such 
of compensation within joint 
and may in some instances be 
works are used under exceptions 
collective management 
deprived of revenues where such 
or limitations such as the ones for  organisations of authors and 
works are used under exceptions 
private copying and reprography.  publishers, with a view to the 
or limitations, such as the ones for 
In a number of Member States 
exploitation of the works  
private copying and reprography.
compensation for uses under 
contained in their publications 
including the corresponding 
those exceptions is shared 
and may in some instances be 
existing national schemes for 
between authors and publishers. 
therefore also find themselves 
reprography in the Member 
In order to take account of this 
being deprived of revenues where  States, or under public lending 
situation and improve legal 
such works are used under 
schemes. In a number of Member 
certainty for all concerned parties,  exceptions or limitations such as 
States the compensation or 
Member States should be allowed  the ones for private copying and 
remuneration for such uses 
to determine that, when an author  reprography. In a large number of  under those exceptions is shared 
has transferred or licensed his 
Member States compensation for 
between authors and publishers. 
rights to a publisher or otherwise 
uses under those exceptions is 
In order to take account of this 
 
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contributes with his works to a 
shared between authors and 
situation and improve legal 
publication and there are systems  publishers. In order to take 
certainty for all concerned parties, 
in place to compensate for the 
account of this situation and to 
Member States should be allowed 
harm caused by an exception or 
improve legal certainty for all 
but not obliged to determine that, 
limitation, publishers are entitled 
concerned parties, Member States  when an author has transferred or 
to claim a share of such 
should be allowed to determine 
licensed his rights to a publisher 
compensation, whereas the 
that, when an author has 
or a collective management 
burden on the publisher to 
transferred or licensed his rights 
organisation that jointly 
substantiate his claim should not 
to a publisher or otherwise 
represents authors and 
exceed what is required under the  contributes with his works to a 
publishers or otherwise 
system in place. 
publication and there are systems  contributes with his works to a 
in place to compensate for the 
publication and there are systems 
harm caused by an exception or 
in place to compensate for the 
limitation, publishers are entitled 
harm caused by an exception or 
to claim a share of such 
limitation, publishers are entitled 
compensation, whereas the 
to claim a share of such 
burden on the publisher to 
compensation, whereas. The 
substantiate his claim should not 
same possibility should exist for 
exceed what is required under the  remuneration for public 
system in place. provide an 
lending, while Member States 
equivalent compensation-
should remain free to decide not 
sharing system if such a system 
to provide publishers with such 
was in operation in that Member  remuneration. Member States 
State before 12 November 2015. 

should remain free to determine 
The share between authors and 
the burden on the publisher to 
publishers of such compensation  substantiate his claim should not 
could be set in the internal 
exceed what is required underfor 
distribution rules of the 
the systemcompensation or 
 
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collective management 
remuneration and to lay down 
organisation acting jointly on 
the conditions as to the sharing 
behalf of authors and publishers,  of this compensation or 
or set by Members States in law 

remuneration between authors 
or regulation, in accordance 
and publishers in 
with the equivalent system that 
placeaccordance with their 
was in operation in that Member  national systems
State before 12 November 2015. 
This provision is without 
prejudice to the arrangements in 
the Member States concerning 
public lending rights, the 
management of rights not based 
on exceptions or limitations to 
copyright, such as extended 
collective licensing schemes, or 
concerning remuneration rights 
on the basis of national law.
 
75. 
 
(36 a)   Cultural and creative 
 
 
industries (CCIs) play a key role 
in reindustrialising Europe, are 
a driver for growth and are in a 
strategic position to trigger 
innovative spill-overs in other 
industrial sectors. Furthermore 
CCIs are a driving force for 
innovation and development of 

 
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ICT in Europe. Cultural and 
creative industries in Europe 
provide more than 12 million 
full-time jobs, which amounts to 
7,5 % of the Union's work force, 
creating approximately EUR 509 
billion in value added to GDP 
(5,3 % of the EU's total GVA). 
The protection of copyright and 
related rights are at the core of 
the CCI's revenue. 

76. 
(37)  Over the last years, the 
(37)  Over the last years, the 
(37)  Over the last years, the 
 
functioning of the online content 
functioning of the online content 
functioning of the online content 
marketplace has gained in 
marketplace market has gained in  marketplace has gained in 
complexity. Online services 
complexity. Online services 
complexity. Online content 
providing access to copyright 
providing access to copyright 
sharing services providing access 
protected content uploaded by 
protected content uploaded by 
to a large amount of copyright -
their users without the 
their users without the 
protected content uploaded by 
involvement of right holders have  involvement of right holders have  their users without the 
flourished and have become main  flourished and have become main  involvement of right holders have 
sources of access to content 
sources of access to copyright 
flourisheddeveloped and have 
online. This affects rightholders' 
protected content online. Online 
become main sources of access to 
possibilities to determine 
services are means of providing 
content online. ThisLegal 
whether, and under which 
wider access to cultural and 
uncertainty exists as to whether 
conditions, their work and other 
creative works and offer great 
such services engage in 
subject-matter are used as well as  opportunities for cultural and 
copyright relevant acts and 
their possibilities to get an 
creative industries to develop 
need to obtain authorisations 
 
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appropriate remuneration for it. 
new business models. However, 
from rightholders for the 
although they allow for diversity  content uploaded by their users 
and ease of access to content, 

who do not hold the relevant 
they also generate challenges 
rights in the uploaded content, 
when copyright protected content  without prejudice to the 
is uploaded without prior 

application of exceptions and 
authorisation from rightholders.  limitations provided for in 
This affects rightholders' 
Union Law. This situation 
possibilities to determine 
affects rightholders' possibilities 
whether, and under which 
to determine whether, and under 
conditions, their work and other 
which conditions, their work and 
subject-matter are used as well as  other subject-matter are content 
their possibilities to get an 
is used as well as their 
appropriate remuneration for it, 
possibilities to get an appropriate 
since some user uploaded 
remuneration for it. It is 
content services do not enter into  therefore important to foster 
licensing agreements on the 

the development of the licensing 
basis that they claim to be 
market between rightholders 
covered by the “safe-harbour” 
and online content sharing 
exemption set out in Directive 
service providers. These 
2000/31/EC. 
licensing agreements should be 
fair and keep a reasonable 
balance for both parties. 
Rightholders should receive an 
appropriate reward for the use 
of their works or other subject 
matter.
  
 
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77. 
 
(37a)   Certain information 
(37a) The definition of an online   
society services, as part of their 
content sharing service 
normal use, are designed to give 
provider under this Directive 
access to the public to copyright 
targets only online services 
protected content or other 
which play an important role 
subject-matter uploaded by their 
on the online content market by 
users. The definition of an 
competing with other online 
online content sharing service 
content services, such as online 
provider under this Directive 
audio and video streaming 
shall cover information society 
services, for the same 
service providers one of the main  audiences. The services covered 
purposes of which is to store and  
by this intervention are those 
give access to the public or to 

the main or one of the main 
stream significant amounts of 
purposes of which is to provide 
copyright protected content 
access to a large amount of 
uploaded / made available by its 
copyright-protected content 
users, and that optimise content, 
uploaded by their users with 
and promote for profit making 
the purpose of obtaining profit 
purposes, including amongst 
therefrom, either directly or 
others displaying, tagging, 
indirectly, by organising it and 
curating, sequencing, the 
promoting it in order to attract 
uploaded works or other subject-
more audiences. Organising 
matter, irrespective of the means  and promoting content involves 
used therefor, and therefore act 

for example indexing the 
in an active way. As a 
content, presenting it in a 
consequence, they cannot benefit  certain manner and 
from the liability exemption 

categorising it, as well as using 
provided for in Article 14 of 
targeted promotion on it. The 
 
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Directive 2000/31/EC. The 
definition does not include 
definition of online content 
services whose main purpose is 
sharing service providers under 
not to provide access to 
this Directive does not cover 
copyright protected content 
microenterprises and small sized  with the purpose of obtaining 
enterprises within the meaning 

profit from this activity. These 
of Title I of the Annex to 
include, for instance, electronic 
Commission Recommendation 
communication services within 
2003/361/EC and service 
the meaning of Regulation 
providers that act in a non-
2015/2120/EU, including 
commercial purpose capacity 
internet access providers, as 
such as online encyclopaedia, 
well as providers of cloud 
and providers of online services 
services which allow users, to 
where the content is uploaded 
upload content for their own 
with the authorisation of all 
use, such as cyberlockers, or 
right holders concerned, such as  online marketplaces whose 
educational or scientific 

main activity is online retail 
repositories. Providers of cloud 
and not giving access to 
services for individual use which  copyright protected content. 
do not provide direct access to 

Nor does this definition cover 
the public, open source software 
websites which store and 
developing platforms, and online  provide access to content for 
market places whose main 

non-for-profit purposes, such as 
activity is online retail of 
online encyclopaedias, scientific 
physical goods, should not be 
or educational repositories or 
considered online content 
open source software 
sharing service providers within 
developing platforms which do 
the meaning of this Directive. 
not store and give access to 
 
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content for profit making 
purposes. In order to ensure the 
high level of copyright 
protection and to avoid the 
possible application of the 
liability exemption mechanism 
provided for in this Directive, 
this Directive should not apply 
to services the main purpose of 
which is to engage in or to 
facilitate copyright piracy. 

78. 
 
 
(37b) The assessment of 
 
whether an online content 
sharing service provider stores 
and gives access to a large 
amount of copyright-protected 
content needs to be made on a 
case-by-case basis and take 
account of a combination of 
elements, such as the audience 
of the service and the number 
of files of copyright-protected 
content uploaded by the users 
of the services. 

79. 
(38)  Where information society 
(38) Where information 
(38)  This Directive clarifies 
 
service providers store and 
society Online content sharing 
under which conditions the 
 
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provide access to the public to 
service providers store and 
Where information 
copyright protected works or 
provide access to the public to 
society  online content sharing 
other subject-matter uploaded by 
copyright protected works or 
service providers store and 
their users, thereby going beyond  other subject-matter uploaded by 
provide access  to copyright 
the mere provision of physical 
their users, thereby going beyond 
protected works or other subject-
facilities and performing an act of  the mere provision of physical 
matter uploaded by their users, 
communication to the public, they  facilities and performing perform  thereby going beyond the mere 
are obliged to conclude licensing 
an act of communication to the 
provision of physical facilities 
agreements with rightholders, 
public, they are obliged to and 
and performing are  engaging in 
unless they are eligible for the 
therefore are responsible for 
an act of communication to the 
liability exemption provided in 
their content and should 
public or making available to 
Article 14 of Directive 
therefore conclude fair and 
the public within the meaning 
2000/31/EC of the European 
appropriate licensing agreements  of Article 3(1) and (2) of 
Parliament and of the Council13
with rightholders, unless they are 
Directive 2001/29/EC they are 
eligible for. Where licensing 
obliged to conclude licensing 
agreements are concluded, they 
agreements with rightholders, 
should also cover, to the same 
unless they are eligible for the 
extent and scope, the liability 
liability exemption provided in 
exemption provided in  of users 
Article 14 of Directive 
when they are acting in a non-
2000/31/EC of the European 
commercial capacity. In 
Parliament and of the Council. It 
accordance with Article 14 of 
does not change the concept of 
Directive 2000/31/EC of the 
communication to the public or 
European Parliament and of the 
of making available to the 
Council 11(2a) the responsibility  public under Union law nor 
                                                 
13 
Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular 
electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (OJ L 178, 17.7.2000, p. 1–16). 
 
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of online content sharing 
does it affect the possible 
providers pursuant to Article 13 
application of Article 3(1) and 
does not extend to acts of 
(2) of Directive 2001/29/EC to 
hyperlinking in respect of press 
other services using copyright-
publications. The dialogue 
protected content. 
between stakeholders is essential 
in the digital world. They should 
define best practices to ensure 
the functioning of licensing 
agreements and cooperation 
between online content
 sharing 
service providers and
 
rightholders. Those best 
practices should take into 
account the extent of the
 
copyright infringing content on 
the service.
 
80. 
In respect of Article 14, it is 
Deleted 
Deleted, partly moved to 
 
necessary to verify whether the 
recital (37a) Council's text  – see 
service provider plays an active 
row 77 
role, including by optimising the 
presentation of the uploaded 
works or subject-matter or 
promoting them, irrespective of 
the nature of the means used 
therefor. 
 
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81. 
In order to ensure the functioning  Deleted 
Deleted, partly moved to 
 
of any licensing agreement, 
recital (38c) Council's text – see 
information society service 
row 84 
providers storing and providing 
access to the public to large 
amounts of copyright protected 
works or other subject-matter 
uploaded by their users should 
take appropriate and 
proportionate measures to ensure 
protection of works or other 
subject-matter, such as 
implementing effective 
technologies. This obligation 
should also apply when the 
information society service 
providers are eligible for the 
liability exemption provided in 
Article 14 of Directive 
2000/31/EC. 
82. 
 
 
(38a) [Renumbered - in ST 
 
9134/18 recital 38(b)] 
When online content sharing 
service providers communicate 
to the public, they should not 
benefit from the limited liability 

 
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provided for in Article 14 of 
Directive 2000/31/EC for the 
purposes of copyright relevant 
acts. This should not affect the 
possibility for the same online 
content sharing providers to 
benefit from such exemption of 
liability for other purposes than 
copyright when they are 
providing their services and 
host content at the request of 
their users in accordance with 
Article 14 of Directive 
2000/31/EC.  

83. 
 
 
(38b) [Renumbered - in ST 
 
9134/18 recital (38c)] 
 Taking into account the fact 
that online content sharing 
service providers give access to 
content which is not uploaded 
by them but by their users, it is 
appropriate to provide that, for 
cases where no authorisation 
has been obtained by the 
services and, for the purpose of 
this Directive, they should not 

 
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be liable for unauthorised acts 
in specific, well-defined 
circumstances, when they 
demonstrate that they have 
acted in a diligent manner with 
the objective to prevent such 
unauthorised acts, without 
prejudice to remedies under 
national law for cases other 
than liability for copyright 
infringements and to the 
possibility for national courts 
or administrative authorities of 
issuing injunctions. In 
particular, they should not be 
liable if some unauthorised 
content is available on their 
services despite their best 
efforts to prevent its availability 
by applying effective and 
proportionate measures based 
on the information provided by 
rightholders. In addition, for 
the online content sharing 
service providers not to be 
liable, they should also in any 
case, upon notification by 
rightholders of specific 

 
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unauthorised works or other 
subject-matter, act 
expeditiously to remove or 
disable access to these and 
make their best efforts to 
prevent their future 
availability. 

84. 
 
 
 
 
(38c) [Renumbered - in ST 
9134/18 recital (38ca)]
  
Appropriate collaboration 
carried out in good faith 
between online content sharing 
service providers and 
rightholders is essential for the 
effective application of the 
measures by the online content 
sharing service providers. 
These service providers should 
be transparent towards 
rightholders with regard to the 
deployed measures. As different 
measures may be used by the 
online content sharing service 
providers, they should provide 
rightholders with appropriate 

 
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information on the type of 
measures used and the way 
they operate, including for 
example information on the 
success rate of the measures. 
Such information should be 
sufficiently specific to provide 
enough transparency for 
rightholders and allow 
cooperation to ensure effective 
functioning of the measures, 
without prejudice to the 
business secrets of service 
providers. Service providers 
should however not be required 
to provide rightholders with 
detailed and individualised 
information for each work and 
other subject matter identified. 
This is without prejudice to 
contractual arrangements, 
which may contain more 
specific provisions on the 
information to be provided 
where agreements are 
concluded between service 
providers and rightholders. On 
the other hand, rightholders 

 
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should provide the service 
providers with necessary and 
relevant data for the 
application of the measures to 
their specific unauthorised 
works or other subject matter 
taking also into account the size 
of  rightholders and the type of 
their works and other subject 
matter. As long as no data for 
the application of the measures 
or no notification concerning 
removal or disabling access to 
specific unauthorised works or 
other subject matter has been 
provided by rightholders and, 
as a result, online content 
sharing service providers 
cannot take the measures or 
expeditious action as set out in 
this Directive, these service 
providers should not be liable 
for unauthorised acts of 
communication to the public or 
of making available to the 
public. 

85. 
 
 
(38d) Where online content 
 
 
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sharing service providers 
obtain authorisations, including 
via licensing agreements, for 
the use on the service of content 
uploaded by the users of the 
services, these authorisations 
should also cover the copyright 
relevant acts in respect of 
uploads by the users but only in 
cases where the users act in 
their private capacity and for 
non-commercial purposes, such 
as sharing their content without 
any profit making purpose. 

(38e) The measures taken by 
the online content sharing 
service providers to prevent the 
availability of unauthorised 
works or other subject-matter 
should be effective but remain 
proportionate, in particular 
with regard to the size of the 
online content sharing service 
provider. While this Directive is 
expected to foster the 
development of effective 
technologies on the market, the 

 
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availability of the measures 
may differ according to the 
type of content for which the 
measures are applied. Having 
regard to the technological 
developments in line with 
industry best practices, those 
measures should consequently 
ensure a level of efficiency 
appropriate to the amount and 
the type of works or other 
subject matter uploaded by the 
users of the services. For the 
purposes of assessing the 
proportionality of measures to 
be taken by the online content 
sharing service providers, the 
state of the art of existing 
technologies for the different 
types of content as well as the 
size of the services should be 
taken into account notably 
whether they are small and 
micro enterprises. Different 
measures may be appropriate 
and proportionate per type of 
content and it is therefore not 
excluded that in some cases 

 
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unauthorised content may only 
be avoided upon notification of 
rightholders. The measures 
should be proportionate in 
order to avoid imposing 
disproportionately complicated 
or costly obligations on certain 
online content sharing service 
providers, taking into account 
notably their small size. In 
particular, small and micro 
enterprises as defined in Title I 
of the Annex to Commission 
Recommendation 2003/361/EC, 
should be expected to be 
subject to less burdensome 
obligations than larger service 
providers. Therefore, taking 
into account the state of the art 
and the availability of 
technologies and their costs, in 
specific cases it may not be 
proportionate to expect small 
and micro enterprises to apply 
preventive measures and that 
therefore in such cases these 
enterprises should only be 
expected to expeditiously 

 
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remove specific unauthorised 
works and other subject matter 
upon notification by 
rightholders. 

 
86. 
(39)  Collaboration between 
(39)  Collaboration between 
 (39)  Moved up to 
 
information society service 
information society Member 
recital (38c)[which was 
providers storing and providing 
States should provide that where 
recital (38ca) in ST 
access to the public to large 
right holders do not wish to 
9134/18] 
amounts of copyright protected 
conclude licensing agreements, 
works or other subject-matter 
online content sharing service 
 
uploaded by their users and 
providers storing and providing 
rightholders is essential for the 
access to the public to large 
functioning of technologies, such  amounts of copyright and right 
as content recognition 
holders should cooperate in good 
technologies. In such cases, 
faith in order to ensure that 
rightholders should provide the 
unauthorised protected works or 
necessary data to allow the 
other subject matter uploaded by
services to identify their content 
are not available on their users 
and the services should be 
and rightholders is essential for 
transparent towards rightholders 
the functioning of technologies, 
with regard to the deployed 
such as content recognition 
technologies, to allow the 
technologies. In such cases, 
assessment of their 
rightholders should provide the 
appropriateness. The services 
necessary data to allow the 
should in particular provide 
services. Cooperation between 
 
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rightholders with information on 
online to identify their content 
the type of technologies used, the  and the services should be 
way they are operated and their 
transparent towards rightholders 
success rate for the recognition of  with regard to the deployed 
rightholders' content. Those 
technologies, to allow the 
technologies should also allow 
assessment of their 
rightholders to get information 
appropriateness. The services 
from the information society 
should in particular provide 
service providers on the use of 
rightholders with information on 
their content covered by an 
the type of technologies used, the 
agreement. 
way they are operated and their 
success rate for the recognition of 
rightholders' content. Those 
technologies should also allow 
rightholders to get information 
from the information society 
service providers on the use of 
their content and right holders 
should not lead to preventing the 
availability of non-infringing 
works or other protected subject 
matter, including those
 covered 
by an agreement exception or 
limitation to copyright

 
87. 
 
(39a)   Members States should 
(39a) [Renumbered - in ST 
 
 
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ensure that online content 
9134/18 recital (39b)] 
sharing service providers 
referred to in paragraph 1 put in  
The measures taken by the 
place effective and expeditious 

online content sharing service 
complaints and redress 
providers should be without 
mechanisms that are available to  prejudice to the application of 
users in case the cooperation 

exceptions and limitations to 
referred to in paragraph 2a leads  copyright, including in 
to unjustified removals of their 

particular those which 
content. Any complaint filed 
guarantee the freedom of 
under such mechanisms should 
expression of users. For that 
be processed without undue 
purpose the service providers 
delay. Right holders should 
should put in place mechanisms 
reasonably justify their decisions  allowing users to complain 
to avoid arbitrary dismissal of 

about the blocking or removal 
complaints. Moreover, in 
of uploaded content that could 
accordance with Directive 
benefit from an exception or 
95/46/EC, Directive 2002/58/EC 
limitation to copyright. Replies 
and the General Data Protection  to the users’ complaints should 
Regulation, the cooperation 

be provided in a timely manner. 
should not lead to any 
To make these mechanisms 
identification of individual users  function, cooperation from 
nor the processing of their 

rightholders is needed, in 
personal data. Member States 
particular with regard to the 
should also ensure that users 
assessment of the complaints 
have access to an independent 
submitted and justifications for 
body for the resolution of 
the removal of users’ content. 
disputes as well as to a court or 
Member States should remain 
 
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another relevant judicial 
free to put in place independent 
authority to assert the use of an 
authorities for assessing the 
exception or limitation to 
complaints submitted by users 
copyright rules. 
and making decisions on their 
validity. The redress 
mechanism should be without 
prejudice to the right of the 
parties to take action before a 
court. 

88. 
 
(39b)   As soon as possible after 
(39b) [Renumbered - in ST 
 
the entry into force of this 
9134/18 recital (39c)]  
Directive, the Commission and 
the Member States should 

In order to foster best practices 
organise dialogues between 
with regard to the measures to 
stakeholders to harmonise and to  be taken by online content 
define best practices. They 

sharing service providers to 
should issue guidance to ensure 
avoid liability for unauthorised 
the functioning of licensing 
copyright acts, stakeholder 
agreements and on cooperation 
dialogues should be encouraged 
between online content sharing 
by the Member States and the 
service providers and right 
Commission. In order to give 
holders for the use of their works  more clarity to the parties some 
or other subject matter within 

guidance should also be 
the meaning of this Directive. 
provided by the Commission on 
When defining best practices, 
the implementation of the 
special account should be taken 
measures including as to which 
of fundamental rights, the use of  measures could be considered 
 
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exceptions and limitations. 
to be proportionate for 
Special focus should also be 
different types of content. For 
given to ensuring that the 
the purposes of the guidance 
burden on SMEs remains 
the Commission should consult 
appropriate and that automated 
relevant stakeholders, including 
blocking of content is avoided. 
user organisations and 
technology providers, and take 
into account the developments 
on the market. 

89. 
 
(39c)   Member States should 
 
 
ensure that an intermediate 
mechanism exists enabling 
service providers and 
rightholders to find an amicable 
solution to any dispute arising 
from the terms of their 
cooperation agreements. To that 
end, Member States should 
appoint an impartial body with 
all the relevant competence and 
experience necessary to assist the 
parties in the resolution of their 
dispute. 

90. 
 
(39d)   As a principle, 
 
 
rightholders should always 
receive fair and appropriate 

 
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remuneration. Authors and 
performers who have concluded 
contracts with intermediaries, 
such as labels and producers, 
should receive fair and 
appropriate remuneration from 
them, either through individual 
agreements and/ or collective 
bargaining agreements, 
collective management 
agreements or rules having a 
similar effect, for example joint 
remuneration rules. This 
remuneration should be 
mentioned explicitly in the 
contracts according to each 
mode of exploitation, including 
online exploitation. Members 
States should look into the 
specificities of each sector and 
should be allowed to provide that 
remuneration is deemed fair and 
appropriate if it is determined in 
accordance with the collective 
bargaining or joint 
remuneration agreement. 

91. 
(40)  Certain rightholders such as  (40)  Certain rightholders such as  (40)  Certain rightholders such as  (40)  Certain rightholders such as 
 
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authors and performers need 
authors and performers need 
authors Authors and performers 
authors Authors and performers 
information to assess the 
information to assess the 
need information to assess the 
need information to assess the 
economic value of their rights 
economic value of their rights 
economic value of their rights 
economic value of their rights 
which are harmonised under 
which are harmonised under 
which are harmonised under 
which are harmonised under 
Union law. This is especially the 
Union law. This is especially the 
Union law. This is especially the 
Union law. This is especially the 
case where such rightholders 
case where such rightholders 
case where such rightholders 
case where such rightholders 
grant a licence or a transfer of 
grant a licence or a transfer of 
natural persons grant a licence 
natural persons grant a licence 
rights in return for remuneration. 
rights in return for remuneration. 
or a transfer of rights for the 
or a transfer of rights for the 
As authors and performers tend to  As authors and performers tend to  purposes of exploitation in 
purposes of exploitation in 
be in a weaker contractual 
be in a weaker contractual 
return for remuneration. This 
return for remuneration. This 
position when they grant licences  position when they grant licences  need does not arise when the 
need does not arise when the 
or transfer their rights, they need 
or transfer their rights, they need 
contractual counterpart acts as  contractual counterpart acts as 
information to assess the 
information to assess the 
end user of the work and does 
end of the work and does not 
continued economic value of their  continued economic value of their  not exploit the work or 
exploit the work or 
rights, compared to the 
rights, compared to the 
performance itself, which could  performance itself, which could 
remuneration received for their 
remuneration received for their 
among others be the case in 
among others be the case in 
licence or transfer, but they often 
licence or transfer, but they often 
some employment contracts. 
some employment contracts. 
face a lack of transparency. 
face a lack of transparency. 
Additionally, this need does not  Additionally, this need does not 
Therefore, the sharing of adequate  Therefore, the sharing of adequate  arise when the exploitation has 
arise when the exploitation has 
information by their contractual 
comprehensive and relevant 
ceased, or when the author or 
ceased, or when the author or 
counterparts or their successors in  information by their contractual 
performer has granted licence 
performer has granted licence 
title is important for the 
counterparts or their successors in  to the general public without 
to the general public without 
transparency and balance in the 
title is important for the 
remuneration. 
remuneration. 
system that governs the 
transparency and balance in the 
remuneration of authors and 
system that governs the 
[Last two phrases of recital (40) 
 
performers. 
remuneration of authors and 
of the COM proposal were moved 
performers. The information that  to new recital (40a) of Council's 
[to be discussed further] 
authors and performers are 
text - see following row 92] 
 
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entitled to expect should be 
proportionate and cover all 
modes of exploitation, direct and 
indirect revenue generated, 
including revenues from 
merchandising, and the 
remuneration due. The 
information on the exploitation 
should also include information 
about the identity of any sub-
licensee or sub-transferee. The 
transparency obligation should 
nevertheless apply only where 
copyright relevant rights are 
concerned. 

[See Council’s recital (40a) -row 
92]
 
92. 
 
 
(40a) As authors and performers 
(40a) As authors and performers 
tend to be in a weaker contractual  tend to be in a weaker contractual 
position when they grant licences  position when they grant licences 
or transfer their rights, they need 
or transfer their rights, they need 
information to assess the 
information to assess the 
continued economic value of their  continued economic value of their 
rights, compared to the 
rights, compared to the 
remuneration received for their 
remuneration received for their 
licence or transfer, but they often  licence or transfer, but they often 
 
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face a lack of transparency. 
face a lack of transparency. 
Therefore, the sharing of 
Therefore, the sharing of 
adequate information by their 
adequate and accurate 
contractual counterparts or their 
information by their contractual 
successors in title is important for  counterparts or their successors in 
the transparency and balance in 
title is important for the 
the system that governs the 
transparency and balance in the 
remuneration of authors and 
system that governs the 
performers. The information 
remuneration of authors and 
should be: timely to allow 
performers. The information 
access to recent data; adequate 
should be: timely up-to-date to 
to include information relevant  allow access to recent data; 
to the exploitation of the work 

adequate to include information 
or performance in a manner 
relevant to the exploitation of 
that is comprehensible to the 
the work or performance in a 
author or performer; and 
manner that is comprehensible 
sufficient to assess the economic  to the author or performer; and 
value of the rights in question. 

comprehensive to cover all 
As long as exploitation is 
sources of revenues relevant to 
ongoing, contractual 
the case, including, where 
counterparts of authors and 
applicable,  merchandising 
performers should provide 
revenues sufficient to assess the 
information available to them 
economic value of the rights in 
on all modes of exploitation and  question. As long as 
on all relevant revenues with a 

exploitation is ongoing, 
regularity which is appropriate  contractual counterparts of 
in the relevant sector, but at 

authors and performers should 
least annually. The processing 
provide information available 
 
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of personal data, such as 
to them on all modes of 
contact details and information  exploitation and on all relevant 
on remuneration, that are 

revenues worldwide with a 
necessary to keep authors and 
regularity which is appropriate 
performers informed on the 
in the relevant sector, but at 
exploitation of their works and 
least annually. The information 
performances should be carried  should be provided in a manner 
out by those who need to 
that is comprehensible to the 
comply with the transparency 
author or performer and it 
obligation on the basis of 
should allow the effective 
Article 6(1)(c) of Regulation 
assessment of the economic 
(EU) 2016/679 on the protection  value of the rights in question. 
of natural persons with regard 

The transparency obligation 
to the processing of personal 
should nevertheless apply only 
data and the free movement of 
where copyright relevant rights 
such data (General Data 
are concerned. The processing 
Protection Regulation). 
of personal data, such as 
contact details and information 
on remuneration, that are 
necessary to keep authors and 
performers informed on the 
exploitation of their works and 
performances should be carried 
out by those who need to 
comply with the transparency 
obligation on the basis of 
Article 6(1)(c) of Regulation 
(EU) 2016/679 on the protection 

 
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of natural persons with regard 
to the processing of personal 
data and the free movement of 
such data (General Data 
Protection Regulation). 

 
[to be discussed further] 
93. 
 
 
(40b) In order to ensure that 
(40b) In order to ensure that 
exploitation-related 
exploitation-related 
information is duly provided to  information is duly provided to 
authors and performers also in 

authors and performers also in 
cases where the rights have 
cases where the rights have 
been sublicensed by the first 
been sublicensed by the first 
contractor to other parties who  contractor to other parties who 
exploit the rights, this Directive  exploit the rights, this Directive 
entitles authors and 

entitles authors and 
performers, in cases where the 
performers, in cases where the 
contractual partner has 
first contractual counterpart 
provided the information 
partner has provided the 
available to them, but the 
information available to them, 
received information is not 
but the received information is 
sufficient to assess the economic  not sufficient to assess the 
value of their rights, to request 

economic value of their rights, 
additional relevant information  to request additional relevant 
on the exploitation of the rights.  information on the exploitation 

 
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This can be ensured either 
of the rights. This can be 
directly or through the 
ensured either directly from 
contractual counterparts of 
sub-licensees or through the 
authors and performers. 
contractual counterparts of 
Member States should have the  authors and performers. 
option, in compliance with 

Authors and performers and 
Union law, to provide for 
their contractual counterparts 
further measures through 
may agree to keep the shared 
national provisions to ensure 
information confidential, but 
transparency for authors and 
authors and performers should 
performers. 
always have the possibility to use 
the shared information for 
exercising their rights under in 
this Directive.
 Member States 
should have the option, in 
compliance with Union law, to 
provide for further measures 
through national provisions to 
ensure transparency for 
authors and performers. 

[to be discussed further] 
 
94. 
(41)  When implementing 
(41)  When implementing 
(41)  When implementing 
(41)  When implementing 
transparency obligations, the 
transparency obligations, the 
transparency obligations, 
transparency obligations, 
specificities of different content 
specificities of different content 
Member States should take into  Member States should take into 
 
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sectors and of the rights of the 
sectors and of the rights of the 
account the specificities of 
account the specificities of 
authors and performers in each 
authors and performers in each 
different content sectors and
different content sectors and
sector should be considered. 
sector should be considered. 
such as those of the rights of the 
such as those of the rights of the 
Member States should consult all  Member States should consult all 
authors and performers in 
authors and performers in 
relevant stakeholders as that 
relevant stakeholders as that 
eachmusic sector should be 
eachmusic sector should be 
should help determine sector-
should help determine sector-
considered. Member States 
considered. Member States 
specific requirements. Collective 
specific requirements. Collective 
should consult, the audiovisual 
should consult, the audiovisual 
bargaining should be considered 
bargaining should be considered 
sector and the publishing sector  sector and the publishing sector 
as an option to reach an 
as an option to reach an 
and all relevant stakeholders as 
and all relevant stakeholders as 
agreement between the relevant 
agreement between the relevant 
that should help determinebe 
that should help determinebe 
stakeholders regarding 
stakeholders regarding 
involved when determining 
involved when determining 
transparency. To enable the 
transparency. To enable the 
such sector-specific 
such sector-specific 
adaptation of current reporting 
adaptation of current reporting 
requirements. Where relevant, 
requirements. Where relevant, 
practices to the transparency 
practices to the transparency 
the significance of the 
the significance of the 
obligations, a transitional period 
obligations, a transitional period 
contribution of authors and 
contribution of authors and 
should be provided for. The 
should be provided for. The 
performers to the overall work 
performers to the overall work 
transparency obligations do not 
transparency obligations do not 
or performance should also be 
or performance should also be 
need to apply to agreements 
need to apply to agreements 
considered. Collective 
considered. Collective 
concluded with collective 
concluded with collective 
bargaining should be considered 
bargaining should be considered 
management organisations as 
management organisations as 
as an option to reach an 
as an option to reach an 
those are already subject to 
those are already subject to 
agreement between the relevant 
agreement between the relevant 
transparency obligations under 
transparency obligations under 
stakeholders regarding 
stakeholders regarding 
Directive 2014/26/EU. 
Directive 2014/26/EU. 
transparency. which should 
transparency. which should 
ensure authors and performers  ensure authors and performers 
the same or higher level of 

the same or higher level of 
transparency as the minimum 
transparency as the minimum 
requirements provided for in 
requirements provided for in 
this Directive. To enable the 
this Directive. To enable the 
 
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adaptation of current reporting 
adaptation of current reporting 
practices to the transparency 
practices to the transparency 
obligations, a transitional period 
obligations, a transitional period 
should be provided for. The 
should be provided for. The 
transparency obligations do not 
transparency obligations do not 
need to apply to agreements 
need to apply to agreements 
concluded with collective 
concluded with collective 
management organisations and 
management organisations and 
independent management 
independent management 
entities or by other entities 
entities or by other entities 
subject to the national rules 
subject to the national rules 
implementing Directive 
implementing Directive 
2014/26/EU as those are already 
2014/26/EU as those are already 
subject to transparency 
subject to transparency 
obligations under Directive 
obligations under Directive 
2014/26/EU. 
2014/26/EU. The transparency 
obligations do not need to apply 
to agreements concluded between 
rightholders and 
collective 
management organisations, 
independent management entities 
or other entities subject to the 
national rules implementing 
Directive 2014/26/EU as those 
organisations or entities are 
already subject to transparency 
obligations under Article 18 of 
Directive 2014/26/EU. Article 18 
 
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of Directive 2014/26/EU applies 
to organisations which manage 
copyright or related rights on 
behalf of more than one 
rightholder for the collective 
benefit of those rightholders. 
This situation differs from the 
one of individually negotiated 
agreements concluded between 
rightholders and their 
contractual partners who act in 
their own interest and are 
subject to the transparency 
obligation provided for in this 
Directive.
 
[to be discussed further] 
 
95. 
(42)  Certain contracts for the 
(42)  Certain contracts for the 
(42)  Certain contracts for the 
(42)  Certain contracts for the 
exploitation of rights harmonised  exploitation of rights harmonised 
exploitation of rights harmonised  exploitation of rights harmonised 
at Union level are of long 
at Union level are of long 
at Union level are of long 
at Union level are of long 
duration, offering few 
duration, offering few 
duration, offering few 
duration, offering few 
possibilities for authors and 
possibilities for authors and 
possibilities for authors and 
possibilities for authors and 
performers to renegotiate them 
performers to renegotiate them 
performers to renegotiate them 
performers to renegotiate them 
with their contractual counterparts  with their contractual counterparts  with their contractual 
with their contractual 
or their successors in title. 
or their successors in title. 
counterparts or their successors in  counterparts or their successors in 
 
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Therefore, without prejudice to 
Therefore, without prejudice to 
title. when the economic value 
title. when the economic value 
the law applicable to contracts in 
the law applicable to contracts in 
of the rights turns out to be 
of the rights turns out to be 
Member States, there should be a  Member States, there should be a 
significantly higher than 
significantly higher than 
remuneration adjustment 
remuneration adjustment 
initially estimated. Therefore, 
initially estimated. Therefore, 
mechanism for cases where the 
mechanism for cases where the 
without prejudice to the law 
without prejudice to the law 
remuneration originally agreed 
remuneration originally agreed 
applicable to contracts in Member  applicable to contracts in Member 
under a licence or a transfer of 
under a licence or a transfer of 
States, there should be a 
States, there should be a 
rights is disproportionately low 
rights is disproportionately low 
remuneration adjustment 
remuneration adjustment 
compared to the relevant revenues  compared to the relevant direct 
mechanism should be provided 
mechanism should be provided 
and the benefits derived from the 
and indirect revenues and the 
for cases where the remuneration  for cases where the remuneration 
exploitation of the work or the 
benefits derived from the 
originally agreed under a licence 
originally agreed under a licence 
fixation of the performance, 
exploitation of the work or the 
or a transfer of rights isclearly 
or a transfer of rights isclearly 
including in light of the 
fixation of the performance, 
becomes disproportionately low 
becomes disproportionately low 
transparency ensured by this 
including in light of the 
compared to the relevant 
compared to the relevant revenues 
Directive. The assessment of the 
transparency ensured by this 
revenues and the benefits derived  and the benefits derived from the 
situation should take account of 
Directive. The assessment of the 
from the subsequent exploitation  subsequent exploitation of the 
the specific circumstances of each  situation should take account of 
of the work or the fixation of the 
work or the fixation of the 
case as well as of the specificities  the specific circumstances of each  performance, including in light of   performance, including in light of  
and practices of the different 
case, as well as of the specificities  by the transparency ensured by 
by the transparency ensured by 
content sectors. Where the parties  and practices of the different 
this Directive.contractual 
this Directive.contractual 
do not agree on the adjustment of  content sectors as well as of the 
counterpart of the author or 
counterpart of the author or 
the remuneration, the author or 
nature and the contribution to 
performer. The assessment of 
performer. The revenues which 
performer should be entitled to 
the work of the author or 
the situation should take account 
should be taken into account for 
bring a claim before a court or 
performer. Such a contract 
of the specific circumstances of 
the assessment of the 
other competent authority. 
adjustment request could also be  each case, including the 
disproportion are all revenues 
made by the organisation 
contribution of the author or 
relevant to the case, including, 
representing the author or 
performer, as well as of the 
where applicable, merchandising 
performer on his or her behalf, 
specificities and remuneration 
revenues. The assessment of the 
 
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unless the request would be 
practices of the different content 
situation should take account of 
detrimental to the interests of the  sectors, and whether the 
the specific circumstances of each 
author or performer. Where the 
contract is based on a collective  case, including the contribution 
parties do not agree on the 
bargaining agreement. Where 
of the author or performer, as 
adjustment of the remuneration, 
the parties do not agree on the 
well as of the specificities and 
the author or performer or a 
adjustment of the remuneration, 
remuneration practices of the 
representative organisation 
the author or performer should be  different content sectors, and 
appointed by them should on 
entitled to bring a claim before a 
whether the contract is based 
request by the author or 
court or other competent 
on a collective bargaining 
performer be entitled to bring a 
authority. This mechanism 
agreementDuly mandated 
claim before a court or other 
should not apply to contracts 
professional defence bodies of 
competent authority. 
concluded by entities defined in  authors and performers should 
Article 3(a) and (b) of Directive  have the possibility to provide 
2014/26/EU or by other entities  assistance in requesting the 
subject to the national rules 
adjustment of the contracts on 
implementing Directive 
behalf of one or more authors, 
2014/26/UE. 
also taking into account the 
interests of other authors or 
performers when relevant. These 
organisations should protect the 
identity of the represented 
authors and performers in the 
proceedings for as long as this is 
possible.
 Where the parties do not 
agree on the adjustment of the 
remuneration, the author or 
performer should be entitled to 
bring a claim before a court or 
 
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other competent authority. This 
mechanism should not apply to 
contracts concluded by entities 
defined in Article 3(a) and (b) 
of Directive 2014/26/EU or by 
other entities subject to the 
national rules implementing 
Directive 2014/26/UE. 

[to be discussed further] 
 
96. 
(43)  Authors and performers are  (43)  Authors and performers are 
(43)  Authors and performers are  (43)  Authors and performers are 
often reluctant to enforce their 
often reluctant to enforce their 
often reluctant to enforce their 
often reluctant to enforce their 
rights against their contractual 
rights against their contractual 
rights against their contractual 
rights against their contractual 
partners before a court or tribunal.  partners before a court or tribunal.  partners before a court or tribunal.  partners before a court or tribunal. 
Member States should therefore 
Member States should therefore 
Member States should therefore 
Member States should therefore 
provide for an alternative dispute 
provide for an alternative dispute 
provide for an alternative dispute 
provide for an alternative dispute 
resolution procedure that 
resolution procedure that 
resolution procedure that 
resolution procedure that 
addresses claims related to 
addresses claims related to 
addresses claims by authors and  addresses claims by authors and 
obligations of transparency and 
obligations of transparency and 
performers or their 
performers or their 
the contract adjustment 
the contract adjustment 
representatives on their behalf 
representatives on their behalf 
mechanism. 
mechanism. Representative 
related to obligations of 
related to obligations of 
organisations of authors and 
transparency and the contract 
transparency and the contract 
performers, including collective 
adjustment mechanism. For that 
adjustment mechanism. For that 
management organisations and 
purpose, Member States may 
purpose, Member States may 
trade unions, should be able to 
either create a new body or 
either create a new body or 
 
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initiate such procedures at the 
mechanism or rely on an 
mechanism or rely on an 
request of authors and 
existing one that fulfils the 
existing one that fulfils the 
performers. Details about who 
conditions established by this 
conditions established by this 
initiated the procedure should 
Directive irrespective of 
Directive irrespective of 
remain undisclosed. 
whether these are industry-led 
whether these are industry-led 
or public, including when 
or public, including when 
incorporated in the national 
incorporated in the national 
judiciary system. Member 
judiciary system. Member 
States should have flexibility in 
States should have flexibility in 
deciding how the costs of the 
deciding how the costs of the 
dispute resolution procedure 
dispute resolution procedure 
should be allocated. This 
should be allocated. This 
alternative dispute resolution 
alternative dispute resolution 
procedure should be without 
procedure should be without 
prejudice to the right of parties  prejudice to the right of parties 
to assert and defend their rights  to assert and defend their rights 
by bringing an action before a 

by bringing an action before a 
court
courtProfessional defence 
bodies of authors and performers 
should be able to initiate such 
procedures at the request of 
authors and performers. Details 
about who initiated the
 
procedure should remain 
undisclosed. 

 
 
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[to be discussed further] 
97. 
 
(43a)  When authors and 
 
 
performers license or transfer 
their rights, they expect their 
work or performance to be 
exploited. However, it happens 
that works or performances that 
have been licensed or transferred 
are not exploited at all. When 
these rights have been 
transferred on an exclusive 
basis, authors and performers 
cannot turn to another partner to 
exploit their work. In such a 
case, and after a reasonable 
period of time has lapsed, 
authors and performers should 
have a right of revocation 
allowing them to transfer or 
license their right to another 
person. Revocation should also 
be possible when the transferee 
or licensee has not complied with 
his or her 
reporting/transparency 
obligation provided for in Article 
14 of this Directive. The 

 
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revocation should only be 
considered after all the steps of 
alternative dispute resolution 
have been completed, 
particularly with regard to 
reporting. As exploitation of 
works can vary depending on the 
sectors, specific provisions could 
be taken at national level in 
order to take into account the 
specificities of the sectors, such 
as the audiovisual sector, or of 
the works and the anticipated 
exploitation periods, notably 
providing for time limits for the 
right of revocation. In order to 
prevent abuses and take into 
account that a certain amount of 
time is needed before a work is 
actually exploited, authors and 
performers should be able to 
exercise the right of revocation 
only after a certain period of 
time following the conclusion of 
the license or of the transfer 
agreement. National law should 
regulate the exercise of the right 
of revocation in the case of 

 
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works involving a plurality of 
authors or performers, taking 
into account the relative 
importance of the individual 
contributions. 

98. 
 
(43b)  To support the effective 
 
 
application across Member 
States of the relevant provisions 
of this Directive, the Commission 
should, in cooperation with 
Member States, encourage the 
exchange of best practices and 
promote dialogue at Union level. 

99. 
 
 
(43a) The obligations laid down  (43a) The obligations laid down 
in Articles 14 and 15 of this 
in Articles 14, 15 and 16 of this 
Directive should be of a 
Directive should be of a 
mandatory nature and parties 
mandatory nature and parties 
should not be able to derogate 
should not be able to derogate 
from these contractual 
from these contractual 
provisions, whether included in  provisions, whether included in 
the contracts between authors, 

the contracts between authors, 
performers and their 
performers and their 
contractual counterparts or in 
contractual counterparts or in 
agreements between those 
agreements between those 
counterparts and third parties 
counterparts and third parties 
such as non-disclosure 
such as non-disclosure 
 
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agreements. As a consequence, 
agreements. As a consequence, 
the rules set out in Article 3(4) 
the rules set out in Article 3(4) 
of the Regulation (EC) No 
of the Regulation (EC) No 
593/2008 of the European 
593/2008 of the European 
Parliament and of the Council14  Parliament and of the Council14 
should apply to the effect that 

should apply to the effect that 
where all other elements 
where all other elements 
relevant to the situation at the 
relevant to the situation at the 
time of the choice are located in  time of the choice are located in 
one or more Member States, 

one or more Member States, the 
the parties’ choice of applicable  parties’ choice of applicable law 
law other than that of a 

other than that of a Member 
Member State shall not 
State shall not prejudice the 
prejudice the application of 
application of Articles 14, 15 
Articles 14 and 15, as 
and 16, as implemented in the 
implemented in the Member 
Member State of the forum.  
State of the forum.  
100.  (44)  The objectives of this 
(44)  The objectives of this 
(44)  The objectives of this 
 
Directive, namely the 
Directive, namely the 
Directive, namely the 
modernisation of certain aspects 
modernisation of certain aspects 
modernisation of certain aspects 
of the Union copyright 
of the Union copyright 
of the Union copyright 
framework to take account of 
framework to take account of 
framework to take account of 
technological developments and 
technological developments and 
technological developments and 
new channels of distribution of 
new channels of distribution of 
new channels of distribution of 
                                                 
14 
Regulation (EC) No 593/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome 
I) (OJ L 177, 4.7.2008, p. 6–16). 

 
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protected content in the internal 
protected content in the internal 
protected content in the internal 
market, cannot be sufficiently 
market, cannot be sufficiently 
market, cannot be sufficiently 
achieved by Member States but 
achieved by Member States but 
achieved by Member States but 
can rather, by reason of their 
can rather, by reason of their 
can rather, by reason of their 
scale, effects and cross-border 
scale, effects and cross-border 
scale, effects and cross-border 
dimension, be better achieved at 
dimension, be better achieved at 
dimension, be better achieved at 
Union level. Therefore, the Union  Union level. Therefore, the Union  Union level. Therefore, the Union 
may adopt measures in 
may adopt measures in 
may adopt measures in 
accordance with the principle of 
accordance with the principle of 
accordance with the principle of 
subsidiarity as set out in Article 5  subsidiarity as set out in Article 5  subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 
of the Treaty on European Union.  of the Treaty on European Union.  of the Treaty on European Union. 
In accordance with the principle 
In accordance with the principle 
In accordance with the principle 
of proportionality, as set out in 
of proportionality, as set out in 
of proportionality, as set out in 
that Article, this Directive does 
that Article, this Directive does 
that Article, this Directive does 
not go beyond what is necessary 
not go beyond what is necessary 
not go beyond what is necessary 
in order to achieve those 
in order to achieve those 
in order to achieve those 
objectives. 
objectives. 
objectives. 
101.  (45)  This Directive respects the 
(45)  This Directive respects the 
(45)  This Directive respects the 
 
fundamental rights and observes 
fundamental rights and observes 
fundamental rights and observes 
the principles recognised in 
the principles recognised in 
the principles recognised in 
particular by the Charter of 
particular by the Charter of 
particular by the Charter of 
Fundamental Rights of the 
Fundamental Rights of the 
Fundamental Rights of the 
European Union. Accordingly, 
European Union. Accordingly, 
European Union. Accordingly, 
this Directive should be 
this Directive should be 
this Directive should be 
interpreted and applied in 
interpreted and applied in 
interpreted and applied in 
accordance with those rights and 
accordance with those rights and 
accordance with those rights and 
principles. 
principles. 
principles. 
 
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102.  (46)  Any processing of personal  (46)  Any processing of personal 
 (46)  Any processing of personal   
data under this Directive should 
data under this Directive should 
data under this Directive should 
respect fundamental rights, 
respect fundamental rights, 
respect fundamental rights, 
including the right to respect for 
including the right to respect for 
including the right to respect for 
private and family life and the 
private and family life and the 
private and family life and the 
right to protection of personal 
right to protection of personal 
right to protection of personal 
data under Articles 7 and 8 of the  data under Articles 7 and 8 of the 
data under Articles 7 and 8 of the 
Charter of Fundamental Rights of  Charter of Fundamental Rights of  Charter of Fundamental Rights of 
the European Union and must be 
the European Union and must be 
the European Union and must be 
in compliance with  
in compliance with Directive 
in compliance with Directive 
95/46/EC of the European 
95/46/EC of the European 
Directive 95/46/EC of the 
Parliament and of the Council15  
Parliament and of the Council15 
European Parliament and of the 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and 
and Directive 2002/58/EC of the 
Council15 and Directive 
Directive 2002/58/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the 
2002/58/EC of the European 
European Parliament and of the 
Council16. 
Parliament and of the Council16. 
Council16 The provisions of the 
General Data Protection 
Regulation, including the "right 
to be forgotten" should be 

                                                 
15 
Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the 
processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (OJ L 281, 23.11.1995, p. 31–50). This Directive is repealed with effect from 
25 May 2018 and shall be replaced by Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the 
protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 
95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1–88). 
16 
Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the 
protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) (OJ L 201, 31.7.2002, p. 37–
47), called, as amended by Directives 2006/24/EC and 2009/136/EC, the “e-Privacy Directive”. 
 
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respected. 
103.   
(46 a)   It is important to stress 
 
 
the importance of anonymity, 
when handling personal data for 
commercial purposes. 
Additionally, the "by default" 
not sharing option with regards 
to personal data while using 
online platform interfaces 
should be promoted. 

104.  (47)  In accordance with the Joint  (47)  In accordance with the Joint  (47)  In accordance with the Joint   
Political Declaration of 28 
Political Declaration of 28 
Political Declaration of 28 
September 2011 of Member 
September 2011 of Member 
September 2011 of Member 
States and the Commission on 
States and the Commission on 
States and the Commission on 
explanatory documents17, 
explanatory documents17, 
explanatory documents17, 
Member States have undertaken 
Member States have undertaken 
Member States have undertaken 
to accompany, in justified cases, 
to accompany, in justified cases, 
to accompany, in justified cases, 
the notification of their 
the notification of their 
the notification of their 
transposition measures with one 
transposition measures with one 
transposition measures with one 
or more documents explaining the  or more documents explaining the  or more documents explaining the 
relationship between the 
relationship between the 
relationship between the 
components of a directive and the  components of a directive and the  components of a directive and the 
corresponding parts of national 
corresponding parts of national 
corresponding parts of national 
transposition instruments. With 
transposition instruments. With 
transposition instruments. With 
                                                 
17 
OJ C 369, 17.12.2011, p. 14. 
 
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regard to this Directive, the 
regard to this Directive, the 
regard to this Directive, the 
legislator considers the 
legislator considers the 
legislator considers the 
transmission of such documents 
transmission of such documents 
transmission of such documents 
to be justified, 
to be justified, 
to be justified, 
 
 
 
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Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 
on copyright in the Digital Single Market  
COM (2016) 593 final - 2016/0280 (COD) 
PART 2: ARTICLES 
Cell in green: The text can be deemed as already agreed 
Cell in yellow: The issue needs further discussion at technical level 
Cell in red: The issue needs further discussion in depth at the trilogue meetings 
Note: 
Differences between the EP's position and the Commission's proposal are highlighted in bold /italic. Deletions are marked with 
strikethrough. 
Differences between the Council's position and the Commission's proposal are highlighted in bold/underlined
Deletions are marked with strikethrough.  
 
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105.   
 
TITLE I 
TITLE I 
TITLE I 
TITLE I 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 
106.   
Art.1, 
Article 1 
Article 1 
Article 1 
Article 1 
Subject matter and scope 
Subject matter and scope 
Subject matter and scope 
Subject matter and scope 
title 
107.   
Art. 1, para 1  1. 
This Directive lays 
1.  This Directive lays down  1. 
This Directive lays 
GREEN 
down rules which aim at 
rules which aim at further 
down rules which aim at 
further harmonising the 
harmonising the Union law 
further harmonising the 
1.  This Directive lays down 
Union law applicable to 
applicable to copyright and 
Union law applicable to 
rules which aim at further 
copyright and related rights 
related rights in the 
copyright and related rights 
harmonising the Union law 
in the framework of the 
framework of the internal 
in the framework of the 
applicable to copyright and 
internal market, taking into 
market, taking into account 
internal market, taking into 
related rights in the framework 
account in particular digital 
in particular digital and 
account in particular digital 
of the internal market, taking 
and cross-border uses of 
cross-border uses of 
and cross-border uses of 
into account in particular 
protected content. It also 
protected content. It also 
protected content. It also 
digital and cross-border uses 
lays down rules on 
lays down rules on 
lays down rules on 
of protected content. It also 
exceptions and limitations, 
exceptions and limitations, 
exceptions and limitations, 
lays down rules on exceptions 
on the facilitation of licences  on the facilitation of licences  on the facilitation of licences  and limitations, on the 
as well as rules aiming at 
as well as rules aiming at 
as well as rules aiming at 
facilitation of licences as well 
ensuring a well-functioning 
ensuring a well-functioning 
ensuring a well-functioning 
as rules aiming at ensuring a 
marketplace for the 
marketplace for the 
marketplace for the 
well-functioning marketplace 
exploitation of works and 
exploitation of works and 
exploitation of works and 
for the exploitation of works 
other subject-matter. 
other subject-matter. 
other subject-matter. 
and other subject-matter. 
[identical text] 
 
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108.   
Art. 1, para 2  2. 
Except in the cases 
2.  Except in the cases 
2. 
Except in the cases 
2. 
Except in the cases 
referred to in Article 6, this 
referred to in Article 6, this 
referred to in Article 617
referred to in Article 617, this 
Directive shall leave intact 
Directive shall leave intact 
this Directive shall leave 
Directive shall leave intact and 
and shall in no way affect 
and shall in no way affect 
intact and shall in no way 
shall in no way affect existing 
existing rules laid down in 
existing rules laid down in 
affect existing rules laid 
rules laid down in the 
the Directives currently in 
the Directives currently in 
down in the Directives 
Directives currently in force in 
force in this area, in 
force in this area, in 
currently in force in this 
this area, in particular 
particular Directives 
particular Directives 
area, in particular Directives  Directives 96/9/EC, 
96/9/EC, 2001/29/EC, 
96/9/EC, 2000/31/EC
96/9/EC, 2000/31/EC, 
2000/31/EC, 2001/29/EC, 
2006/115/EC, 2009/24/EC, 
2001/29/EC, 2006/115/EC, 
2001/29/EC, 2006/115/EC, 
2006/115/EC, 2009/24/EC, 
2012/28/EU and 
2009/24/EC, 2012/28/EU 
2009/24/EC, 2012/28/EU 
2012/28/EU and 2014/26/EU. 
2014/26/EU. 
and 2014/26/EU. 
and 2014/26/EU. 
109.   
Art. 2, title 
Article 2 
Article 2 
Article 2 
Article 2 
Definitions 
Definitions 
Definitions 
Definitions 
110.   
Art. 2, 
For the purposes of this 
For the purposes of this 
For the purposes of this 
GREEN 
introductory 
Directive, the following 
Directive, the following 
Directive, the following 
part 
definitions shall apply: 
definitions shall apply: 
definitions shall apply: 
For the purposes of this 
Directive, the following 
definitions shall apply: 
111.   
Art. 2, para 
(1)  ‘research organisation’  (1)  ‘research organisation’ 
(1)  ‘research organisation’  GREEN 
1, 
means a university, a 
means a university, 
means a university, a 
introductory 
research institute or any 
including its libraries, a 
research institute or any 
 (1) ‘research organisation’ 
part 
other organisation the 
research institute or any 
other organisationan entity, 
means a university, including 
primary goal of which is to 
other organisation the 
the primary goal of which is  its libraries, a research 
conduct scientific research 
primary goal of which is to 
to conduct scientific 
institute or any other entity the 
primary goal of which is to 
 
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or to conduct scientific 
conduct scientific research 
research or to conduct 
conduct scientific research or 
research and provide 
or to conduct scientific 
scientific research and 
to carry out educational 
educational services: 
research and provide 
provide educational services:  activities involving also the 
educational services: 
involving also the conduct 
conduct of scientific research: 
of scientific research:  
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
112.   
Art. 2, para 
(a)  on a non-for-profit 
(a)  on a non-for-profit 
(a)  on a non-for-profit 
GREEN 
1, point (a) 
basis or by reinvesting all 
basis or by reinvesting all 
basis or by reinvesting all 
the profits in its scientific 
the profits in its scientific 
the profits in its scientific 
 (a)  on a non-for-profit basis 
research; or 
research; or 
research; or  
or by reinvesting all the profits 
in its scientific research; or 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
113.   
Art. 2, para 
(b)  pursuant to a public 
(b)  pursuant to a public 
(b)  pursuant to a public 
GREEN 
1, point (b) 
interest mission recognised 
interest mission recognised 
interest mission recognised 
by a Member State; 
by a Member State; 
by a Member State; 
(b)  pursuant to a public 
interest mission recognised by 
a Member State; 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
114.   
Art. 2, para 
in such a way that the access  in such a way that the access  in such a way that the access  GREEN 
1, closing 
to the results generated by 
to the results generated by 
to the results generated by 
phrase  
the scientific research cannot  the scientific research cannot  the scientific research cannot  in such a way that the access to 
the results generated by the 
 
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be enjoyed on a preferential 
be enjoyed on a preferential 
be enjoyed on a preferential 
scientific research cannot be 
basis by an undertaking 
basis by an undertaking 
basis by an undertaking 
enjoyed on a preferential basis 
exercising a decisive 
exercising a significant 
exercising a decisive 
by an undertaking exercising a 
influence upon such 
influence upon such 
influence upon such 
significant decisive  influence 
organisation; 
organisation; 
organisation; 
upon such organisation; 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018] 

115.   
Art. 2, para 2  (2)  ‘text and data mining’ 
(2)  'text and data mining' 
(2)  ‘text and data mining’ 
GREEN 
means any automated 
means any automated 
means any automated 
analytical technique aiming 
analytical technique which 
analytical technique aiming 
 (2) ‘text and data mining’ 
to analyse text and data in 
analyses works and other 
to analyse text and data in 
means any automated 
digital form in order to 
subject matter in digital 
digital form in order to 
analytical technique aiming to 
generate information such as  form in order to generate 
generate information such as  analyse text and data in digital 
patterns, trends and 
information, including, but 
patterns, trends and 
form in order to generate 
correlations; 
not limited to, patterns, 
correlations; 
information, including, but 
trends and correlations. 
not limited to, patterns, trends 
and correlations; 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
116.   
Art. 2, para 3  (3)  ‘cultural heritage 
(3)  ‘cultural heritage 
(3)  ‘cultural heritage 
GREEN 
institution’ means a publicly  institution’ means a publicly  institution’ means a publicly 
accessible library or 
accessible library or 
accessible library or 
 (3)  ‘cultural heritage 
museum, an archive or a film  museum, an archive or a film  museum, an archive or a film  institution’ means a publicly 
or audio heritage institution;  or audio heritage institution;  or audio heritage institution;  accessible library or museum, 
an archive or a film or audio 
 
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heritage institution; 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
117.   
Art. 2, para 4  (4)  ‘press publication’ 
(4)  ‘press publication’ 
(4)  ‘press publication’ 
 
means a fixation of a 
means a fixation by 
means a fixation of a 
collection of literary works 
publishers or news agencies  collection composed mainly 
of a journalistic nature, 
of a collection of literary 
of literary works of a 
which may also comprise 
works of a journalistic 
journalistic nature, which :  
other works or subject-
nature, which may also 
matter and constitutes an 
comprise other works or 
[remaining part of this 
individual item within a 
subject-matter and 
pargraph was split up in 
periodical or regularly-
constitutes an individual 
points (a) to (d) - see 
updated publication under a 
item within a periodical or 
following rows 118-121] 
single title, such as a 
regularly-updated 
newspaper or a general or 
publication under a single 
special interest 
title, such as a newspaper or 
magazine, having the 
a general or special interest 
purpose of providing 
magazine, having the 
information related to news 
purpose of providing 
or other topics and published  information related to news 
in any media under the 
or other topics and published 
initiative, editorial 
in any media under the 
responsibility and control of  initiative, editorial 
a service provider. 
responsibility and control of 
a service provider. 
 
Periodicals which are 
published for scientific or 

 
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academic purposes, such as 
scientific journals, shall not 
be covered by this 
definition; 

118.   
Art. 2, para 
 
 
(a)  may also 
 
4, point (a) 
compriseinclude other 
works or subject-matter and 
;  
[See Article 2(4) of COM 
proposal and of EP text (row 
117)]
 
119.   
Art. 2, para 
 
 
(b)  constitutes an 
 
4, point (b) 
individual item within a 
periodical or regularly-
updated publication under a 
single title, such as a 
newspaper or a general or 
special interest magazine, ;  
[See Article 2(4) of COM 
proposal and of EP text (row 
117)] 

120.   
Art. 2, para 
 
 
(c)  has having the purpose   
4, point (c) 
of providing the general 
public with 
information 
 
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related to news or other 
topics; and  
[See Article 2(4) of COM 
proposal and of EP text (row 
117)]
 
121.   
Art. 2, para 
 
 
(d)  is published in any 
 
4, point (d) 
media under the initiative, 
editorial responsibility and 
control of a service 
provider.
[See Article 2(4) of COM 
proposal and of EP text (row 
117)]
 
122.   
Art. 2, para 
 
(4a)  ‘out of commerce 
 
 
4a, 
work’ means: 
introductory 
part 
123.   
Art. 2, para 
 
(a)  an entire work or other 
 
 
4a, point (a) 
subject matter in any 
version or manifestation 
that is no longer available 
to the public in a Member 
State through customary 
channels of commerce;
 
 
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124.   
Art. 2, para 
 
(b)  a work or other subject 
 
 
4a, point (b) 
matter that has never been 
in commerce in a Member 
State, unless, from the 
circumstances of that case, 
it is apparent that its author 
objected to making it 
available to the public;
 
125.   
Art. 2, 
 
(4b)   ‘online content 
(5)  ‘online content 
 
para 4b 
sharing service provider’ 
sharing service provider’ 
(EP)/para 5 
means a provider of an 
means a provider of an 
(Council) 
information society service 
information society service 
one of the main purposes of  whose main or one of the 
which is to store and give 

main purposes is to store 
access to the public to 
and give the public access 
a significant amount of 
to a large amount of works 
copyright protected works 
or other subject-matter 
or other protected subject-
uploaded by its users 
matter uploaded by its 
which it organises and 
users, which the service 
promotes for profit-
optimises and promotes for 
making purposes.  
profit making purposes. 
Microenterprises and small- 
Providers of services such 
sized enterprises within the 

as non-for-profit online 
meaning of Title I of the 
encyclopaedias, non-for-
Annex to Commission 
profit educational and 
Recommendation 
scientific repositories, non-
 
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2003/361/EC and services 
for-profit open source 
acting in a non-commercial  software developing 
purpose capacity such as 

platforms, as well as 
online encyclopaedia, and 
internet access service 
providers of online services 
providers, online 
where the content is 
marketplaces and 
uploaded with the 
providers of cloud services 
authorisation of all right 
which allow users, 
holders concerned, such as 
including businesses for 
educational or scientific 
their internal purposes, to 
repositories, shall not be 
upload content for their 
considered online content 
own use shall not be 
sharing service providers 
considered online content 
within the meaning of this 
sharing service providers 
Directive. Providers of 
within the meaning of this 
cloud services for individual  Directive; 
use which do not provide 
direct access to the public, 
open source software 
developing platforms, and 
online market places whose 
main activity is online retail 
of physical goods, should 
not be considered online 
content sharing service 
providers within the 
meaning of this Directive;
 
 
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126.   
Art. 2, 
 
(4c)  ‘information society 
(6) ‘information society 
 
para 4c 
service’ means a service 
service’ means a service 
(EP)/para 6 
within the meaning of point  within the meaning of 
(Council) 
(b) of Article 1(1) of 
Article 1(1)(b) of Directive 
Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of  (EU) 2015/1535. 
the European Parliament 
and of the Council1a; 

___________ 
1a Directive (EU) 2015/1535 
of the European Parliament 
and of the Council of 9 
September 2015 laying 
down a procedure for the 
provision of information in 
the field of technical 
regulations and of rules on 
Information Society services 
(OJ L 241, 17.9.2015, p. 1). 

127.   
Art. 2, para 
 
(4d)  ‘automated image 
 
 
4d  
referencing service’ means 
any online service which 
reproduces or makes 
available to the public for 
indexing and referencing 
purposes graphic or art 

 
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works or photographic 
works collected by 
automated means via a 
third-party online service.
 
128.   
 
TITLE II 
TITLE II 
TITLE II 
TITLE II 
MEASURES TO ADAPT 
MEASURES TO ADAPT 
MEASURES TO ADAPT 
MEASURES TO ADAPT 
EXCEPTIONS AND 
EXCEPTIONS AND 
EXCEPTIONS AND 
EXCEPTIONS AND 
LIMITATIONS TO THE 
LIMITATIONS TO THE 
LIMITATIONS TO THE 
LIMITATIONS TO THE 
DIGITAL AND CROSS-
DIGITAL AND CROSS-
DIGITAL AND CROSS-
DIGITAL AND CROSS-
BORDER ENVIRONMENT  BORDER ENVIRONMENT  BORDER ENVIRONMENT  BORDER ENVIRONMENT 
129.   
Art. 3, 
Article 3 
Article 3 
Article 3 
GREEN 
Text and data mining 
Text and data mining 
Text and data mining for the 
title 
purposes of scientific 
Article 3 
research 
Text and data mining for the 
purposes of scientific research 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
130.   
Art. 3, para 1  1. 
Member States shall 
1.  Member States shall 
1. 
.Member States shall 
GREEN 
provide for an exception to 
provide for an exception to 
provide for an exception to 
the rights provided for in 
the rights provided for in 
the rights provided for in 
1. Member States shall provide 
Article 2 of Directive 
Article 2 of Directive 
Article 2 of Directive 
for an exception to the rights 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
provided for in Article 2 of 
and 7(1) of Directive 
and 7(1) of Directive 
and 7(1) of Directive 
Directive 2001/29/EC, Articles 
96/9/EC and Article 11(1) of  96/9/EC and Article 11(1) of  96/9/EC and Article 11(1) of  5(a) and 7(1) of Directive 
this Directive for 
this Directive for 
this Directive for 
96/9/EC and Article 11(1) of 
 
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reproductions and 
reproductions and 
reproductions and 
this Directive for 
extractions made by research  extractions made by research  extractions made by research  reproductions and extractions 
organisations in order to 
organisations in order to 
organisations and cultural 
made by research 
carry out text and data 
carry out text and data 
heritage institutions in 
organisations and cultural 
mining of works or other 
mining of works or other 
order to carry out text and 
heritage institutions in order 
subject-matter to which they  subject-matter to which they  data mining of works or 
to carry out text and data 
have lawful access for the 
have lawful access research  other subject-matter to 
mining of works or other 
purposes of scientific 
organisations have lawful 
which they have lawful 
subject-matter to which they 
research. 
access and made in order to  access, for the purposes of 
have lawful access, for the 
carry out text and data 
scientific research. 
purposes of scientific research. 
mining for the purposes of 
scientific research by such 
 
organisations. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Member States shall provide 
Trilogue 25/10/2018] 
for educational 
establishments and cultural 

 
heritage institutions 
conducting scientific 
research within the 
meaning of point (1)(a) or 
(1)(b) of Article 2, in such a 
way that the access to the 
results generated by the 
scientific research cannot 
be enjoyed on a preferential 
basis by an undertaking 
exercising a decisive 
influence upon such 

 
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organisations, to also be 
able to benefit from the 
exception provided for in 
this Article.
 
131.   
Art. 3, para 
 
1a.   Reproductions and 
1a.Copies of works or 
GREEN 
1a 
extractions made for text 
other subject-matter 
and data mining purposes 
made in compliance 
1a. Copies of works or other 
shall be stored in a secure 
with paragraph 1 shall 
subject-matter made in 
manner, for example by 
be stored with an 
compliance with paragraph 1 
trusted bodies appointed for 
appropriate level of 
shall be stored with an 
this purpose. 
security and not be 
appropriate level of security 
retained for longer than  and may be retained for the 
necessary for achieving 
purposes of scientific 
the purposes of 
research, including for the 
scientific research. 
verification of research 
results.  

[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018] 

132.   
Art. 3, para 2  2. 
Any contractual 
2. 
Any contractual 
2.  [Moved to Article 6(1)] 
GREEN 
provision contrary to the 
provision contrary to the 
exception provided for in 
exception provided for in 
 [Moved to Article 6(1)] 
paragraph 1 shall be 
paragraph 1 shall be 
unenforceable. 
unenforceable. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
[See Council’s Article 6(1) 
(row 155)] 

 
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133.   
Art. 3, para 3  3. 
Rightholders shall be 
3. 
Rightholders shall be 
3. 
Rightholders shall be 
GREEN 
allowed to apply measures to  allowed to apply measures to  allowed to apply measures to 
ensure the security and 
ensure the security and 
ensure the security and 
3. 
Rightholders shall be 
integrity of the networks and  integrity of the networks and  integrity of the networks and  allowed to apply measures to 
databases where the works 
databases where the works 
databases where the works 
ensure the security and 
or other subject-matter are 
or other subject-matter are 
or other subject-matter are 
integrity of the networks and 
hosted. Such measures shall 
hosted. Such measures shall 
hosted. Such measures shall 
databases where the works or 
not go beyond what is 
not go beyond what is 
not go beyond what is 
other subject-matter are 
necessary to achieve that 
necessary to achieve that 
necessary to achieve that 
hosted. Such measures shall 
objective. 
objective. 
objective. 
not go beyond what is 
necessary to achieve that 
objective. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
134.   
Art. 3, para 4  4. 
Member States shall 
4. 
Member States shall 
4. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
encourage rightholders and 
encourage rightholders and 
encourage rightholders and, 
research organisations to 
research organisations to 
research organisations and 
4. 
Member States shall 
define commonly-agreed 
define commonly-agreed 
cultural heritage 
encourage rightholders and, 
best practices concerning the  best practices concerning the  institutions to define 
research organisations and 
application of the measures 
application of the measures 
commonly-agreed best 
cultural heritage institutions to 
referred to in paragraph 3. 
referred to in paragraph 
practices concerning the 
define commonly-agreed best 
3.may continue to provide 
application of the obligation  practices concerning the 
text and data mining 
and measures referred to 
application of the obligation 
exceptions in accordance 
respectively in paragraph
and measures referred to 
with point (a) of Article 5(3)  1a and 3. 
respectively in paragraphs 1a 
of Directive 2001/29/EC. 
and 3. 
 
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[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26 November] 

[the relation with existing 
exceptions under InfoSoc 
Directive under Article 17a 
(see row 306)] 

 
135.   
Art. 3a, title 
 
Article 3a 
Article 3a 
Article 3a 
Optional exception or 
Optional exception or 
Optional exception or 
limitation for text and data 
limitation for text and data  limitation for text and data 
mining 
mining 
mining 
136.   
Art. 3a, para 
 
1.  
 Without prejudice to 
1. 
Without prejudice to  1. Without prejudice to Article 

Article 3 of this Directive, 
Article 3 of this Directive 
3 of this Directive, Member 
Member States may provide  Member States may 
States may/shall provide for 
for an exception or a 
provide for an exception or  an exception or a limitation to 
limitation to the rights 
a limitation to the rights 
the rights provided for in 
provided for in Article 2 of 
provided for in Article 2 of  Article 2 of Directive 
Directive 2001/29/EC, 
Directive 2001/29/EC, 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) and 
Articles 5(a) and 7(1) of 
Articles 5(a) and 7(1) of 
7(1) of Directive 96/9/EC, 
Directive 96/9/EC and 
Directive 96/9/EC and 
Article 4(1)(a) and (b)  of 
Article 11(1) of this 
Article 11(1) of this 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
Directive for reproductions 
Directive for temporary 
Article 11(1) of this Directive 
and extractions of lawfully 
reproductions and 
for temporary reproductions 
accessible works and other 
extractions of lawfully 
and extractions of lawfully 
 
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subject-matter that form a 
accessible works and other  accessible works and other 
part of the process of text 
subject-matter that form a  subject-matter that form a 
and data mining, provided 
part of the process of text 
part of the process for the 
that the use of works and 
and data mining.  
purposes of text and data 
other subject matter 
mining. 
referred to therein has not 
been expressly reserved by 

[COM suggestion to turn the 
their rightholders, including 
optional exception into a 
by machine readable means. 
mandatory one by replacing 
“may provide” by “shall 
provide” to be discussed 
further at political level. 

Apart from 'may' or 'shall', text 
of Article 3a provisionally 
agreed at trilogue 26/11/2018 
as set out in rows 136, 137, 
138 and 139] 

 
137.   
Art. 3a, para 
 
2. 
 Reproductions and 
 
GREEN 
2 (EP) 
extractions made pursuant 
to paragraph 1 shall not be 

2. 
 Reproductions and 
used for purposes other 
extractions made pursuant to 
than text and data mining. 
paragraph 1 may be retained 
as long as necessary for the 
purposes of text and data 
mining. 

 
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[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018 / 
26/11/2018] 

138. 
Art. 3a, para 
 
 
2. 
The exception or 
GREEN 
2 (Council) 
limitation provided for in 
paragraph 1 shall apply 

2. 
The exception or 
provided that the use of 
limitation provided for in 
works and other subject 
paragraph 1 shall apply 
matter referred to therein 
provided that the use of works 
has not been expressly 
and other subject matter 
reserved by their 
referred to therein has not 
rightholders including by 
been expressly reserved by 
technical means
their rightholders in an 
appropriate manner, such as 

[See para. 1 of EP text  (row  machine readable means for 
136)] 

the content made publicly 
available online

 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018 in 
conjunction with wording of  
recital (13a) (row 28)] 

139.   
Art. 3a, para 
 
3. 
Member States may 
 
GREEN 

continue to provide text and 
data mining exceptions in 

3. This Article shall not 
 
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accordance with point (a) of 
affect the application of 
Article 5 (3) of Directive 
Article 3 of this Directive. 
2001/29/EC. 
[This phrase replaces the 
'Without prejudice'-
clarification previously 
contained in paragraph 1.  

[provisionaly agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 

Agreed at Trilogue 25/10/2018 
to introduce the relation with 
existing exceptions under 
InfoSoc Directive under 
Article 17a (see row 306)] 

140.   
Art. 4, 
Article 4 
Article 4 
Article 4 
Article 4 
Use of works and other 
Use of works and other 
Use of works and other 
Use of works and other 
title 
subject-matter in digital and  subject-matter in digital and  subject-matter in digital and 
subject-matter in digital and 
cross-border teaching 
cross-border teaching 
cross-border teaching 
cross-border teaching 
activities 
activities 
activities 
activities 
141.   
Art. 4, para 1  1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
 Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
provide for an exception or 
provide for an exception or 
provide for an exception or 
limitation to the rights 
limitation to the rights 
limitation to the rights 
1.  Member States shall 
provided for in Articles 2 
provided for in Articles 2 
provided for in Articles 2 
provide for an exception or 
and 3 of Directive 
and 3 of Directive 
and 3 of Directive 
limitation to the rights 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a), 
provided for in Articles 2 and 
 
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and 7(1) of Directive 
and 7(1) of Directive 
(b), (d) and (e) and Article 
3 of Directive 2001/29/EC, 
96/9/EC, Article 4(1) of 
96/9/EC, Article 4(1) of 
7(1) of Directive 96/9/EC, 
Articles 5(a), (b), (d) and (e) 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
Article 4(1)(a) and (b) of 
and 7(1) of Directive 96/9/EC, 
Article 11(1) of this 
Article 11(1) of this 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
Article 4(1)(a), and (b)  of 
Directive in order to allow 
Directive in order to allow 
Article 11(1) of this 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
for the digital use of works 
for the digital use of works 
Directive in order to allow 
Article 11(1) of this Directive 
and other subject-matter for 
and other subject-matter for 
for the digital use of works 
in order to allow the digital use 
the sole purpose of 
the sole purpose of 
and other subject-matter for 
of works and other subject-
illustration for teaching, to 
illustration for teaching, to 
the sole purpose of 
matter for the sole purpose of 
the extent justified by the 
the extent justified by the 
illustration for teaching, to 
illustration for teaching, to the 
non-commercial purpose to 
non-commercial purpose to 
the extent justified by the 
extent justified by the non-
be achieved, provided that 
be achieved, provided that 
non-commercial purpose to 
commercial purpose to be 
the use: 
the use: 
be achieved, provided that 
achieved, provided that such 
thesuch use: 
use: 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018; 
reference to Directive 
2009/24/EC agreed provided 
that it is clarified in a recital  
that distribution of software 
allowed under the exception is 
limited to digital transmission 
of software] 

142.   
Art. 4, para 
(a)  takes place on the 
(a)   takes place on the 
(a)  takes place onunder 
GREEN 
1, point (a) 
premises of an educational 
premises of an educational 
the premises responsibility 
establishment or through a 
establishment, or in any 
of an educational 
 (a) takes place under the 
secure electronic network 
other venue in which the 
establishment, on its 
responsibility of an 
 
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accessible only by the 
teaching activity takes place  premises or other venues, 
educational establishment, on 
educational establishment's 
under the responsibility of 
or through a secure 
its premises or other venues
pupils or students and 
the educational 
electronic network 
or through a secure electronic 
teaching staff; 
establishment, or through a 
accessible only by the 
environment accessible only 
secure electronic network  
educational establishment's 
by the educational 
environment accessible only  pupils or students and 
establishment's pupils or 
by the educational 
teaching staff; and 
students and teaching staff; 
establishment's pupils or 
and 
students and teaching staff; 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018 together 
with text on recital 16a, row 
33]
 
143.   
Art. 4, para 
(b)  is accompanied by the 
(b)   is accompanied by the  (b)  is accompanied by the 
GREEN 
1, point (b) 
indication of the source, 
indication of the source, 
indication of the source, 
including the author's name,  including the author's name,  including the author's name,  (b) is accompanied by the 
unless this turns out to be 
unless this turns out to be 
unless this turns out to be 
indication of the source, 
impossible. 
impossible for reasons of 
impossible. 
including the author's name, 
practicability
unless this turns out to be 
impossible. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018]
 
144.   
Art. 4, para 
2. 
Member States may 
2.  
Member States may 
2. 
Notwithstanding 
GREEN 
2, sub-para 1  provide that the exception 
provide that the exception 
Article 6(1), Member States 
adopted pursuant to 
adopted pursuant to 
may provide that the 
2. Notwithstanding Article 
paragraph 1 does not apply 
paragraph 1 does not apply 
exception adopted pursuant 
6(1), Member States may 
 
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generally or as regards 
generally or as regards 
to paragraph 1 does not 
provide that the exception 
specific types of works or 
specific types of works or 
apply generally or as regards  adopted pursuant to paragraph 
other subject-matter, to the 
other subject-matter, such as  specific uses or types of 
1 does not apply generally or 
extent that adequate licences  material which is primarily 
works or other subject-
as regards specific uses or 
authorising the acts 
intended for the educational  matter, to the extent that 
types of works or other 
described in paragraph 1 are  market or sheet music, to 
adequate licences covering 
subject-matter, such as 
easily available in the 
the extent that adequate 
the needs of educational 
material which is primarily 
market. 
licences licencing 
establishments and 
intended for the educational 
agreements authorising the 
authorising the acts 
market or sheet music, to the 
acts described in paragraph 1  described in paragraph 1 are  extent that suitable licences 
and tailored to the needs 
easily available in the 
authorising the acts described 
and specificities of 
market. 
in paragraph 1 covering the 
educational establishments 
needs and specificities of 
are easily available in the 
educational establishments 
market. 
are easily available in the 
market. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018 / 
26/11/2018 together with text 
on recitals (16) and (17), rows 
32 and 35
 tbc by trilogue] 
145.   
Art. 4, para 
Member States availing 
Member States availing 
Member States availing 
GREEN 
2, sub-para 2  themselves of the provision 
themselves of the provision 
themselves of the provision 
of the first subparagraph 
of the first subparagraph 
of the first subparagraph 
Member States availing 
shall take the necessary 
shall take the necessary 
shall take the necessary 
themselves of the provision of 
measures to ensure 
measures to ensure 
measures to ensure 
the first subparagraph shall 
appropriate availability and 
appropriate availability and 
appropriate availability and 
take the necessary measures to 
 
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visibility of the licences 
visibility of the licences 
visibility ofthat 
ensure appropriate availability 
authorising the acts 
authorising the acts 
rightholders make the 
and visibility of the licences 
described in paragraph 1 for 
described in paragraph 1 for  licences authorising the acts 
authorising the acts described 
educational establishments. 
educational establishments. 
described in paragraph 1 
in paragraph 1 for educational 
available and visible for 
establishments.  
educational establishments. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018 together 
with text on recital (17) and 
(17a), rows 35 and 36]  

146.   
Art. 4, para 3  3. 
The use of works and 
3.  
The use of works and 
3. 
The use of works and 
GREEN 
other subject-matter for the 
other subject-matter for the 
other subject-matter for the 
sole purpose of illustration 
sole purpose of illustration 
sole purpose of illustration 
3. The use of works and other 
for teaching through secure 
for teaching through secure 
for teaching through secure 
subject-matter for the sole 
electronic networks 
electronic networks 
electronic networks 
purpose of illustration for 
undertaken in compliance 
environments undertaken in  undertaken in compliance 
teaching through secure 
with the provisions of 
compliance with the 
with the provisions of 
electronic environments 
national law adopted 
provisions of national law 
national law adopted 
undertaken in compliance with 
pursuant to this Article shall  adopted pursuant to this 
pursuant to this Article shall  the provisions of national law 
be deemed to occur solely in  Article shall be deemed to 
be deemed to occur solely in  adopted pursuant to this 
the Member State where the 
occur solely in the Member 
the Member State where the  Article shall be deemed to 
educational establishment is  State where the educational 
educational establishment is  occur solely in the Member 
established. 
establishment is established.  established. 
State where the educational 
establishment is established. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018 / 
26/11/2018 together with text 

 
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on recital 16a, row 33] 
147.   
Art. 4, para 4  4. 
Member States may 
4. 
 Member States may 
4. 
Member States may 
GREEN 
provide for fair 
provide for fair 
provide for fair 
compensation for the harm 
compensation for the harm 
compensation for the harm 
4. 
Member States may 
incurred by the rightholders 
incurred by the rightholders 
incurred by theto 
provide for fair compensation 
due to the use of their works  due to the use of their works  rightholders due to the use 
for the harm incurred by the to 
or other subject-matter 
or other subject-matter 
of their works or other 
rightholders due to the use of 
pursuant to paragraph 1. 
pursuant to paragraph 1. 
subject-matter pursuant to 
their works or other subject-
paragraph 1. 
matter pursuant to paragraph 1. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 25/10/2018 / 
26/11/2018 together with text 
on recital (17a), row 36] 

148.   
Art. 4, para 
 
4a.   Without prejudice to 
 
[provisionally agreed at 
4a 
paragraph 2, any 
trilogue 25/10/2018 to deal 
contractual provision 
with contractual override 
contrary to the exception or 
under Article 6(1)] 
limitation adopted pursuant 
to paragraph 1 shall be 

[Issue of  royalty-free licences 
unenforceable. Member 
to be further discussed in the 
States shall ensure that 
context of the remuneration 
rightholders have the right 
chapter and recital (40) of the 
to grant royalty-free 
Council] 
licences authorising the acts 
described in paragraph 1, 
generally or as regards 

 
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specific types of works or 
other subject-matter that 
they may choose. 

[See Council’s Article 6(1) 
(row 155)] 

149.   
Art. 5, title 
Article 5 
Article 5 
Article 5 
Article 5 
Preservation of cultural 
Preservation of cultural 
Preservation of cultural 
Preservation of cultural 
heritage 
heritage 
heritage 
heritage 
150.   
Art. 5, [para 
Member States shall provide  1.  
Member States shall 
Member States shall provide  GREEN 
1 (EP)]  
for an exception to the rights  provide for an exception to 
for an exception to the rights 
provided for in Article 2 of 
the rights provided for in 
provided for in Article 2 of 
Member States shall provide 
Directive 2001/29/EC, 
Article 2 of Directive 
Directive 2001/29/EC, 
for an exception to the rights 
Articles 5(a) and 7(1) of 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
Articles 5(a) and 7(1) of 
provided for in Article 2 of 
Directive 96/9/EC, Article 
and 7(1) of Directive 
Directive 96/9/EC, Article 
Directive 2001/29/EC, Articles 
4(1)(a) of Directive 
96/9/EC, Article 4(1)(a) of 
4(1)(a) of Directive 
5(a) and 7(1) of Directive 
2009/24/EC and Article 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
2009/24/EC and Article 
96/9/EC, Article 4(1)(a) of 
11(1) of this Directive, 
Article 11(1) of this 
11(1) of this Directive, 
Directive 2009/24/EC and 
permitting cultural heritage 
Directive, permitting cultural  permitting cultural heritage 
Article 11(1) of this Directive, 
institutions, to make copies 
heritage institutions to make  institutions, to make copies 
permitting cultural heritage 
of any works or other 
copies of any works or other  of any works or other 
institutions to make copies of 
subject-matter that are 
subject-matter that are 
subject-matter that are 
any works or other subject-
permanently in their 
permanently in their 
permanently in their 
matter that are permanently in 
collections, in any format or  collections, in any format or 
collections, in any format or  their collections, in any format 
medium, for the sole purpose  medium, for the sole purpose  medium, for the sole 
or medium, for purposes of 
of the preservation of such 
purposes of preservation of 
purpose of the preservation 
preservation of such works or 
works or other subject-
such works or other subject-
of such works or other 
other subject-matter and to the 
 
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matter and to the extent 
matter and to the extent 
subject-matter and to the 
extent necessary for such 
necessary for such 
necessary for such 
extent necessary for such 
preservation. 
preservation. 
preservation. 
preservation. 
[provisionally agreed at 
trilogue 25/10/2018] 
151.   
Art. 5, para 
 
1a.  Member States shall 
 
[To be further discussed at 
1a 
ensure that any material 
political level; COM to 
resulting from an act of 
provide drafting suggestion for 
reproduction of material in 
this EP issue, to be further 
the public domain shall not 
discussed with Council; this 
be subject to copyright or 
suggestion should cover only 
related rights, provided that 
non-original reproduction of 
such reproduction is a 
works for which the term of 
faithful reproduction for 
protection has elapsed; not 
purposes of preservation of 
using the terms „public 
the original material. 
domain“, „faithful 
reproduction“; the recitals to 
clarify that this does not affect 
other rights, such as property 
rights]  

 
152.   
Art. 5, para 
 
1b. Any contractual 
 
GREEN 
1b 
provision contrary to the 
exception provided for in 

[provisionally agreed at 
paragraph 1 shall be 
trilogue 25/10/2018 to deal 
with contractual override 

 
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unenforceable. 
under Article 6(1)] 
[See Council’s Article 6(1) 
(row 155)] 

153.   
Art. 6, 
Article 6 
Article 6 
Article 6 
Article 6 
Common provisions 
Common provisions 
Common provisions 
Common provisions 
title 
154.   
Art. 6, para 1   
1. 
Accessing content 
 
[To be discussed further at 
(EP) 
covered by an exception 
political level; COM to 
provided for in this 
provide a technical note 
Directive shall not confer 
clarifying situation according 
on users any entitlement to 
to jurisprudence, not 
use it pursuant to another 
restricting the notion of 
exception. 
“lawful access”] 
155.   
Art. 6, para 1   
 
1. 
Any contractual 
GREEN 
(Council) 
provision contrary to the 
exceptions provided for in 
1. Any contractual provision 
Articles 3, 4(1) and 5 shall 
contrary to the exceptions 
be unenforceable. 
provided for in Articles 3, 4 
and 5
 shall be unenforceable.  
[See Article 3(2) of the COM 
proposal and Parliament’s 
[provisionally agreed at 
Articles 3(2) and 4(4a) and 
trilogue 25/10/2018] 
5(1b)] 
 
 
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156.   
Art. 6, para 2  Article 5(5) and the first, 
2. 
Article 5(5) and the 
2. 
Article 5(5) and theof 
2.  Article  5(5)  of  Directive 
third and fifth subparagraphs  first, third, fourth and fifth 
Directive 2001/29/EC shall  2001/29/EC  shall  apply  to  the 
of Article 6(4) of Directive 
subparagraphs of Article 
apply to the exceptions and  exceptions  and  the  limitation 
2001/29/EC shall apply to 
6(4) of Directive 
the limitation provided for  provided  for  under  this  Title. 
the exceptions and the 
2001/29/EC shall apply to 
under this Title. The first, 
The  first,  third  and  fifth 
limitation provided for under  the exceptions and the 
third and fifth subparagraphs  subparagraphs  of  Article  6(4) 
this Title. 
limitation provided for under  of Article 6(4) of Directive 
of  Directive  2001/29/EC  shall 
this Title. 
2001/29/EC shall apply to 
apply to Articles 3, 4 and 5 of 
the exceptionsArticles 3, 
this Directive. 
4(1) and the limitation 
provided for under5 of this 
[EP agrees to drop reference 
TitleDirective
to the fourth subparagraph of 
Article 6(4) of Directive 
2001/29/EC;  

EP: second sentence to be left 
open until discussions on 
Article 7 finalised] 

157.   
 
TITLE III 
TITLE III 
TITLE III 
TITLE III 
MEASURES TO IMPROVE  MEASURES TO IMPROVE  MEASURES TO IMPROVE 
LICENSING PRACTICES 
LICENSING PRACTICES 
LICENSING PRACTICES 
MEASURES TO IMPROVE 
AND ENSURE WIDER 
AND ENSURE WIDER 
AND ENSURE WIDER 
LICENSING PRACTICES 
ACCESS TO CONTENT 
ACCESS TO CONTENT 
ACCESS TO CONTENT 
AND ENSURE WIDER 
ACCESS TO CONTENT 
158.   
 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
Out-of-commerce works 
Out-of-commerce works 
Out-of-commerce works 
Out-of-commerce works 
 
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159.   
Art. 7, title 
Article 7 
Article 7 
Article 7 
Article 7 
Use of out-of-commerce 
Use of out-of-commerce 
Use of out-of-commerce 
Use of out-of-commerce works 
works by cultural heritage 
works by cultural heritage 
works by cultural heritage 
by cultural heritage 
institutions 
institutions 
institutions 
institutions 
160.   
Art. 7, para 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
1, 
provide that when a 
provide that when a 
provide that when a 
introductory 
collective management 
collective management 
collective management 
1. 
Member States shall 
part 
organisation, on behalf of its  organisation, on behalf of its  organisation, on behalf of in  provide that a collective 
members, concludes a non-
members, concludes a non-
accordance with its 
management organisation, in 
exclusive licence for non-
exclusive licence for non-
members, 
accordance with its mandates, 
commercial purposes with a 
commercial purposes with a 
concludesmandates, may 
may conclude a non-exclusive 
cultural heritage institution 
cultural heritage institution 
conclude a non-exclusive 
licence for non-commercial 
for the digitisation, 
for the digitisation, 
licence for non-commercial 
purposes with a cultural 
distribution, communication  distribution, communication  purposes with a cultural 
heritage institution for the 
to the public or making 
to the public or making 
heritage institution for the 
reproduction, distribution, 
available of out-of-
available of out-of-
digitisationreproduction
communication to the public 
commerce works or other 
commerce works or other 
distribution, communication  or making available to the 
subject-matter permanently 
subject-matter permanently 
to the public or making 
public of out-of-commerce 
in the collection of the 
in the collection of the 
available to the public of 
works or other subject-matter 
institution, such a non-
institution, such a non-
out-of-commerce works or 
permanently in the collection 
exclusive licence may be 
exclusive licence may be 
other subject-matter 
of the institution, irrespective 
extended or presumed to 
extended or presumed to 
permanently in the collection  of whether all rightholders 
apply to rightholders of the 
apply to rightholders of the 
of the institution, such a non- covered by the licence have 
same category as those 
same category as those 
exclusive licence may be 
mandated the collective 
covered by the licence who 
covered by the licence who 
extended or presumed to 
management organisation, 
are not represented by the 
are not represented by the 
apply to rightholders of the 
provided that: 
collective management 
collective management 
same category as those 
 
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organisation, provided that: 
organisation, provided that: 
irrespective of whether all 
 
rightholders covered by the 
licence who are not 
[provisionally agreed at 
represented byhave 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
mandated the collective 
management organisation, 
provided that: 
161.   
Art. 7, para 
(a)  the collective 
(a)  the collective 
(a)  the collective 
GREEN 
1, point (a) 
management organisation is,  management organisation is,  management organisation is, 
on the basis of mandates 
on the basis of mandates 
on the basis of mandates 
(a)  the collective 
from rightholders, broadly 
from rightholders, broadly 
from rightholders, 
management organisation is, 
representative of 
representative of 
broadlysufficiently 
on the basis of mandates from 
rightholders in the category 
rightholders in the category 
representative of 
rightholders, sufficiently 
of works or other subject-
of works or other subject-
rightholders in the 
representative of rightholders 
matter and of the rights 
matter and of the rights 
categoryrelevant type of 
in the relevant type of works 
which are the subject of the 
which are the subject of the 
works or other subject-
or other subject-matter and of 
licence; 
licence; 
matter and of the rights 
the rights which are the subject 
which are the subject of the 
of the licence; 
licence;  
[provisionaly agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018; to be 
further discussed whether the 
meaning of “sufficiently 
representative” should be 
further clarified in the 
recitals]
 
 
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162.   
Art. 7, para 
(b)  equal treatment is 
(b)  equal treatment is 
(b)  equal treatment is 
(b)  equal treatment is 
1, point (b) 
guaranteed to all 
guaranteed to all 
guaranteed to all 
guaranteed to all rightholders 
rightholders in relation to the  rightholders in relation to the  rightholders in relation to 
in relation to the terms of the 
terms of the licence; 
terms of the licence; 
the terms of the licence;  
licence. 
163.   
Art. 7, para 
(c)  all rightholders may at  (c)  all rightholders may at  (c)  all rightholders may at  GREEN 
1, point (c) 
any time object to their 
any time object to their 
any time object toexclude 
works or other subject-
works or other subject-
the possibility for collective  [This point is moved to new 
matter being deemed to be 
matter being deemed to be 
management organisations  paragraph 1b below – row 
out of commerce and 
out of commerce and 
to license their works or 
167] 
exclude the application of 
exclude the application of 
other subject-matter being 
the licence to their works or 
the licence to their works or 
deemed to be out of 
[provisionaly agreed at 
other subject-matter. 
other subject-matter. 
commerce and in 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
accordance with this 
Article, either in general or 
in specific cases, or 
exclude 
the application of theany 
licence granted in 
accordance with this 
Article
 to their works or 
other subject-matter. 
164.   
Art. 7, para 
 
1a.  Member States shall 
 
1a.  Member States shall 
1a 
provide for an exception or 
provide for an exception or 
limitation to the rights 
limitation to the rights 
provided for in Articles 2 
provided for in Articles 2 and 
and 3 of Directive 
3 of Directive 2001/29/EC, 
2001/29/EC, Articles 5(a) 
Articles 5(a), (b), (d) and (e) 
 
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and 7(1) of Directive 
and 7(1) of Directive 96/9/EC, 
96/9/EC, Article 4(1) of 
Article 4(1) of Directive 
Directive 2009/24/EC, and 
2009/24/EC, and Article 11(1) 
Article 11(1) of this 
of this Directive, in order to 
Directive, permitting 
allow cultural heritage 
cultural heritage 
institutions to make available 
institutions to make copies 
out-of-commerce works or 
available online of out-of-
other subject-matter that are 
commerce works that are 
permanently in their 
located permanently in their 
collections for non-
collections for not-for-profit 
commercial purposes, 
purposes, provided that: 
provided that: 
[to be discussed further] 
165.   
Art. 7, para 
 
(a)  the name of the 
 
(a)  [the author or any other 
1a, point (a) 
author or any other 
identifiable rightholder was 
identifiable rightholder is 
informed individually at least 
indicated, unless this turns 
six months before the use, 
out to be impossible; 
unless this turns out to be 
impossible, and
] the name of 
the author or any other 
identifiable rightholder is 
indicated, unless this turns 
out to be impossible;
 
[Council to get back to 
Member States on the deletion 

 
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of the part in strikethrough] 
166.   
Art. 7, para 
 
(b)  all rightholders may at   
(b)  such works or other 
1a, point (b) 
any time object to their 
subject-matter are made 
works or other subject-
available on dedicated non-
matter being deemed to be 
commercial portals websites 
out of commerce and 
[which are accessible on the 
exclude the application of 
premises of cultural heritage 
the exception to their works 
institutions]. 
or other subject-matter. 
[Text of EP covered in new 
paragraph 1b below – row 
167;
 Council to get back to 
Member States on the deletion 
of the part
 in strikethrough] 
167.   
Art. 7, para 
 
1b.  Member States shall 
 
GREEN 
1b 
provide that the exception 
adopted pursuant to 

1b. Member States shall 
paragraph 1a does not apply 
provide that the exception or 
in sectors or for types of 
limitation referred to in the 
works where appropriate 
previous paragraph only 
licensing-based solutions, 
applies to types of works or 
including but not limited to 
other subject-matter for which 
solutions provided for in 
no collective management 
paragraph 1, are available. 
organisation exists that fulfils 
Member States shall, in 
the conditions referred to in 
consultation with authors, 
point (a) of paragraph 1.  
other rightholders, 
 
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collective management 
1c. Member States shall 
organisations and cultural 
provide that all rightholders 
heritage institutions, 
may at any time, easily and 
determine the availability of 
effectively, exclude their 
extended collective 
works or other subject-matter 
licensing-based solutions 
from the licensing mechanism 
for specific sectors or types 
referred to in paragraph 1 or 
of works. 
from uses under the exception 
or limitation referred to in 
paragraph 1a, either in general 
or in specific cases, including 
after the conclusion of a 
licence or the beginning of the 
use concerned. 
[provisionaly agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
168.   
Art. 7, para 
2. 
A work or other 
2. 
A work or other 
2. 
A work or other 
GREEN 
2, sub-para 1  subject-matter shall be 
subject-matter shall be 
subject-matter shall be 
deemed to be out of 
deemed to be out of 
deemed to be out-of-
2. 
A work or other subject-
commerce when the whole 
commerce when the whole 
commerce when it can be 
matter shall be deemed to be 
work or other subject-matter,  work or other subject-matter,  presumed in good faith 
out-of-commerce when it can 
in all its translations, 
in all its translations, 
that the whole work or other  be presumed in good faith that 
versions and manifestations,  versions and manifestations,  subject-matter, in all its 
the whole work or other 
is not available to the public  is not available to the public  translations, versions and 
subject-matter is not available 
through customary channels 
through customary channels  manifestations, is not 
to the public through 
of commerce and cannot be 
of commerce and cannot be 
available to the public 
customary channels of 
 
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reasonably expected to 
reasonably expected to 
through customary channels 
commerce after a reasonable 
become so.  
become so. Member States 
of commerce and cannot be 
effort is made to determine 
may provide a cut-off date 
reasonably expected to 
such availability. 
in relation to determining 
become so. after a 
whether a work previously 
reasonable effort is made 
[provisionally agreed at 
commercialised is deemed 
to determine such 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
to be out of commerce. 
availability. 
[See definition of out-of-
commerce work in 
Parliament’s Article 2(4a) 
(rows 122-126)]   

169.   
Art. 7, para 
Member States shall, in 
Member States shall, in 
Member States shall, in 
GREEN 
2, sub-para 2  consultation with 
consultation with 
consultation with 
rightholders, collective 
rightholders, collective 
rightholders, collective 
Member States may provide 
management organisations 
management organisations 
management organisations 
for specific requirements, such 
and cultural heritage 
and cultural heritage 
and cultural heritage 
as a cut-off date, to determine 
institutions, ensure that the 
institutions, ensure that the 
institutions, ensure that the 
whether works and other 
requirements used to 
requirements used to 
may provide for specific 
subject-matter can be licensed 
determine whether works 
determine whether works 
requirements used to 
in accordance with paragraph 
and other subject-matter can  and other subject-matter can  determine whether works 
or used under the 
be licensed in accordance 
be licensed in accordance 
and other subject-matter can  exception or limitation 
with paragraph 1 do not 
with paragraph 1 or used in 
be licensed in accordance 
referred to in paragraph 1a
extend beyond what is 
accordance with paragraph  with paragraph 1 do. Such 
Such requirements shall not 
necessary and reasonable 
1a do not extend beyond 
requirements shall not 
extend beyond what is 
and do not preclude the 
what is necessary and 
extend beyond what is 
necessary and reasonable, and 
possibility to determine the 
reasonable and do not 
necessary and reasonable, 
shall not preclude the 
out-of-commerce status of a 
preclude the possibility to 
and doshall not preclude the  possibility to determine the 
 
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collection as a whole, when 
determine the out-of-
possibility to determine the 
out-of-commerce status of a 
it is reasonable to presume 
commerce status of a 
out-of-commerce status of a  set of works or other subject-
that all works or other 
collection as a whole, when 
collection as set of works or  matter as a whole, when it is 
subject-matter in the 
it is reasonable to presume 
other subject-matter as 
reasonable to presume that all 
collection are out of 
that all works or other 
whole, when it is reasonable  works or other subject-matter 
commerce. 
subject-matter in the 
to presume that all works or 
are out-of commerce. 
collection are out of 
other subject-matter in the 
commerce. 
collection are out -of -
[provisionaly agreed at 
commerce. 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
170.   
Art. 7, 
3. 
Member States shall 
3.  Member States shall 
3.  [Moved to new Article 
3.  [Moved to new Article 
para 3, 
provide that appropriate 
provide that appropriate 
8a(2)] 
8a(2)] 
introductory 
publicity measures are taken  publicity measures are taken 
part 
regarding: 
regarding: 
 
 
171.   
Art. 7, para 
(a)  the deeming of works 
(a)  the deeming of works or   
 
3, point (a) 
or other subject-matter as out  other subject-matter as out of 
of commerce; 
commerce; 
172.   
Art. 7, para 
(b)  the licence, and in 
(b)  the any licence, and in 
 
 
3, point (b) 
particular its application to 
particular its application to 
unrepresented rightholders; 
unrepresented rightholders; 
173.   
Art. 7, para 
(c)  the possibility of 
(c)  the possibility of 
 
 
3, point (c) 
rightholders to object, 
rightholders to object, 
referred to in point (c) of 
referred to in point (c) of 
paragraph 1; 
paragraph 1 and point (b) of 
paragraph 1a;
 
 
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174.   
Art. 7, para 
including during a 
including during a 
 
 
3, closing 
reasonable period of time 
reasonable period of time at 
phrase 
before the works or other 
least six months before the 
subject-matter are digitised, 
works or other subject-
distributed, communicated to  matter are digitised, 
the public or made available.  distributed, communicated to 
the public or made available. 
175.   
Art. 7, 
4. 
Member States shall 
4. 
Member States shall 
4. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
para 4, 
ensure that the licences 
ensure that the licences 
ensure that the licences 
introductory 
referred to in paragraph 1 are  referred to in paragraph 1 are  referred to in paragraph 1 
4. 
Member States shall 
part / Art. 7, 
sought from a collective 
sought from a collective 
are sought from a collective 
ensure that the licences 
para 4 
management organisation 
management organisation 
management organisation 
referred to in paragraph 1 are 
(Council) 
that is representative for the 
that is representative for the 
that is representative for the 
sought from a collective 
Member State where: 
Member State where: 
Member State where: the 
management organisation that 
cultural heritage 
is representative for the 
institution is established. 
Member State where the 
cultural heritage institution is 
established. 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018; to be 
discussed further whether the 
meaning of “representative” 
should be further clarified in 
the recitals]
 
176.   
Art. 7, 
 
 
5. 
This Article shall not  GREEN 
 
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para 5, 
apply to sets of out-of-
5. 
This Article shall not 
introductory 
commerce if, following the 
apply to sets of out-of-
part 
reasonable effort to 
commerce works if, on the 
(Council) 
determine commercial 
basis of the reasonable effort 
availability, there is 
referred to in paragraph 2, 
evidence that such sets 
there is evidence that such sets 
predominantly consist of: 
predominantly consist of: 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
177.   
Art. 7, 
(a)  the works or 
(a)  the works or 
(a)  the works or other 
GREEN 
para 4, point 
phonograms were first 
phonograms were first 
subject-matter phonograms 
(a) (EP)/ 
published or, in the absence 
published or, in the absence 
were first published or, in 
 (a)  works or other subject-
Art. 7, para 
of publication, where they 
of publication, where they 
the absence of publication, 
matter first published or, in the 
5, point (a) 
were first broadcast, except 
were first broadcast, except 
where they were first 
absence of publication, first 
(Council) 
for cinematographic and 
for cinematographic and 
broadcast in a third 
broadcast in a third country, 
audiovisual works; 
audiovisual works; 
country, except for 
except for cinematographic or 
cinematographic andor 
audiovisual works; 
audiovisual works;  
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
178.   
Art. 7, 
(b)  the producers of the 
(b)  the producers of the 
(b)  cinematographic or 
GREEN 
para 4, point 
works have their 
works have their 
audiovisual works, the 
(b) (EP)/ Art.  headquarters or habitual 
headquarters or habitual 
producers of the 
 (b)  cinematographic or 
7, para 5, 
residence, for 
residence, for 
workswhich have their 
audiovisual works, the 
point (b) 
cinematographic and 
cinematographic and 
headquarters or habitual 
producers of which have their 
residence, for 
headquarters or habitual 
 
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(Council) 
audiovisual works; or 
audiovisual works; or 
cinematographic and 
residence in a third country; or 
audiovisual works in a third 
country
; or 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
179.   
Art. 7, 
(c)  the cultural heritage 
(c)  the cultural heritage 
c) 
the cultural heritage 
GREEN 
para 4, point 
institution is established, 
institution is established, 
institution is established, 
(c) (EP) /Art.  when a Member State or a 
when a Member State or a 
works or other subject-
c) 
works or other subject-
7, para 5, 
third country could not be 
third country could not be 
matter of third country 
matter of third country 
point (c) 
determined, after reasonable  determined, after reasonable  nationals when a Member 
nationals when a Member 
(Council) 
efforts, according to points 
efforts, according to points 
State or a third country 
State or a third country could 
(a) and (b). 
(a) and (b). 
could not be determined, 
not be determined, after a 
after reasonable 
reasonable effort, according to 
effortseffort, according to 
points (a) and (b); 
points (a) and (b).); 
 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
180.   
Art. 7, para 5  5. 
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 
5. 
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 
5. 
Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 
GREEN 
(EP)/ Art. 7, 
shall not apply to the works 
shall not apply to the works 
shall not apply tounless the 
para 5, 
or other subject-matter of 
or other subject-matter of 
works or other subject-
unless the collective 
closing 
third country nationals 
third country nationals 
mattercollective 
management organisation is 
phrase 
except where points (a) and 
except where points (a) and 
management organisation 
sufficiently representative of 
(Council) 
(b) of paragraph 4 apply. 
(b) of paragraph 4 apply. 
is sufficiently 
rightholders of that third 
representative of 
country in the meaning of 
rightholders of that third 
point (a) of paragraph 1. 
country nationals except 
 
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where pointsin the meaning   
of point (a) and (b) of 
paragraph 4 apply1
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
181.   
Art. 8, title 
Article 8 
Article 8 
Article 8 
Article 8 
Cross-border uses 
Cross-border uses 
Cross-border uses 
Cross-border uses 
182.   
Art. 8, para 1  1. 
Works or other 
1. 
Works Out-of-
1. 
Works or other 
1. 
A licence granted in 
subject-matter covered by a 
commerce works or other 
subject-matter covered by 
accordance with Article 7 may 
licence granted in 
subject-matter covered by a 
aA licence granted in 
allow the use of out-of-
accordance with Article 7 
licence granted in 
accordance with Article 7 
commerce works or other 
may be used by the cultural 
accordance with Article 7 
may be used allow the use 
subject-matter by the cultural 
heritage institution in 
may be used by the cultural 
of out-of-commerce works  heritage institution in any 
accordance with the terms of  heritage institution in 
or other subject-matter by  Member State. 
the licence in all Member 
accordance with the terms of  the cultural heritage 
States. 
the licence that Article in all  institution in accordance 
2. The uses of works and 
Member States. 
with the terms of the licence  other subject-matter under the 
in allany Member 
exception or limitation 
StatesState
referred to in Article 7(1a) 
shall be deemed to occur 
solely in the Member State 
where the cultural heritage 
institution undertaking that 
use is established.
 
[paragraph 1 provisionally 
agreed at Trilogue 
26/11/2018; paragraph 2 

 
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depending on Article 7(1a)] 
183.   
Art. 8, para 2  2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 
2.  [Moved to new Article 
GREEN 
ensure that information that 
ensure that information that 
8a(1)] 
allows the identification of 
allows the identification of 
2.  [Moved to new Article 
the works or other subject-
the works or other subject-
8a(1)] 
matter covered by a licence 
matter covered by a licence 
granted in accordance with 
granted in accordance with 
[provisionally agreed at 
Article 7 and information 
Article 7 and information 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
about the possibility of 
about the possibility of 
rightholders to object 
rightholders to object 
 
referred to in Article 7(1)(c) 
referred to in point (c) of 
are made publicly accessible  Article 7(1) and point (b) of 
in a single online portal for 
Article 7(1a) are made 
at least six months before the  publicly permanently, easily 
works or other subject-
and effectively accessible in 
matter are digitised, 
public single online portal 
distributed, communicated to  for at least six months before 
the public or made available  the works or other subject-
in Member States other than  matter are digitised, 
the one where the licence is 
distributed, communicated to 
granted, and for the whole 
the public or made available 
duration of the licence. 
in Member States other than 
the one where the licence is 
granted, or in the cases 
covered by Article 7(1a), 
where the cultural heritage 
institution is established
 and 
for the whole duration of the 
 
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licence. 
184.   
Art. 8, para 3  3. 
The portal referred to 
3. 
The portal referred to 
3.  [Moved to new Article 
GREEN 
in paragraph 2 shall be 
in paragraph 2 shall be 
8a(1) second subparagraph] 
established and managed by 
established and managed by 
3.  [Moved to new Article 
the European Union 
the European Union 
8a(1) second subparagraph] 
Intellectual Property Office 
Intellectual Property Office 
in accordance with 
in accordance with 
[provisionally agreed at 
Regulation (EU) No 
Regulation (EU) No 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
386/2012. 
386/2012. 
 
185.   
Art. 8a, title 
 
 
 
GREEN 
Article 8a 
Article 8a 
Publicity measures 
Publicity measures 
 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 

186.   
Art. 8a, para 
 
 
1
Member States shall 
GREEN 
1, sub-para 1 
ensure that information that 
allowsfor the purposes of 
1. 
Member States shall 
the identification of the out-
ensure that information from 
of-commerce works or other  cultural heritage institutions, 
subject-matter covered by a 
collective management 
licence granted in 
organisations or relevant 
 
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accordance with Article 7 
public authorities for the 
andas well as information 
purposes of the identification 
about the 
of the out-of-commerce works 
possibilitypossibilities of 
or other subject-matter 
rightholders to object 
covered by a licence granted 
referred to in Article 7(1)(c) 
in accordance with Article 
are), and, as soon as it is 
7(1) or used under the 
available, information on 
exception or limitation 
the parties to the licence, 
referred to in Article 7(1a) as 
the covered territories and  well as information about the 
the allowed uses is made 
possibilities of rightholders 
publicly accessible in a 
referred to in Article 7(1c), 
single online portal forfrom 
and, as soon as it is available 
at least six months before 
and where relevant
the works or other subject-
information on the parties to 
matter are digitised, 
the licence, the covered 
distributed, communicated 
territories and the allowed uses 
to the public or made 
is made permanently, easily 
available in Member States 
and effectively accessible in a 
other than the one where the  public single online portal 
licence is granted, and for 
from at least six months before 
the whole duration ofto the 
the works or other subject-
public in accordance with 
matter are distributed, 
the licence. 
communicated to the public or 
made available to the public in 
[Article 8(2) of the COM 
accordance with the licence or 
proposal, amended] 
under the exception or 
limitation

 
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[Article 8(2) of the COM 
proposal, amended] 

[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018, including 
clarification in recital (27) 
that the licence may cover one, 
several or all Member States; 
part in yellow
 depending on 
Article 7(1a)] 

187.   
Art. 8a, para 
 
 
3. 
The portal referred to 
GREEN 
1, sub-para 2 
in paragraph 2 shall be 
established and managed by  The portal shall be established 
the European Union 
and managed by the European 
Intellectual Property Office 
Union Intellectual Property 
in accordance with 
Office in accordance with 
Regulation (EU) No 
Regulation (EU) No 386/2012. 
386/2012. 
[Article 8(3) of the COM 
[Article 8(3) of the COM 
proposal, amended] 
proposal, amended] 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
188.   
Art. 8a, para 
 
 
2. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 

provide that, if necessary 
for the general awareness 

2. 
Member States shall 
of rightholders, further 
provide that, if necessary for 
 
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appropriate publicity 
the general awareness of 
measures are taken 
rightholders, further 
regarding: (a) the deeming 
appropriate publicity measures 
of works or other subject-
are taken regarding the 
matter as out of commerce; 
possibility for collective 
(b) the licence, and in 
management organisations to 
particular its application to 
license works or other subject-
unrepresented rightholders; 
matter in accordance with 
the possibility for collective  Article 7, the licences granted
management organisations  the uses under the exception 
to license works or other 

or limitation referred to in 
subject-matter in 
Article 7(1a) and the 
accordance with Article 7, 
possibilities of rightholders 
the licences granted and (c)  referred to in Article 7(1c). 
the possibilities to object of 
rightholders referred to in 
The additional appropriate 
point (c) of paragraph 1 
publicity measures shall be 
Article 7(1)(c) ;. 
taken in the Member State 
where the licence is sought in 
Including during a 
accordance to Article 7(1) or, 
reasonable period of time 
for uses under the exception 
before the works or other 
or limitation referred to in 
subject-matter are digitised, 
Article 7(1a), where the 
distributed, communicated to  cultural heritage institution 
the public or made available.   is established. If there is 
evidence, such as the origin of 
The additional appropriate  the works or other subject-
publicity measures shall be  matter, to suggest that the 
taken in the Member State  awareness of rightholders 
 
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where the licence is sought.  could be more efficiently 
If there is evidence, such as  raised in other Member States 
the origin of the works or 
or third countries, such 
other subject-matter, to 
publicity measures shall also 
suggest that the awareness  cover those Member States 
of rightholders could be 
and third countries. 
more efficiently raised in 
other Member States or 

[Article 7(3) of the COM 
third countries, such 
proposal, amended] 
publicity measures shall 
also cover those Member 

 
States and third countries.   [provisionally agreed at 
[Article 7(3) of the COM 

Trilogue 26/11/2018; part in 
proposal, amended] 
yellow depending on Article 
7(1a)]  

 
 
189.   
Art. 9, title 
Article 9 
Article 9 
Article 9 
Article 9 
Stakeholder dialogue 
Stakeholder dialogue 
Stakeholder dialogue 
Stakeholder dialogue 
190.   
Art 9 
Member States shall ensure a  Member States shall ensure a  Member States shall ensure 
GREEN 
regular dialogue between 
regular dialogue between 
consult rightholders, 
representative users' and 
representative users' and 
collective management 
Member States shall consult 
rightholders' organisations, 
rightholders' organisations, 
organisations and cultural  rightholders, collective 
and any other relevant 
and any other relevant 
heritage institutions in 
management organisations and 
 
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stakeholder organisations, to,  stakeholder organisations, to,  each sector before 
cultural heritage institutions in 
on a sector-specific basis, 
on a sector-specific basis, 
establishing specific 
each sector before establishing 
foster the relevance and 
foster the relevance and 
requirements pursuant to 
specific requirements pursuant 
usability of the licensing 
usability of the licensing 
Article 7(2), and encourage  to Article 7(2), and encourage 
mechanisms referred to in 
mechanisms referred to in 
a regular dialogue between 
a regular dialogue between 
Article 7(1), ensure the 
Article 7(1) and the 
representative users' and 
representative users' and 
effectiveness of the 
exception referred to in 
rightholders' organisations, 
rightholders' organisations, 
safeguards for rightholders 
Article 7(1a), ensure the 
including collective 
including collective 
referred to in this Chapter, 
effectiveness of the 
management 
management organisations, 
notably as regards publicity 
safeguards for rightholders 
organisations, and any other  and any other relevant 
measures, and, where 
referred to in this Chapter, 
relevant stakeholder 
stakeholder organisations, on a 
applicable, assist in the 
notably as regards publicity 
organisations, to, on a 
sector-specific basis, to foster 
establishment of the 
measures, and, where 
sector-specific basis, to 
the relevance and usability of 
requirements referred to in 
applicable, assist in the 
foster the relevance and 
the licensing mechanisms 
the second subparagraph of 
establishment of the 
usability of the licensing 
referred to in Article 7(1) and 
Article 7(2). 
requirements referred to in 
mechanisms referred to in 
to ensure the effectiveness of 
the second subparagraph of 
Article 7(1),) and to ensure 
the safeguards for rightholders 
Article 7(2). 
the effectiveness of the 
referred to in this Chapter. 
safeguards for rightholders 
referred to in this Chapter, 
 
notably as regards publicity 
measures, and, where 
[provisionally agreed at 
applicable, assist in the 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
establishment of the 
requirements referred to in 
the second subparagraph of 
Article 7(2)
 
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191.   
 
 
 
CHAPTER 1a 
CHAPTER 1a 
Measures to facilitate 
Measures to facilitate 
collective licensing 
collective licensing 
192.   
Art. 9a, title 
 
 
Article 9a 
Article 9a 
Collective licensing with an 
Collective licensing with an 
extended effect 
extended effect 
[Article 9a in principle 
provisionally agreed; final 
agreement depending on  final 
wording with possible 
technical clarifications from 
COM] 
 
193.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
1. 
Member States may 
1. 
Member States may 

provide, as far as the use 
provide, as far as the use 
within their national 
within their national territory 
territory is concerned and 
is concerned and subject to 
subject to safeguards 
safeguards provided for in this 
provided for in this 
Article, that when a collective 
Article, that when a 
management organisation, in 
collective management 
accordance with its mandates 
organisation, in 
from rightholders, enters into a 
accordance with its 
licensing agreement for the 
mandates from 
exploitation of works or other 
rightholders, enters into a 
subject-matter such an 
 
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licensing agreement for the  agreement may be extended to 
exploitation of works or 
apply to the rights of 
other subject-matter such 
rightholders who have not 
an agreement may be 
authorised the organisation to 
extended to apply to the 
represent them by way of 
rights of rightholders who 
assignment, licence or any 
have not authorised the 
other contractual arrangement; 
organisation to represent 
or, with respect to such an 
them by way of 
agreement, the organisation 
assignment, licence or any 
has a legal mandate or is 
other contractual 
presumed to represent 
arrangement; or, with 
rightholders who have not 
respect to such an 
authorised the organisation 
agreement, the 
accordingly. 
organisation has a legal 
mandate or is presumed to  
 
represent rightholders who 
have not authorised the 

[see comment in row 192] 
organisation accordingly.  
 
194.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 

ensure that the licensing 
ensure that the licensing 
mechanism referred to in 
mechanism referred to in 
paragraph 1 is only 
paragraph 1 is only applied 
applied within well-defined  within well-defined areas of 
areas of use where 
use where obtaining 
obtaining authorisations 
authorisations from 
from rightholders on an 
rightholders on an individual 
 
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individual basis is typically  basis is typically onerous and 
onerous and impractical to  impractical to a degree that 
a degree that makes the 
makes the required licensing 
required licensing 
transaction unlikely due to the 
transaction unlikely due to  nature of the use or of the 
the nature of the use or of 
types of works or other 
the types of works or other  subject-matter concerned and 
subject-matter concerned 
that such mechanism 
and that such mechanism 
safeguards the legitimate 
safeguards the legitimate 
interests of rightholders. 
interests of rightholders. 
[see comment in row 192] 
 
195.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
3. 
The safeguards 
3. 
The safeguards referred 

referred to in paragraph 1  to in paragraph 1 must ensure 
must ensure that: 
that: 
[see comment in row 192] 
196.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
(a)  the organisation is, 
(a)  the organisation is, on 
3, point (a) 
on the basis of mandates 
the basis of mandates from 
from rightholders, 
rightholders, sufficiently 
sufficiently representative 
representative of rightholders 
of rightholders in the 
in the relevant type of works 
relevant type of works or 
or other subject-matter and of 
other subject-matter and 
the rights which are the subject 
of the rights which are the 
of the licence for the relevant 
 
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subject of the licence for 
Member State; 
the relevant Member 
State; 

[see comment in row 192] 
197.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
(b)  equal treatment is 
(b)  equal treatment is 
3, point (b) 
guaranteed to all 
guaranteed to all rightholders 
rightholders in relation to 
in relation to the terms of the 
the terms of the licence; 
licence; 
[see comment in row 192] 
198.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
(c)  rightholders who 
(c)  rightholders who have 
3, point (c) 
have not authorised the 
not authorised the organisation 
organisation operating the  operating the licence may at 
licence may at any time 
any time easily and effectively 
easily and effectively 
exclude their works or other 
exclude their works or 
subject-matter from the 
other subject-matter from 
licensing mechanism 
the licensing mechanism 
established in accordance with 
established in accordance 
this Article; 
with this Article; 
[see comment in row 192] 
199.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
(d)  appropriate publicity  (d)  appropriate publicity 
3, point (d) 
measures are taken to raise  measures are taken to raise the 
the awareness of 
awareness of rightholders 
rightholders regarding the  regarding the possibility for 
possibility for 
organisations to license works 
organisations to license 
or other subject-matter and the 
 
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works or other subject-
licensing taking place in 
matter and the licensing 
accordance with this Article, 
taking place in accordance  and the possibilities of 
with this Article, and the 
rightholders referred to in 
possibilities of rightholders  point (c) starting from a 
referred to in point (c) 
reasonable period before the 
starting from a reasonable  works or other subject-matter 
period before the works or  are used under the licence. 
other subject-matter are 
Publicity measures should be 
used under the licence. 
effective without the need to 
Publicity measures should 
inform each rightholder 
be effective without the 
individually.  
need to inform each 
rightholder individually. 

[see comment in row 192] 
 
200.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
4. 
The rules provided 
4. 
The rules provided for in 

for in this Article are 
this Article are without 
without prejudice to the 
prejudice to the application of 
application of collective 
collective licensing 
licensing mechanisms with  mechanisms with an extended 
an extended effect in 
effect in conformity with other 
conformity with other 
provisions of Union law, 
provisions of Union law, 
including those which allow 
including those which 
exceptions or limitations, and 
allow exceptions or 
shall not apply to mandatory 
limitations, and shall not 
collective management of 
apply to mandatory 
 
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collective management of 
rights. 
rights. 
[see comment in row 192] 
201.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
5. 
Where the law of a 
5. 
Where the law of a 

Member State provides for  Member State provides for a 
a licensing mechanism in 
licensing mechanism in 
accordance with this 
accordance with this Article, 
Article, the Member State 
the Member State concerned 
concerned shall inform the  shall inform the Commission 
Commission about the 
about the scope of that law, 
scope of that law, purposes  purposes and types of licences 
and types of licences that 
that may be introduced under 
may be introduced under 
that law as well as contact 
that law as well as contact 
details for organisations 
details for organisations 
issuing licences in accordance 
issuing licences in 
with the mechanism in 
accordance with the 
paragraph 1. The Commission 
mechanism in paragraph 
shall publish this information.  
1. The Commission shall 
publish this information. 

[see comment in row 192] 
 
202.   
Art. 9a, para 
 
 
6. 
Based on the 
6. Based on the information 

information received 
received pursuant to paragraph 
pursuant to paragraph 5 
5 and on the discussions in the 
and on the discussions in 
contact committee referred to 
the contact committee 
in Article 12(3) of Directive 
 
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referred to in Article 12(3)  2001/29/EC, the Commission 
of Directive 2001/29/EC, 
shall, by 10 April 2021
the Commission shall, by 
submit to the European 
31 December 2020, submit  Parliament and to the Council 
to the European 
a report on the use of such 
Parliament and to the 
mechanisms referred to in 
Council a report on the use  paragraph 1 in the EU and 
of such mechanisms 
their impact on licensing and 
referred to in paragraph 1  rightholders. The 
in the EU and their impact  Commission’s report shall be 
on licensing and 
accompanied, if appropriate, 
rightholders. The 
by a legislative proposal, 
Commission’s report shall  including as regards the cross-
be accompanied, if 
border effect of such national 
appropriate, by a 
schemes. 
legislative proposal, 
including
 as regards 
[see comment in row 192] 
publicity measures, and, 
where applicable, assist in 
the establishment of the 
requirements referred to in 
the second subparagraph of 
Article 7(2).the cross-
border effect of such 
national schemes.
 
203.   
 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
Access to and availability of  Access to and availability of  Access to and availability of 
audiovisual works on video-
audiovisual works on video-
audiovisual works on video-
Access to and availability of 
 
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on-demand platforms 
on-demand platforms 
on-demand platforms 
audiovisual works on video-
on-demand platforms 
204.   
Art. 10, title 
Article 10 
Article 10 
Article 10 
Article 10 
Negotiation mechanism 
Negotiation mechanism 
Negotiation mechanism 
Negotiation mechanism 
205.   
Art. 10, sub-
Member States shall ensure 
Member States shall ensure 
Member States shall ensure 
GREEN 
para 1 
that where parties wishing to  that where parties wishing to  that where parties 
conclude an agreement for 
conclude an agreement for 
wishingfacing difficulties 
Member States shall ensure 
the purpose of making 
the purpose of making 
related to the licensing of 
that parties facing difficulties 
available audiovisual works 
available audiovisual works 
rights when seeking to 
related to the licensing of 
on video-on-demand 
on video-on-demand 
conclude an agreement for 
rights when seeking to 
platforms face difficulties 
platforms face difficulties 
the purpose of making 
conclude an agreement for the 
relating to the licensing of 
relating to the licensing of 
available audiovisual works 
purpose of making available 
rights, they may rely on the 
audiovisual rights, they may  on video-on-demand 
audiovisual works on video-
assistance of an impartial 
rely on the assistance of an 
platforms face difficulties 
on-demand services, may rely 
body with relevant 
impartial body with relevant  relating to the licensing of 
on the assistance of an 
experience. That body shall 
experience. That body The 
rights, theyservices, may 
impartial body or of mediators. 
provide assistance with 
impartial body created or 
rely on the assistance of an 
The impartial body created 
negotiation and help reach 
designated by the Member 
impartial body with relevant  or designated by the 
agreements. 
State for the purpose of this  experience. Thator of 
Member State for the 
Article shall provide 
mediators. The body or 
purpose of this Article or 
assistance to the parties with  mediators shall provide 
mediators shall provide 
negotiation and help them to  assistance to the parties 
assistance to the parties with 
reach agreement. 
with negotiationtheir 
their negotiations and help 
negotiations and help them 
them reach agreements, 
reach agreements, including,  including, where appropriate, 
where appropriate, by 
by submitting proposals to the 
submitting proposals to the 
 
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parties
parties. 
 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 

206.   
Art. 10, sub-
No later than [date 
No later than [date 
No later than [date 
GREEN 
para 2 
mentioned in Article 21(1)] 
mentioned in Article 21(1)] 
mentioned in Article 21(1)] 
Member States shall notify 
Member States shall notify 
Member States shall notify 
Member States shall notify to 
to the Commission the body 
to inform the Commission of  to the Commission the body 
the Commission the body or 
referred to in paragraph 1. 
the body referred to in 
or mediators referred to in 
mediators referred to in 
paragraph 1. they create or 
paragraph 1 no later than 
paragraph 1 no later than [date 
designate pursuant to the 
[date mentioned in Article 
mentioned in Article 21(1)]. In 
first paragraph. 
21(1)]. In cases where 
cases where Member States 
Member States have 
have chosen to rely on 
chosen to rely on 
mediation, the notification to 
mediation, the notification 
the Commission shall at least 
to the Commission shall at  include, when available, the 
least include, when 
source where relevant 
available, the source where  information on the entrusted 
relevant information on 
mediators can be found. 
the entrusted mediators 
can be found

 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
207.   
Art. 10, sub-
 
To encourage the 
 
GREEN 
 
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para 3 
availability of audiovisual 
[provisionally agreed at 
works on video-on-demand 
Trilogue on 26/11/2018 to 
platforms, Member States 
insert part of the EP mandate 
shall foster dialogue 
of this row into a recital (not 
between representative 
in Article) along the following 
organisations of authors, 
lines: Member States should 
producers, video-on-
encourage dialogue between 
demand platforms and other 
representative organisations, 
relevant stakeholders. 
without it being an obligation 
for Member States]  

208.   
 
 
CHAPTER 2a 
 
Deleted  
Access to Union 
publications 
[the Presidency's 
understanding of the outcome 
of the trilogue on 26/11/2018 
is that the EP acepted to 
remove Article 10a from the 
Directive]  

209.   
Art. 10a, title   
Article 10 a 
 
Deleted 
Union Legal Deposit 
[see comment in row 208] 
210.   
Art. 10a, para   
1. 
Any electronic 
 
Deleted 

publication dealing with 
Union-related matters such 

[see comment in row 208] 
as Union law, Union history 
and integration, Union 

 
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policy and Union 
democracy, institutional 
and parliamentary affairs, 
and politics, that is made 
available to the public in the 
Union shall be subject to a 
Union Legal Deposit.
 
211.   
Art. 10a, para   
2. 
The European 
 
Deleted 

Parliament Library shall be 
entitled to delivery, free of 

[see comment in row 208] 
charge, of one copy of every 
publication referred to in 
paragraph 1.
 
212.   
Art. 10a, para   
3. 
The obligation set out   
Deleted 

in paragraph 1 shall apply 
to publishers, printers and 

[see comment in row 208] 
importers of publications 
for the works they publish, 
print or import in the 
Union. 

213.   
Art. 10a, para   
4. 
From the day of the 
 
Deleted 

delivery to the European 
Parliament Library, the 

[see comment in row 208] 
publications referred to in 
paragraph 1 shall become 
part of the European 

 
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Parliament Library 
permanent collection. They 
shall be made available to 
users at the European 
Parliament Library’s 
premises exclusively for the 
purpose of research or study 
by accredited researchers 
and under the control of the 
European Parliament 
Library.
 
214.   
Art. 10a, para   
5. 
The Commission shall   
Deleted 

adopt acts to specify the 
modalities relating to the 

[see comment in row 208] 
delivery to the European 
Parliament Library of 
publications referred to in 
paragraph 1.
 
215.   
 
TITLE IV 
TITLE IV 
TITLE IV 
TITLE IV 
MEASURES TO ACHIEVE  MEASURES TO ACHIEVE  MEASURES TO ACHIEVE  MEASURES TO ACHIEVE A 
A WELL-FUNCTIONING 
A WELL-FUNCTIONING 
A WELL-FUNCTIONING 
WELL-FUNCTIONING 
MARKETPLACE FOR 
MARKETPLACE FOR 
MARKETPLACE FOR 
MARKETPLACE FOR 
COPYRIGHT 
COPYRIGHT 
COPYRIGHT 
COPYRIGHT 
216.   
 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
CHAPTER 1 
Rights in publications 
Rights in publications 
Rights in publications 
Rights in publications 
 
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217.   
Art. 11, title 
Article 11 
Article 11 
Article 11 
[To be further discussed at 
Protection of press 
Protection of press 
Protection of press 
political level; 
publications concerning 
publications concerning 
publications concerning 
digital uses 
digital uses 
digitalonline uses 
Preparatory work to be done 
at technical level] 

218.   
Art. 11, para 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
 

provide publishers of press 
provide publishers of press 
provide publishers of press 
publications with the rights 
publications with the rights 
publications established in 
provided for in Article 2 and  provided for in Article 2 and  a Member State with the 
Article 3(2) of Directive 
Article 3(2) of Directive 
rights provided for in Article 
2001/29/EC for the digital 
2001/29/EC so that they 
2 and Article 3(2) of 
use of their press 
may obtain fair and 
Directive 2001/29/EC for 
publications. 
proportionate remuneration  the digitalonline use of their 
for the digital use of their 
press publications by 
press publications by 
information society service 
information society service 
providers
providers
219.   
Art. 11, para 
 
 
The rights referred to in 
 
1, sub-para 2 
the first subparagraph 
shall not apply in respect 
of uses of insubstantial 
parts of a press 
publication. Member 
States shall be free to 
determine the 
insubstantial nature of 

 
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parts of press publications 
taking into account 
whether these parts are the 
expression of the 
intellectual creation of 
their authors, or whether 
these parts are individual 
words or very short 
excerpts, or both criteria.
 
220.   
Art. 11, para 
 
1a.  The rights referred to 
 
 
1a 
in paragraph 1 shall not 
prevent legitimate private 
and non-commercial use of 
press publications by 
individual users.
 
221.   
Art. 11, para 
2. 
The rights referred to 
2. 
The rights referred to 
2. 
The rights referred to 
 

in paragraph 1 shall leave 
in paragraph 1shall leave 
in paragraph 1 shall leave 
intact and shall in no way 
intact and shall in no way 
intact and shall in no way 
affect any rights provided for  affect any rights provided for  affect any rights provided for 
in Union law to authors and 
in Union law to authors and 
in Union law to authors and 
other rightholders, in respect  other rightholders, in respect  other rightholders, in respect 
of the works and other 
of the works and other 
of the works and other 
subject-matter incorporated 
subject-matter incorporated 
subject-matter incorporated 
in a press publication. Such 
in a press publication. Such 
in a press publication. 
rights may not be invoked 
rights may not be invoked 
SuchThe rights referred to 
against those authors and 
against those authors and 
in paragraph 1 may not be 
other rightholders and, in 
other rightholders and, in 
invoked against those 
 
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particular, may not deprive 
particular, may not deprive 
authors and other 
them of their right to exploit  them of their right to exploit  rightholders and, in 
their works and other 
their works and other 
particular, may not deprive 
subject-matter independently  subject-matter independently  them of their right to exploit 
from the press publication in  from the press publication in  their works and other 
which they are incorporated.  which they are incorporated.  subject-matter independently 
from the press publication in 
which they are incorporated. 
 
222.   
Art. 11, para 
 
 
When a work or other 
 
2, sub-para 2 
subject-matter is 
incorporated in a press 
publication on the basis of 
a non-exclusive licence, the 
rights referred to in 
paragraph 1 may not be 
invoked to prohibit the use 
by other authorised users. 
The rights referred to in 
paragraph 1 may not be 
invoked to prohibit the use 
of works or other subject-
matter whose protection 
has expired.
 
223.   
Art. 11, para 
 
2a.  The rights referred to 
 
 
in paragraph 1 shall not 
 
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2a 
extend to mere hyperlinks 
which are accompanied by 
individual words. 

224.   
Art. 11, para 
3. 
Articles 5 to 8 of 
3. 
 Articles 5 to 8 of 
3. 
Articles 5 to 8 of 
 

Directive 2001/29/EC and 
Directive 2001/29/EC and 
Directive 2001/29/EC and 
Directive 2012/28/EU shall 
Directive 2012/28/EU shall 
Directive 2012/28/EU shall 
apply mutatis mutandis in 
apply mutatis mutandis in 
apply mutatis mutandis in 
respect of the rights referred  respect of the rights referred  respect of the rights referred 
to in paragraph 1. 
to in paragraph 1. 
to in paragraph 1. 
225.   
Art. 11, para 
4. 
The rights referred to 
4. 
The rights referred to 
4. 
The rights referred to 
 

in paragraph 1 shall expire 
in paragraph 1 shall expire 
in paragraph 1 shall expire 
20 years after the publication  20 5 years after the 
20 years1 year after the 
of the press publication. This  publication of the press 
publication of the press 
term shall be calculated from  publication. This term shall 
publication. This term shall 
the first day of January of 
be calculated from the first 
be calculated from the first 
the year following the date 
day of January of the year 
day of January of the year 
of publication. 
following the date of 
following the date o 
publication. The right 
publication. 
referred to in paragraph 1 
shall not apply with 
retroactive effect.
 
226.   
Art. 11, para 
 
4a.  Member States shall 
 
 
4a 
ensure that authors receive 
an appropriate share of the 
additional revenues press 
publishers receive for the 

 
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use of a press publication by 
information society service 
providers
 
227.   
Art. 11, para 
 
 
5.  Paragraph 1 shall not 
 

apply to press publications 
first published before 
[entry into force of the 
Directive]
. 
228.   
Art, 12, title 
Article 12 
Article 12 
Article 12 
Article 12 
Claims to fair compensation  Claims to fair compensation  Claims to fair compensation 
Claims to fair compensation 
229.   
Art. 12, sub-
Member States may provide  Member States with 
Member States may provide  [discussed at Trilogue 26/ 
para 1 (EP)/ 
that where an author has 
compensation-sharing 
that where an author has 
11/2018; COM to provide 
Art. 12, 
transferred or licensed a 
systems between authors 
transferred or licensed a 
recital language to address 
introductory 
right to a publisher, such a 
and publishers for 
right to a publisher, such a 
EP's concerns regarding "cut 
part 
transfer or a licence 
exceptions and limitations 
transfer or a licence 
off date"] 
(Council)] 
constitutes a sufficient legal 
may provide that where an 
constitutes a sufficient legal 
basis for the publisher to 
author has transferred or 
basis for the publisher to 
[to be further discussed at 
claim a share of  the 
licensed a right to a 
claimbe entitled to a share 
political level] 
compensation for the uses of  publisher, such a transfer or 
of 
the work made under an 
a licence constitutes a 
exception or limitation to the  sufficient legal basis for the 
[remaining part of this 
transferred or licensed right.  publisher to claim a share of  paragraph of the COM 
the compensation for the 
proposal was moved to new 
uses of the work made under  point (a) (see row 230)] 
an exception or limitation to 
the transferred or licensed 
 
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right, provided that an 
equivalent compensation-
sharing system was in 
operation in that Member 
State before 12 November 
2015

230.   
Art. 12, point   
 
(a)  the compensation for 
 
(a) 
the uses of the work made 
under an exception or 
limitation to the transferred 
or licensed right.; and 
[See Parliament’s sub-
paragraph 1 of Article 12 
(row 229)] 

231.   
Art. 12, point   
 
(b)  the remuneration for   
(b) 
public lending provided for 
in Article 6(1) of Directive 
2006/115/EC. 

232.   
Art. 12, sub-
 
The first paragraph shall be   
 
para 2 
without prejudice to the 
arrangements in Member 
States concerning public 
lending rights, the 
management of rights not 
based on exceptions or 

 
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limitations to copyright, 
such as extended collective 
licensing schemes, or 
concerning remuneration 
rights on the basis of 
national law. 

233.   
 
 
CHAPTER 1a 
 
 Deleted  
Protection of sport event 
organizers
 
[the Presidency's 
understanding of the outcome 
of the trilogue on 26/11/2018 
is that the EP acepted to 
remove Article 12a from the 
Directive] 

234.   
Art. 12a, title   
Article 12a 
 
 Deleted  
Protection of sport event 
organizers 
[see comments in row 233] 
235.   
Art. 12a 
 
Member States shall provide   
Deleted  
sport event organizers with 
the rights provided for in 

[see comments in row 233] 
Article 2 and Article 3 (2) of 
Directive 2001/29/EC and 
Article 7 of Directive 
2006/115/EC.
 
236.   
 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
CHAPTER 2 
 
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Certain uses of protected 
Certain uses of protected 
Certain uses of protected 
Certain uses of protected 
content by online services 
content by online services 
content by online services 
content by online services 
237.   
Art. 13, title 
Article 13 
Article 13 
Article 13 
[To be further discussed at 
Use of protected content by 
Use of protected content by 
political level; 
information society service 
information society online 
Use of protected content by 
providers storing and giving 
content sharing service 
information societyonline 
Preparatory work started at 
access to large amounts of 
providers storing and giving 
content sharing service 
technical level] 
works and other subject-
access to large amounts of 
providers storing 
matter uploaded by their 
works and other subject-
users 
matter uploaded by their 
users 
238.   
Art. 13, para 
1. 
Information society 
1. 
Without prejudice to 
1. 
Member States shall 
 

service providers that store 
Article 3(1) and (2) of 
provide that an online 
and provide to the public 
Directive 2001/29/EC, 
content sharing service 
access to large amounts of 
online content sharing 
provider performs an act 
works or other subject-
Information society service 
of communication to the 
matter uploaded by their 
providers that store and 
public or an act of making 
users shall, in cooperation 
provide perform an act of 
available to the public 
with rightholders, take 
communication to the public  when it gives the public 
measures to ensure the 
access to large amounts of 
access to copyright 
functioning of agreements 
works or other subject-
protected works or other 
concluded with rightholders 
matter uploaded by their 
protected subject matter 
for the use of their works or 
users. They shall in 
uploaded by its users. 
other subject-matter or to 
cooperation with 
prevent the availability on 
rightholders, take measures 
An online content sharing 
their services of works or 
to ensure the functioning of 
service provider shall 
other subject-matter 
agreements concluded with 
obtain an authorisation 
 
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identified by rightholders 
rightholders for the use of 
from the rightholders 
through the cooperation with  their works or other subject-
referred to in Article 3(1) 
the service providers. Those 
matter or to prevent the 
and giving access to large 
measures, such as the use of 
availability on their services 
amounts of(2) of Directive 
effective content recognition  of works or other subject-
2001/29/EC in order to 
technologies, shall be 
matter identified by 
communicate or make 
appropriate and 
rightholders through the 
available to the public 
proportionate. The service 
cooperation with the service 
works or other subject 
providers shall provide 
providers. Those measures, 
matter. Where no such 
rightholders with adequate 
such as the use of effective 
authorisation has been 
information on the 
content recognition 
obtained, the service 
functioning and the 
technologies, shall be 
provider shall prevent the 
deployment of the measures,  therefore conclude fair and  availability on its service of 
as well as, when relevant, 
appropriate and 
those works and other 
adequate reporting on the 
proportionate. The service 
subject-matter uploaded by  
recognition and use of the 
providers shall provide 
matter, including through 
works and other subject-
rightholders with adequate 
the application of 
matter. 
information on the 
measures referred to in 
functioning and the 
paragraph 4. This 
deployment of the measures,  subparagraph shall apply 
as well as, when relevant, 
without prejudice to 
adequate reporting on the 
exceptions and limitations 
recognition and use of the 
provided for in Union law. 
works and other subject-
matter. licensing 
Member States shall 
agreements with right 
provide that when an 
holders.  
authorisation has been 
obtained, including via a 
licensing agreement, by an 

 
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online content sharing 
service provider, this 
authorisation shall also 
cover acts of uploading by 
the users of the service 
falling within Article 3 of 
Directive 2001/29/EC when 
they are not acting on a 
commercial basis. 

[Last two sentences of COM 
proposal were moved to 
Council’s paragraphs 5 and 
6 respectively] 

239.   
Art. 13, para 
 
2.  Member States shall 
 
 
2 (EP) 
ensure that the Licensing 
agreements which are 
concluded by online content 
sharing
 service providers 
with right holders for the 
acts of communication
 
referred to in paragraph 1 
put in place complaints and 
redress mechanisms that are 
available to users in case of 
disputes over the application 
of the measures referred to 
in paragraph 1. , shall cover 
 
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the liability for works 
uploaded by the
 users of 
such online content sharing 
services in line with the 
terms and conditions set out 
in the licensing agreement, 
provided that such users do 
not act for commercial 
purposes

[See Council’s paragraph 1, 
subparagraph 3 (row 238)] 

240.   
Art. 13, para 
 
2a.  Member States shall 
 
 
2a (EP) 
provide that where right 
holders do not wish to 
conclude licensing 
agreements, online content 
sharing service providers 
and right holders shall 
cooperate in good faith in 
order to ensure that 
unauthorised protected 
works or other subject 
matter are not available on 
their services. Cooperation 
between online content 
service providers and right 
holders shall not lead to 

 
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preventing the availability 
of non-infringing works or 
other protected subject 
matter, including those 
covered by an exception or 
limitation to copyright.
 
241.   
Art. 13, para 
2. 
Member States shall 
2b.  Members States shall 
[Paragraph 2 of the COM 
 
2 / para 2b 
ensure that the service 
ensure that online content 
proposal was moved to new 
(EP) 
providers referred to in 
sharing service providers 
paragraph 7 of Council’s 
paragraph 1 put in place 
referred to in paragraph 1 
text] 
complaints and redress 
put in place effective and 
mechanisms that are 
expeditious complaints and 
 
available to users in case of 
redress mechanisms that 
disputes over the application  are available to users in 
of the measures referred to 
case the cooperation 
in paragraph 1. 
referred to in paragraph 2a 
leads to unjustified 
removals of their content. 
Any complaint filed under 
such mechanisms shall be 
processed without undue 
delay and be subject to 
human review. Right 
holders shall reasonably 
justify their decisions to 
avoid arbitrary dismissal of 
complaints. Moreover, in 
accordance with Directive 

 
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95/46/EC, Directive 
2002/58/EC and the 
General Data Protection 
Regulation, the 
cooperation shall not lead to 
any identification of 
individual users nor the 
processing of their personal 
data. Member States shall 
also ensure that users have 
access to an independent 
body for the resolution of 
disputes as well as to a court 
or another relevant judicial 
authority to assert the use of 
an exception or limitation to 
copyright rules. 

[See Council’s Article 13(7) 
(row 252)] 

242.   
Art. 13, para 
3. 
Member States shall 
3. 
As of [date of entry 
[See new paragraph 8 of 
[to be further discussed] 
3 (EP) 
facilitate, where appropriate,  into force of this directive], 
Council’s text] 
the cooperation between the 
the Commission and the 
information society service 
Member States shall 
providers and rightholders 
facilitate where appropriate, 
through stakeholder 
the cooperation organise 
dialogues to define best 
dialogues between the 
practices, such as 
information society service 
 
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appropriate and 
providers and rightholders 
proportionate content 
through stakeholder 
recognition technologies, 
dialogues stakeholders to 
taking into account, among 
harmonise and to define 
others, the nature of the 
best practices, such as 
services, the availability of 
appropriate and 
the technologies and their 
proportionate content 
effectiveness in light of 
recognition technologies, 
technological developments.  taking into account, among 
others, the nature of the 
services, the availability of 
the technologies and their 
effectiveness in light of 
technological developments. 
and issue guidance to 
ensure the functioning of 
licensing agreements and 
on cooperation between 
online content sharing 
service providers and right 
holders for the use of their 
works or other subject 
matter within the meaning 
of this Directive. When 
defining best practices, 
special account shall be 
taken of fundamental 
rights, the use of exceptions 

 
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and limitations as well as 
ensuring that the burden on 
SMEs remains
 appropriate 
and that automated 
blocking of content is 
avoided.
 
243.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
3. 
When an online 
[to be further discussed at 
3 (Council) 
content sharing service 
political level] 
provider performs an act 
of communication to the 
public or an act of making 
available to the public, it 
shall not be eligible for the 
exemption of liability 
provided for in Article 14 
of Directive 2000/31/EC for 
unauthorised acts of 
communication to the 
public and making 
available to the public, 
without prejudice to the 
possible application of 
Article 14 of Directive 
2000/31/EC to those 
services for purposes other 
than copyright relevant 
acts. 

 
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244.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
4. 
In the absence of the 
[to be further discussed at 
4, 
authorisation referred to in  political level] 
introductory 
the second subparagraph 
part 
of paragraph 1, Member 
States shall provide that an 
online content sharing 
service provider shall not 
be liable for acts of 
communication to the 
public or making available 
to the public within the 
meaning of this Article 
when: 

 
245.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
(a)  it demonstrates that 
[to be further discussed at 
4, point (a) 
it has made best efforts to 
political level] 
prevent the availability of 
specific works or other 
subject matter by 
implementing effective and 
proportionate measures, in 
accordance with 
paragraph 5, to prevent 
the availability on its 
services of the specific 
works or other subject 

 
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matter identified by 
rightholders and for which 
the rightholders have 
provided the service with 
relevant and necessary 
information for the 
application of these 
measures; and 

246.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
(b)  upon notification by 
[to be further discussed at 
4, point (b) 
rightholders of works or 
political level] 
other subject matter, it has 
acted  expeditiously to 
remove or disable access to 
these works or other 
subject matter and it 
demonstrates that it has 
made its best efforts to 
prevent 
their usersfuture 
availability through the 
measures referred to in 
point (a).
 
247.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
5. 
The measures 
[to be further discussed at 
5, 
referred to in point (a) of 
political level] 
introductory 
paragraph 4 shall be 
part 
effective and 
proportionate, taking into 
account, among other 

 
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factors: 
248.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
(a)  the nature and size of  [to be further discussed at 
5, point (a) 
the services, in particular 
political level] 
whether they are provided 
by a microenterprise or a 
small-sized enterprise 
within the meaning of Title 
I of the Annex to 
Commission 
Recommendation 
2003/361/EC, and their 
audience; 

249.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
(b)  the amount and the 
[to be further discussed at 
5, point (b) 
type of works or other 
political level] 
subject matter uploaded 
by the users of the 
services; 

250.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
(c)  the availability and 
[to be further discussed at 
5, point (c) 
costs of the measures as 
political level] 
well as their effectiveness 
in light of technological 
developments in line with 
the industry best practice 
referred to in paragraph 8. 

 
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251.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
6. 
Member States shall 
[to be further discussed at 

ensure that online content 
political level] 
sharing service providers 
and rightholders cooperate 
with each other in a 
diligent manner to ensure 
the effective functioning of 
the measures referred to in 
point (a) of paragraph 4 
over time. Online content 
sharing service providers 
shall provide rightholders, 
at their request, with 
adequate information on 
the deployment and 
functioning of these 
measures to allow the 
assessment of their 
effectiveness, in particular 
information on the type of 
measures used and, where 
licensing agreements are 
concluded between service 
providers and 
rightholders, information 
on the use of content 
covered by the agreements. 

 
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252.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
7. 
Member States shall 
[to be further discussed at 

ensure that the measures 
political level] 
referred to in paragraph 4 
are implemented by the 
online content sharing 
service provider without 
prejudice to the possibility 
for their users to benefit 
from exceptions or 
limitations to copyright. 
For that purpose, 
the 
service providers referred to 
in paragraph 1 shall put in 
place a complaints and 
redress mechanisms that are 
is available to users of the 
service in case of disputes 
over the application of the 
measures reffered to in 
paragraph 1 to their 
content. Complaints 
submitted under this 
mechanism shall be 
processed by the online 
content sharing service 
provider in cooperation 
with relevant rightholders 
within a reasonable period 

 
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of time. Rightholders shall 
duly justify the reasons for 
their requests to remove or 
block access to their 
specific works or other 
subject matter. Member 
States shall endeavour to 
put in place independent 
bodies to assess complaints 
related to the application 
of the measures. 

[Paragraph 2 of the COM 
proposal, amended] 
253.   
Art. 13, para 
 
 
8. 
The Commission and  [to be further discussed at 

the Member States shall 
political level] 
encourage stakeholder 
dialogues to define best 
practices for the measures 
referred to in point (a) of 
paragraph 4. Member 
States shall also endeavour 
to establish mechanisms to 
facilitate the assessment of 
the effectiveness and 
proportionality of these 
measures and provide the 
Commission regularly with 

 
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information on those 
mechanisms. The 
Commission shall, in 
consultation with online 
content sharing service 
providers, rightholders 
and other relevant 
stakeholders and taking 
into account the results of 
the stakeholder dialogues 
and the national 
mechanisms, issue 
guidance on the 
application of the 
measures referred to in 
point (a) of paragraph 4. 

[Paragraph 3 of the COM 
proposal, reworded] 
254.   
Art. 13a, title   
Article 13a 
 
 
255.   
Art. 13a, sub-  
Member States shall provide   
 
para 1 
that disputes between 
successors in title and 
information society services 
regarding the application of 
Article 13(1) may be subject 
to an alternative dispute 

 
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resolution system. 
256.   
Art. 13a, sub-  
Member States shall 
 
 
para 2 
establish or designate an 
impartial body with the 
necessary expertise, with the 
aim of helping the parties to 
settle their disputes under 
this system.
 
257.   
Art. 13a, sub-  
The Member States shall 
 
 
para 3 
inform the Commission of 
the establishment of this 
body no later than (date 
mentioned in Article 21(1)).
 
258.   
Art. 13b, title   
Article 13b 
 
 
Use of protected content by 
information society services 
providing automated image 
referencing 
259.   
Art. 13b 
 
Member States shall ensure   
 
that information society 
service providers that 
automatically reproduce or 
refer to significant amounts 
of copyright-protected 

 
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visual works and make them 
available to the public for 
the purpose of indexing and 
referencing conclude fair 
and balanced licensing 
agreements with any 
requesting rightholders in 
order to ensure their fair 
remuneration. Such 
remuneration may be 
managed by the collective 
management organisation 
of the rightholders 
concerned.
 
260.   
 
 
 
TITLE IV 
 
MEASURES TO 
ACHIEVE A WELL-
FUNCTIONING 
MARKETPLACE FOR 
COPYRIGHT 
261.   
 
CHAPTER 3 
CHAPTER 3 
CHAPTER 3 
[to be discussed at political 
Fair remuneration in 
Fair remuneration in 
Fair remuneration in 
level] 
contracts of authors and 
contracts of authors and 
exploitation contracts of 
performers 
performers 
authors and performers 
 
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262.   
Art. -14, title 
 
Article -14 
 
[Article -14 to be further 
discussed at political level] 

Principle of fair and 
proportionate remuneration 
263.   
Art. -14, para 
 
1. 
Member States shall 
 
 

ensure that authors and 
performers receive fair and 
proportionate remuneration 
for the exploitation of their 
works and other subject 
matter, including for their 
online exploitation. This 
may be achieved in each 
sector through a 
combination of agreements, 
including collective 
bargaining agreements, and 
statutory remuneration 
mechanisms.
 

264.   
Art. -14, para 
 
2. 
Paragraph 1 shall not 
 
 

apply where an author or 
performer grants a non-
exclusive usage right for the 
benefit of all users free of 
charge.
 

 
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265.   
Art. -14, para 
 
3. 
Member States shall 
 
 
3 
take account of the 
specificities of each sector 
in encouraging the 
proportionate remuneration 
for rights granted by 
authors and performers.
 

266.   
Art. -14, para 
 
4. 
Contracts shall specify 
 
 
4 
the remuneration applicable 
to each mode of 
exploitation.
 

267.   
Art. 14, title 
Article 14 
Article 14 
Article 14 
Article 14  
Transparency obligation 
Transparency obligation 
Transparency obligation 
Transparency obligation 
268.   
Art. 14, para 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. Member States shall ensure 

ensure that authors and 
ensure that authors and 
ensure that authors and 
that authors and performers 
performers receive on a 
performers receive on a 
performers receive on a 
receive on a regular basis, at 
regular basis and taking into  regular basis, not less than 
regular basis, at least once a  least once a year, and taking 
account the specificities of 
once a year , and taking into  year, and taking into 
into account the specificities of 
each sector, timely, adequate  account the specificities of 
account the specificities of 
each sector [and the relative 
and sufficient information on  each sector and the relative 
each sector, timely, adequate  importance of each individual 
the exploitation of their 
importance of each 
and sufficient information 
contribution], timely, 
works and performances 
individual contribution
on the exploitation of their 
[adequate and sufficient/ up to 
from those to whom they 
timely adequate and 
works and performances 
date, relevant and 
have licensed or transferred 
sufficient, accurate, relevant  from those to whom they 
comprehensive information on 
their rights, notably as 
and comprehensive 
have licensed or transferred 
the exploitation of their works 
 
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regards modes of 
information on the 
their rights or their 
and performances from those 
exploitation, revenues 
exploitation of their works 
successors in title, notably 
to whom they have licensed or 
generated and remuneration 
and performances from those  as regards modes of 
transferred their rights or their 
due. 
to whom they have licensed 
exploitation, revenues 
successors in title, notably as 
or transferred their rights, 
generated and remuneration 
regards modes of exploitation, 
notably as regards modes of 
due. 
direct and indirect all(*) 
exploitation, direct and 
revenues generated and 
indirect revenues generated, 
remuneration due. 
and remuneration due. 
[(*) subject to explicit 
reference to 'merchandising'  
as example of a possible form 
of covered revenues in the 
recitals (see recital (40a), row 
92, and recital (42), row 95] 

[yellow part depending 
agreement on Article 14(3)] 

269.   
Art. 14, para 
 
1a.  Member States shall 
1a.  Member States shall 
[To  be  further  discussed  at 
1a 
ensure that where the 
ensure that where the 
political  level,  to  be  prepared 
licensee or transferee of 
rights referred to in 
at TM]  
rights of authors and 
paragraph 1 have 
performers subsequently 
subsequently been licensed   
licenses those rights to 
to another party, authors 
another party, such party 
and performers may, at 
shall share all information 
their request, receive from 
referred to in paragraph 1 
those third parties 
with the licensee or 
additional information if 
 
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transferee. 
their first contractual 
counterpart does not hold 
all the information that 
would be necessary for the 
purposes of the 
information provision set 
out in paragraph 1. 
Member States may 
provide that such request 
to those third parties is 
made directly by the 
author or performer or 
indirectly through the 
contractual counterpart of 
the author or the 
performer. 

270.   
Art. 14, para 
 
The main licensee or 
 
[to be discussed at Trilogue] 
1a, sub-
transferee shall pass all the 
para 2 
information referred to in 
 
the first subparagraph on to 
the author or performer. 
That information shall be 
unchanged, except in the 
case of commercially 
sensitive information as 
defined by Union or 
national law, which, 
without prejudice to Articles 

 
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15 and 16a, may be subject 
to a non-disclosure 
agreement, for the purpose 
of preserving fair 
competition. Where the 
main licensee or transferee 
does not provide the 
information as referred to 
in this subparagraph in a 
timely manner, the author 
or performer shall be 
entitled to request that 
information directly from 
the sub-licensee. 

[See Council’s Article 
14(1a) (row 269)]
 
271.   
Art. 14, para 
2. 
The obligation in 
2. 
The obligation in 
2. 
The obligation in 
GREEN  

paragraph 1 shall be 
paragraph 1 shall be 
paragraph 1 shall be 
proportionate and effective 
proportionate and effective 
proportionate and effective 
2. 
The obligation in 
and shall ensure an 
and shall ensure an 
and shall ensure an 
paragraph 1 shall be 
appropriate level of 
appropriate a high level of 
appropriate level of 
proportionate and effective and 
transparency in every sector.  transparency in every sector.  transparency in every sector.  shall to ensure an appropriate 
However, in those cases 
However, in those cases 
However, in thoseMember 
high level of transparency in 
where the administrative 
where the administrative 
States may provide that in  every sector. Member States 
burden resulting from the 
burden resulting from the 
duly justified cases where 
may provide that in duly 
obligation would be 
obligation would be 
the administrative burden 
justified cases where the 
disproportionate in view of 
disproportionate in view of 
resulting from the obligation  administrative burden resulting 
 
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the revenues generated by 
the revenues generated by 
in paragraph 1 would 
from the obligation in 
the exploitation of the work 
the exploitation of the work 
bebecome disproportionate 
paragraph 1 would bebecome 
or performance, Member 
or performance, Member 
in view of the revenues 
disproportionate in view of the 
States may adjust the 
States may adjust the 
generated by the exploitation  revenues generated by the 
obligation in paragraph 1, 
obligation in paragraph 1, 
of the work or performance,  exploitation of the work or 
provided that the obligation 
provided that the obligation 
Member States may adjust 
performance,  the obligation is 
remains effective and 
remains effective and 
the obligation in paragraph 
limited to the types and level 
ensures an appropriate level 
ensures an appropriate 
1, provided that is limited to  of information that can 
of transparency. 
high level of transparency. 
the obligation remains 
reasonably be expected in 
effectivetypes and ensures 
such cases.  
an appropriate level of 
transparency.information 
[provisionally agreed at 
that can reasonably be 
TTrilogue 26/11/2018] 
expected in such cases.  
272.   
Art. 14, para 
3. 
Member States may 
Deleted 
3. 
Member States may 
3. 
[Council preference: 

decide that the obligation in 
decide that the obligation in 
Member States may decide 
paragraph 1 does not apply 
paragraph 1 does not apply 
that the obligation in 
when the contribution of the 
when the contribution of the  paragraph 1 does not apply 
author or performer is not 
author or performer is not 
when the contribution of the 
significant having regard to 
significant having regard to 
author or performer is not 
the overall work or 
the overall work or 
significant having regard to 
performance. 
performance. 
the overall work or 
performance.] 
[EP  compromise  proposal: 
Member  States  may  decide 
that  in  the  case  of  authors 
and 

performers 
whose 
 
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contribution is not significant 
having  regard  to  the  overall 
work  or  performance  the 
obligation  in  paragraph  1 
apply  only  on  request  of  the 
author or performer.

[to be discussed at political 
level] 

273.   
Art. 14, para 
 
 
3a.  Members States may  GREEN 
3a 
provide that for 
agreements subject to or 

3a. Members States may 
based on collective 
provide that for agreements 
bargaining agreements the  subject to or based on 
transparency rules of the 
collective bargaining 
relevant collective 
agreements the transparency 
bargaining agreement are 
rules of the relevant collective 
applicable provided that 
bargaining agreement are 
they meet the minimum 
applicable provided that they 
criteria laid down in the 
are comparable to the 
national provisions 
obligations / meet the 
adopted in conformity with  minimum criteria laid down 
the requirements of 
in the national provisions 
paragraphs 1 to 3. 
adopted in conformity with 
the requirements of 
paragraphs 1 to 3. 

[provisionally agreed at 
 
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rilogue 26/11/2018] 
274.   
Art. 14, para 
4. 
Paragraph 1 shall not 
4. 
Paragraph 1 shall not 
4. 
Paragraph 1 shall not 
GREEN  

be applicable to entities 
be applicable to entities 
be applicable to agreements 
subject to the transparency 
subject to the transparency 
concluded by entities 
4. Paragraph 1 shall not be 
obligations established by 
obligations established by 
subject to the transparency 
applicable to a Agreements 
Directive 2014/26/EU. 
Directive 2014/26/EU or to 
obligations established by 
concluded by entities defined 
collective bargaining 
defined in Article 3(a) and 
in Article 3(a) and (b) of 
agreements, where those 
(b) of Directive 2014/26/EU.  Directive 2014/26/EU or by 
obligations or agreements 
or by other entities subject  other entities subject to the 
provide for transparency 
to the national rules 
national rules implementing 
requirements comparable to  implementing Directive 
Directive 2014/26/EU shall 
those referred to in 
2014/26/EU. 
not be subject to the 
paragraph 2. 
obligation laid down in 
paragraph 1
 when Article 18 
of Directive 2014/26/EU is 
applicable.
[ aim of the 
paragraph provisionally 
agreed at Trilogue 
26/11/2018/; actual text 
provisionally agreed at TM 
29/11/2018, together with 
wording of recital 41, row 94 
tbc at trilogue] 

275.   
Art. 15, title 
Article 15 
Article 15 
Article 15 
Article 15 
Contract adjustment 
Contract adjustment 
Contract adjustment 
Contract adjustment 
mechanism 
mechanism 
mechanism 
mechanism 
 
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276.   
Art. 15, [para  Member States shall ensure 
Member States shall ensure,  1. 
Member States shall 
1. Member States shall ensure, 
1 (Council)] 
that authors and performers 
in the absence of collective 
ensure that authors and 
in the absence of an 
are entitled to request 
bargaining agreements 
performers are entitled to 
applicable collective 
additional, appropriate 
providing for a comparable 
request additional, 
bargaining agreement 
remuneration from the party  mechanism, that authors and  appropriate remuneration 
providing for a comparable 
with whom they entered into  performers or any 
from the party with whom 
mechanism, that authors and 
a contract for the 
representative organisation 
they entered into a contract 
performers or any 
exploitation of the rights 
acting on their behalf are 
for the exploitation of the 
[representatives] 
when the remuneration 
entitled to request claim 
rights or their successors in  [representative organisation 
originally agreed is 
additional, appropriate and 
title, when the remuneration  acting [at the specific request 
disproportionately low 
fair remuneration from the 
originally agreed isturns out  / on behalf] of one or more 
compared to the subsequent 
party with whom they 
to be disproportionately low  authors or performers] are 
relevant revenues and 
entered into a contract for 
compared to the subsequent 
entitled to claim additional, 
benefits derived from the 
the exploitation of the rights  relevant revenues and 
appropriate and fair 
exploitation of the works or 
when the remuneration 
benefits derived from the 
remuneration from the party 
performances. 
originally agreed is 
actual exploitation of the 
with whom they entered into a 
disproportionately low 
works or performances. 
contract for the exploitation of 
compared to the subsequent 
the rights or their successors in 
relevant direct or indirect 
 
title, when the remuneration 
revenues and benefits 
originally agreed turns out to 
derived from the exploitation 
be disproportionately low 
of the works or 
compared to all the subsequent 
performances. 
relevant [direct or indirect] 
revenues and benefits derived 
[See Council’s Article 
from the exploitation of the 
15(1a) (row277)] 
works or performances.  
[to be discussed further at 
 
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political level; 
Deletion of 'direct or indirect' 
provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018: see 
comment on Article 14(1), row 
268] 

277.   
Art. 15, para 
 
 
1a.  Members States may  [Article 15(1a) Council’s text 
1a 
provide that for 
deleted/incorporated into 
agreements subject to or 
paragraph 1] 
based on collective 
bargaining agreements the  
[provisionally agreed at TM 
rules of the relevant 
tbc by trilogue] 
collective bargaining 
agreement for the 
adjustment of 
remuneration are 
applicable instead of the 
national provisions 
implementing the contract 
adjustment mechanism. 

278.   
Art. 15, para 
 
 
2. 
Paragraph 1 shall not  [to be discussed at trilogue] 

be applicable to 
agreements concluded by 
entities defined in Article 
3(a) and (b) of Directive 
2014/26/EU or by other 

 
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entities subject to the 
national rules 
implementing Directive 
2014/26/EU. 

279.   
Art. 16, title 
Article 16 
Article 16 
Article 16 
GREEN 
Dispute resolution 
Dispute resolution 
mechanism 
mechanism 
Dispute resolution 
Article 16 
mechanismprocedure 
Dispute resolution procedure 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 

280.   
Art. 16, [para  Member States shall provide  Member States shall provide  1. 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
1 (Council)] 
that disputes concerning the 
that disputes concerning the 
provide that disputes 
transparency obligation 
transparency obligation 
concerning the transparency  Member States shall provide 
under Article 14 and the 
under Article 14 and the 
obligation under Article 14 
that disputes concerning the 
contract adjustment 
contract adjustment 
and the contract adjustment 
transparency obligation under 
mechanism under Article 15  mechanism under Article 15  mechanism under Article 15  Article 14 and the contract 
may be submitted to a 
may be submitted to a 
may be submitted to a 
adjustment mechanism under 
voluntary, alternative dispute  voluntary, alternative dispute  voluntary, alternative 
Article 15 may be submitted to 
resolution procedure. 
resolution procedure. 
dispute resolution procedure.   a voluntary, alternative dispute 
Member States shall ensure 
resolution procedure. Member 
that representative 
 
States shall ensure that 
organisations of authors 
representative organisations 
and performers may initiate 
of authors and performers 
such procedures at the 
may initiate such procedures 
request of one or more 
at the specific request of one 
 
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authors and performers. 
or more authors and 
performers. 

[See Council’s Article 16(2) 
(row 281)]
 
 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
281.   
Art. 16, para 
 
[See Parliament’s Article 16  2. 
Member States shall 
[Article 16(2) Council’s text 

last phrase (row 280)] 
ensure that representative 
deleted/incorporated into 
organisations of authors 
paragraph 1] 
and performers, including 
collective management 

[provisionally agreed at 
organisations, may initiate  Trilogue 26/11/2018] 
such disputes on behalf of 
one or more authors and 
performers at their 
request. 

282.   
Art. 16a 
 
 
Article 16a 
GREEN 
(Council), 
title 
Contractual provisions 
Article 16a 
Contractual Common 
provisions 
[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018]
 
 
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283.   
Art. 16a 
 
 
Member States shall 
GREEN 
(Council) 
ensure that any 
contractual provision 

Member States shall ensure 
which prevents the 
that any contractual 
compliance with the 
provision which prevents the 
provisions in Articles 14 
compliance with the 
and 15 of this Directive 
provisions in Articles 14 and 
shall be unenforceable in 
15 of this Chapter(*) 
relation to authors and 
Directive shall be 
performers. 
unenforceable in relation to 
authors and performers.
 
[(*) 'Chapter' refers to Articles 
14,15 and 16, ie the provisions 
of the initial Commission 
proposal]  

[provisionally agreed at 
Trilogue 26/11/2018] 

284.   
Art. 16a 
 
Article 16 a 
 
[Article 16a to be further 
(EP), title 
discussed at political level; 
Right of revocation 
Preparatory work to be done 
at technical level]
 
285.   
Art. 16a 
 
1. 
Member States shall 
 
 
(EP),  
ensure that where an author 
or a performer has licensed 

 
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para 1 
or transferred her or his 
rights concerning a work or 
other protected subject-
matter on an exclusive 
basis, the author or 
performer has a right of 
revocation where there is an 
absence of exploitation of 
the work or other protected 
subject matter or where 
there is a continuous lack of 
regular reporting in 
accordance with Article 14. 
Member States may provide 
for specific provisions 
taking into account the 
specificities of different 
sectors and works and 
anticipated exploitation 
period, notably provide for 
time limits for the right of 
revocation. 

286.   
Art. 16a 
 
2. 
The right of 
 
 
(EP),  
revocation provided for in 
para 2 
paragraph 1 may be 
exercised only after a 
reasonable time from the 
conclusion of the licence or 

 
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transfer agreement, and 
only upon written 
notification setting an 
appropriate deadline by 
which the exploitation of 
the licensed or transferred 
rights is to take place. After 
the expiration of that 
deadline, the author or 
performer may choose to 
terminate the exclusivity of 
the contract instead of 
revoking the rights. Where 
a work or other subject-
matter contains the 
contribution of a plurality 
of authors or performers, 
the exercise of the 
individual right of 
revocation of such authors 
or performers shall be 
regulated by national law, 
laying down the rules on the 
right of revocation for 
collective works, taking into 
account the relative 
importance of the individual 
contributions.
 
 
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287.   
Art. 16a 
 
3. 
Paragraphs 1 and 2 
 
 
(EP),  
shall not apply if the non-
para 3 
exercise of the rights is 
predominantly due to 
circumstances which the 
author or the performer can 
be reasonably expected to 
remedy.
 
288.   
Art. 16a 
 
4. 
Contractual or other 
 
 
(EP),  
arrangements derogating 
para 4 
from the right of revocation 
shall be lawful only if 
concluded by means of an 
agreement which is based 
on a collective bargaining 
agreement.
 
289.   
 
TITLE V 
TITLE V 
TITLE V 
TITLE V 
FINAL PROVISIONS 
FINAL PROVISIONS 
FINAL PROVISIONS 
FINAL PROVISIONS 
290.   
Art. 17,  
Article 17 
Article 17 
Article 17 
Article 17 
title 
Amendments to other 
Amendments to other 
Amendments to other 
Amendments to other 
directives 
directives 
directives 
directives 
291.   
Art. 17, para 
1. 
Directive 96/9/EC is 
1. 
Directive 96/9/EC is 
1. 
Directive 96/9/EC is 
1. 
Directive 96/9/EC is 

amended as follows: 
amended as follows: 
amended as follows: 
amended as follows: 
 
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292.   
Art. 17, para 
(a)  In Article 6(2), point 
(a)  In Article 6(2), point 
(a)  In  Article  6(2),  point  (a)  In Article 6(2), point (b) 
1, point (a) 
(b) is replaced by the 
(b) is replaced by the 
(b)  is  replaced  by  the  is replaced by the following: 
following: 
following: 
following: 
293.   
Art. 17, para 
"(b) where there is use 
"(b) where there is use 
"(b) where there is use for  GREEN 
1, point (a) 
for the sole purpose of 
for the sole purpose of 
the sole purpose of 
illustration for teaching 
illustration for teaching 
illustration for teaching or 
"(b) where there is use for 
or scientific research, as 
or scientific research, as 
scientific research, as 
the sole purpose of 
long as the source is 
long as the source is 
long as the source is 
illustration for teaching or 
indicated and to the 
indicated and to the 
indicated and to the 
scientific research, as long 
extent justified by the 
extent justified by the 
extent justified by the 
as the source is indicated 
non-commercial purpose 
non-commercial 
non-commercial purpose 
and to the extent justified 
to be achieved, without 
purpose to be achieved, 
to be achieved, without 
by the non-commercial 
prejudice to the 
without prejudice to the 
prejudice to the 
purpose to be achieved, 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
without prejudice to the 
limitation provided for in 
limitation provided for 
limitation provided for in 
exceptions and the 
Directive [this 
in Directive [this 
Articles 3 and 4 of 
limitation provided for in 
Directive];" 
Directive];" 
Directive [this 
Articles 3 and 4 of 
Directive];" 
Directive [this Directive];" 
[ provisionally agreed at 
technical meeting of 
13.11.2018] 

294.   
Art. 17, para 
(b)  In Article 9, point (b) 
(b)  In Article 9, point (b) 
(b)  In  Article  9,  point  (b)  (b)  In Article 9, point (b) is 
1, point (b) 
is replaced by the following:  is replaced by the following:  is replaced by the following:  replaced by the following: 
295.   
Art. 17, para 
"(b) in the case of 
"(b) in the case of 
"(b) in the case of 
GREEN 
extraction for the 
extraction for the 
extraction for the 
 
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1, point (b) 
purposes of illustration 
purposes of illustration 
purposes of illustration 
"(b) in the case of extraction 
for teaching or scientific 
for teaching or scientific 
for teaching or scientific 
for the purposes of illustration 
research, as long as the 
research, as long as the 
research, as long as the 
for teaching or scientific 
source is indicated and to 
source is indicated and to 
source is indicated and to  research, as long as the source 
the extent justified by the 
the extent justified by the 
the extent justified by the  is indicated and to the extent 
non-commercial purpose 
non-commercial purpose 
non-commercial purpose 
justified by the non-
to be achieved, without 
to be achieved, without 
to be achieved, without 
commercial purpose to be 
prejudice to the 
prejudice to the 
prejudice to the 
achieved, without prejudice to 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
the exceptions and the 
limitation provided for in 
limitation provided for in 
limitation provided for in  limitation provided for in 
Directive [this 
Directive [this 
Articles 3 and 4 of 
Articles 3 and 4 of Directive 
Directive];" 
Directive];" 
Directive [this 
[this Directive];" 
Directive];" 
[provisionally agreed at 
technical meeting of 
13.11.2018]
 
296.   
Art. 17, para 
2. 
Directive 2001/29/EC 
2. 
Directive 2001/29/EC 
2. 
Directive  2001/29/EC  2. 
Directive 2001/29/EC is 

is amended as follows: 
is amended as follows: 
is amended as follows: 
amended as follows: 
297.   
Art. 17, para 
(a)  In Article 5(2), point 
(a)  In Article 5(2), point 
(a)  In  Article  5(2),  point  (a)  In Article 5(2), point (c) 
2, point (a) 
(c) is replaced by the 
(c) is replaced by the 
(c)  is  replaced  by  the  is replaced by the following: 
following: 
following: 
following: 
298.   
Art. 17, para 
"(c) in respect of specific 
"(c) in respect of specific 
"(c) in respect of specific 
GREEN 
2, point (a) 
acts of reproduction made 
acts of reproduction made 
acts of reproduction made 
by publicly accessible 
by publicly accessible 
by publicly accessible 
"(c) in respect of specific 
libraries, educational 
libraries, educational 
libraries, educational 
acts of reproduction made 
by publicly accessible 
 
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establishments or 
establishments or 
establishments or 
libraries, educational 
museums, or by archives, 
museums, or by archives, 
museums, or by archives, 
establishments or museums, 
which are not for direct or 
which are not for direct or 
which are not for direct or 
or by archives, which are 
indirect economic or 
indirect economic or 
indirect economic or 
not for direct or indirect 
commercial advantage, 
commercial advantage, 
commercial advantage, 
economic or commercial 
without prejudice to the 
without prejudice to the 
without prejudice to the 
advantage, without 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
exceptions and the 
prejudice to the exception 
limitation provided for in 
limitation provided for in 
limitationexception 
and the limitations provided 
Directive [this Directive];" 
Directive [this 
provided for in Article 5 
for in Article 5 of Directive 
Directive];" 
of Directive [this 
[this Directive];" 
Directive];" 
[provisionally agreed at 
technical meeting of 
13.11.2018] 

299.   
Art. 17, para 
(b)  In Article 5(3), point 
(b)  In Article 5(3), point 
(b)  In  Article  5(3),  point  (b)  In Article 5(3), point (a) 
2, point (b) 
(a) is replaced by the 
(a) is replaced by the 
(a)  is  replaced  by  the  is replaced by the following: 
following: 
following: 
following: 
300.   
Art. 17, para 
"(a) use for the sole 
"(a) use for the sole 
"(a) use for the sole 
GREEN 
2, point (b) 
purpose of illustration for 
purpose of illustration for 
purpose of illustration for 
teaching or scientific 
teaching or scientific 
teaching or scientific 
"(a) use for the sole purpose 
research, as long as the 
research, as long as the 
research, as long as the 
of illustration for teaching 
source, including the 
source, including the 
source, including the 
or scientific research, as 
author's name, is indicated, 
author's name, is indicated, 
author's name, is 
long as the source, 
unless this turns out to be 
unless this turns out to be 
indicated, unless this 
including the author's 
impossible and to the 
impossible and to the 
turns out to be impossible 
name, is indicated, unless 
extent justified by the non-
extent justified by the non-
and to the extent justified 
this turns out to be 
commercial purpose to be 
commercial purpose to be 
by the non-commercial 
impossible and to the extent 
 
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achieved, without 
achieved, without prejudice 
purpose to be achieved, 
justified by the non-
prejudice to the exceptions 
to the exceptions and the 
without prejudice to the 
commercial purpose to be 
and the limitation provided 
limitation provided for in 
exceptions and the 
achieved, without prejudice 
for in Directive [this 
Directive [this Directive];" 
limitation provided for in 
to the exceptions and the 
Directive];" 
Articles 3 and 4 of 
limitation provided for in 
Directive [this 
Articles 3 and 4 of 
Directive];" 
Directive [this Directive];" 
[provisionally agreed at 
technical meeting of 
13.11.2018]
 
301.   
Art. 17, para 
(c)  In Article 12(4), the 
(c)  In Article 12(4), the 
(c)  In  Article  12(4),  the  (c)  In Article 12(4), the 
2, point (c) 
following points are added: 
following points are added: 
following points are added: 
following points are added: 
302.   
Art. 17, para 
"(e) to examine the impact 
"(e) to examine the impact 
"(e) to examine the impact  "(e) to examine the impact of 
2, point (c) 
of the transposition of 
of the transposition of 
of the transposition of 
the transposition of Directive 
Directive [this Directive] 
Directive [this Directive] 
Directive [this Directive] 
[this Directive] on the 
on the functioning of the 
on the functioning of the 
on the functioning of the 
functioning of the internal 
internal market and to 
internal market and to 
internal market and to 
market and to highlight any 
highlight any transposition 
highlight any transposition 
highlight any transposition  transposition difficulties; 
difficulties; 
difficulties; 
difficulties; 
303.   
Art. 17, para 
(f) to facilitate the 
(f) to facilitate the 
(f) to facilitate the 
(f) to facilitate the exchange of 
2, point (c) 
exchange of information 
exchange of information on 
exchange of information 
information on the relevant 
on the relevant 
the relevant developments 
on the relevant 
developments in legislation 
developments in legislation 
in legislation and case law 
developments in 
and case law as well as on the 
and case law as well as on 
as well as on the practical 
legislation and case law as  practical application of the 
the practical application of 
application of the measures 
well as on the practical 
measures taken by Member 
 
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the measures taken by 
taken by Member States to 
application of the 
States to implement Directive 
Member States to 
implement Directive [this 
measures taken by 
[this Directive]; 
implement Directive [this 
Directive]; 
Member States to 
Directive]; 
implement Directive [this 
Directive]; 
304.   
Art. 17, para 
(g) to discuss any other 
(g) to discuss any other 
(g) to discuss any other 
(g) to discuss any other 
2, point (c) 
questions arising from the 
questions arising from the 
questions arising from the 
questions arising from the 
application of Directive 
application of Directive 
application of Directive 
application of Directive [this 
[this Directive]." 
[this Directive]." 
[this Directive]." 
Directive]." 
305.   
Art. 17a, title 
 
Article 17 a 
 
GREEN 
Article 17 a 
306.   
Art. 17a 
 
Member States may adopt 
 
GREEN 
or maintain in force 
broader provisions, 

Member  States  may  adopt  or 
compatible with the 
maintain  in  force  broader 
exceptions and limitations 
provisions,  compatible  with 
existing in Union law, for 
the exceptions and limitations 
uses covered by the 
set  out  in  Directives  96/9/EC 
exceptions or the limitation 
and  2001/29/EC,  for  uses  or 
provided for in this 
fields 
covered 
by 
the 
Directive. 
exceptions 
or 
limitations 
provided  for  in  this  Directive 
and  on  condition  that  their 
application does not adversely 
affect  nor  circumvent  the 

 
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mandatory rules set out in this 
Directive. 

[provisional agreement at 
trilogue 25/10/2018 
/26/11/2018; a recital should 
clarify that Article 17a does  
not allow MS to not implement 
the mandatory exceptions 
under this Directive]  

307.   
Art. 18 
Article 18 
Article 18 
Article 18 
Article 18 
Application in time 
Application in time 
Application in time 
Application in time 
308.   
Art. 18, para 
1. 
This Directive shall 
1. 
This Directive shall 
1. 
This Directive shall 
1. 
This Directive shall 

apply in respect of all works  apply in respect of all works  apply in respect of all works  apply in respect of all works 
and other subject-matter 
and other subject-matter 
and other subject-matter 
and other subject-matter which 
which are protected by the 
which are protected by the 
which are protected by the 
are protected by the Member 
Member States' legislation in  Member States' legislation in  Member States' legislation in  States' legislation in the field 
the field of copyright on or 
the field of copyright on or 
the field of copyright on or 
of copyright on or after [the 
after [the date mentioned in 
after [the date mentioned in 
after [the date mentioned in 
date mentioned in Article 
Article 21(1)]. 
Article 21(1)]. 
Article 21(1)]. 
21(1)]. 
309.   
Art. 18, para 
2. 
The provisions of 
Deleted 
2. 
[Deleted] 
(Deleted) 

Article 11 shall also apply to 
press publications published 
 
before [the date mentioned 
in Article 21(1)]. 
 
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310.   
Art. 18, para 
3. 
This Directive shall 
3. 
This Directive shall 
3. 
This Directive shall 
3. 
This Directive shall 

apply without prejudice to 
apply without prejudice to 
apply without prejudice to 
apply without prejudice to any 
any acts concluded and 
any acts concluded and 
any acts concluded and 
acts concluded and rights 
rights acquired before [the 
rights acquired before [the 
rights acquired before [the 
acquired before [the date 
date mentioned in Article 
date mentioned in Article 
date mentioned in Article 
mentioned in Article 21(1)]. 
21(1)]. 
21(1)]. 
21(1)]. 
311.   
Art. 19, title 
Article 19 
Article 19 
Article 19 
Article 19 
Transitional provision 
Transitional provision 
Transitional provision 
Transitional provision 
312.   
Art. 19 
Agreements for the licence 
Agreements for the licence 
Agreements for the licence 
Agreements for the licence or 
or transfer of rights of 
or transfer of rights of 
or transfer of rights of 
transfer of rights of authors 
authors and performers shall  authors and performers shall  authors and performers shall  and performers shall be subject 
be subject to the 
be subject to the 
be subject to the 
to the transparency obligation 
transparency obligation in 
transparency obligation in 
transparency obligation in 
in Article 14 as from [one year 
Article 14 as from [one year  Article 14 as from [one year 
Article 14 as from [one year  after the date mentioned in 
after the date mentioned in 
after the date mentioned in 
after the date mentioned in 
Article 21(1)]. 
Article 21(1)]. 
Article 21(1)]. 
Article 21(1)]. 
313.   
Art. 20, title 
Article 20 
Article 20 
Article 20 
Article 20 
Protection of personal data 
Protection of personal data 
Protection of personal data 
Protection of personal data 
314.   
Art. 20 
The processing of personal 
The processing of personal 
The processing of personal 
The processing of personal 
data carried out within the 
data carried out within the 
data carried out within the 
data carried out within the 
framework of this Directive 
framework of this Directive 
framework of this Directive 
framework of this Directive 
shall be carried out in 
shall be carried out in 
shall be carried out in 
shall be carried out in 
compliance with Directives 
compliance with Directives 
compliance with Directives 
compliance with Directives 
95/46/EC and 2002/58/EC. 
95/46/EC and 2002/58/EC. 
95/46/EC and 2002/58/EC. 
95/46/EC and 2002/58/EC. 
 
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315.   
Art. 21, title 
Article 21 
Article 21 
Article 21 
Article 21 
Transposition 
Transposition 
Transposition 
Transposition 
316.   
Art. 21, para 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 
1. 
Member States shall 

bring into force the laws, 
bring into force the laws, 
bring into force the laws, 
bring into force the laws, 
regulations and 
regulations and 
regulations and 
regulations and administrative 
administrative provisions 
administrative provisions 
administrative provisions 
provisions necessary to 
necessary to comply with 
necessary to comply with 
necessary to comply with 
comply with this Directive by 
this Directive by [12 months  this Directive by [12 months  this Directive by [1224 
[[12][24] months after entry 
after entry into force] at the 
after entry into force] at the 
months after entry into 
into force] at the latest. They 
latest. They shall forthwith 
latest. They shall forthwith 
force] at the latest. They 
shall forthwith communicate to 
communicate to the 
communicate to the 
shall forthwith communicate  the Commission the text of 
Commission the text of those  Commission the text of those  to the Commission the text 
those provisions. 
provisions. 
provisions. 
of those provisions. 
317.   
Art. 21, para 
When Member States adopt 
When Member States adopt 
When Member States adopt 
When Member States adopt 
1, sub-para 2  those provisions, they shall 
those provisions, they shall 
those provisions, they shall 
those provisions, they shall 
contain a reference to this 
contain a reference to this 
contain a reference to this 
contain a reference to this 
Directive or be accompanied  Directive or be accompanied  Directive or be accompanied  Directive or be accompanied 
by such a reference on the 
by such a reference on the 
by such a reference on the 
by such a reference on the 
occasion of their official 
occasion of their official 
occasion of their official 
occasion of their official 
publication. Member States 
publication. Member States 
publication. Member States 
publication. Member States 
shall determine how such 
shall determine how such 
shall determine how such 
shall determine how such 
reference is to be made. 
reference is to be made. 
reference is to be made. 
reference is to be made. 
318.   
Art. 21, para 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 

communicate to the 
communicate to the 
communicate to the 
communicate to the 
Commission the text of the 
Commission the text of the 
Commission the text of the 
Commission the text of the 
 
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main provisions of national 
main provisions of national 
main provisions of national 
main provisions of national 
law which they adopt in the 
law which they adopt in the 
law which they adopt in the 
law which they adopt in the 
field covered by this 
field covered by this 
field covered by this 
field covered by this Directive. 
Directive. 
Directive. 
Directive. 
319.   
Art. 22, title 
Article 22 
Article 22 
Article 22 
Article 22 
Review 
Review 
Review 
Review 
320.   
Art. 22, para 
1. 
No sooner than [five 
1. 
No sooner than [five 
1. 
No sooner than [five 
1. 
No sooner than [five 

years after the date 
years after the date 
years after the date 
years after the date mentioned 
mentioned in Article 21(1)],  mentioned in Article 21(1)],  mentioned in Article 21(1)],  in Article 21(1)], the 
the Commission shall carry 
the Commission shall carry 
the Commission shall carry 
Commission shall carry out a 
out a review of this Directive  out a review of this Directive  out a review of this Directive  review of this Directive and 
and present a report on the 
and present a report on the 
and present a report on the 
present a report on the main 
main findings to the 
main findings to the 
main findings to the 
findings to the European 
European Parliament, the 
European Parliament, the 
European Parliament, the 
Parliament, the Council and 
Council and the European 
Council and the European 
Council and the European 
the European Economic and 
Economic and Social 
Economic and Social 
Economic and Social 
Social Committee. 
Committee. 
Committee. 
Committee. 
321.   
Art. 22, para 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 
2. 
Member States shall 

provide the Commission 
provide the Commission 
provide the Commission 
provide the Commission with 
with the necessary 
with the necessary 
with the necessary 
the necessary information for 
information for the 
information for the 
information for the 
the preparation of the report 
preparation of the report 
preparation of the report 
preparation of the report 
referred to in paragraph 1. 
referred to in paragraph 1. 
referred to in paragraph 1. 
referred to in paragraph 1. 
322.   
Art. 23, title 
Article 23 
Article 23 
Article 23 
Article 23 
 
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Entry into force 
Entry into force 
Entry into force 
Entry into force 
323.   
Art. 23 
This Directive shall enter 
This Directive shall enter 
This Directive shall enter 
This Directive shall enter into 
into force on the twentieth 
into force on the twentieth 
into force on the twentieth 
force on the twentieth day 
day following that of its 
day following that of its 
day following that of its 
following that of its 
publication in the Official 
publication in the Official 
publication in the Official 
publication in the Official 
Journal of the European 
Journal of the European 
Journal of the European 
Journal of the European 
Union
Union
Union
Union
324.   
Art. 24, title 
Article 24 
Article 24 
Article 24 
Article 24 
Addressees 
Addressees 
Addressees 
Addressees 
325.   
Art. 24 
This Directive is addressed 
This Directive is addressed 
This Directive is addressed 
This Directive is addressed to 
to the Member States. 
to the Member States. 
to the Member States. 
the Member States. 
 
 
 
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