This is an HTML version of an attachment to the Freedom of Information request 'Document from 31.05.23 meeting of Working Party on Social Questions'.


 
  
 
 
 

Council of the 
 
 

 European Union 
   
 
Brussels, 27 May 2023 
(OR. en) 
    9795/23 
 
Interinstitutional File: 
 
 
2021/0414(COD) 
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EMPL 250 

 
 
SOC 372 
CODEC 957 
 
NOTE 
From: 
Presidency 
To: 
Permanent Representatives Committee 
Subject: 
Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF 
THE COUNCIL on improving working conditions in platform work 
- General approach 
 
 
I. 
INTRODUCTION 
On 9 December 2021, the Commission submitted a proposal for a Directive on improving the 
working conditions in platform work1. The proposal seeks to:  
1) 
improve the working conditions of persons performing platform work by facilitating the 
correct determination of their employment status through a rebuttable legal presumption 
(Chapter II),  
2) 
improve the protection of the personal data of persons performing platform work by 
improving transparency, fairness and accountability in the use of automated monitoring 
or decision-making systems (Chapter III), 
3) 
improve the transparency of platform work (Chapter IV) and put certain remedies and 
enforcement measures in place (Chapter V).  
                                                 
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Under the relevant legal bases, i.e. Article 153(2)(b) TFEU, in conjunction with point (b) of 
Article 153(1), and Article 16(2) TFEU, the Council is to act by qualified majority, in 
accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure. 
The European Parliament has not yet adopted its position at first reading. The EP plenary has 
confirmed on 2 February the decision of the EMPL committee to enter into negotiations based 
on the report of Elisabetta Gualmini as adopted by the EMPL Committee on 12 December 
20222
The Economic and Social Committee adopted its opinion in its plenary session on 23 March 
20223. 
The Committee of the Regions adopted its opinion in its plenary session on 30 June 20224. 
The European Data Protection Supervisor issued formal comments on 2 February 20225.  
II.  STATE OF PLAY IN THE COUNCIL  
The Presidency has presented to Coreper on 24 May 2023 a compromise text in view of a 
general approach at the meeting of the Council (EPSCO) on 12 June 2023 (9172/23).  
While the Commission and most delegations underlined their wish to see the general approach 
adopted in the June EPSCO meeting. Fourteen delegations still declared that they would not 
yet be able to support the Presidency compromise text as it would still need some finetuning. 
All other delegations supported the Presidency, except two delegations which did not speak.  
The group of delegations, which could not support the Presidency text was evenly split into 
those who were calling for a broader application of the legal presumption and those calling for 
a more restricted application thereof. The Presidency takes this as a sign that its compromise 
proposal has been already well balanced. 
                                                 
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III.  THE PRESIDENCY COMPROMISE PROPOSAL  
The Presidency has therefore limited the changes to its compromise text to some issues, which 
have been raised by delegations in that meeting and in informal contacts afterwards, while 
keeping the general balance of the text.  
The latest Presidency compromise proposal can be found in the Annex to this note. Changes 
in relation to the previous Presidency compromise proposal (9172/23) are marked in bold and 
deletions with […]. Deletions of entire recitals, articles or paragraphs compared to the 
Commission proposal (14450/21) are marked by […]. 
It contains the following elements: 
1. 
NON-REGRESSION AND SAFEGUARD FOR NATIONAL COURTS AND 
AUTHORITIES 
Articles 4(1), 4(1a) and 20 (1), Recital 50 
The Presidency amended the chapeau to Article 4(1) in order to clarify that the legal 
presumption shall not lead in any case to a reduction of the level of protection provided 
to platform workers by the legal systems in place in Member States. This addresses the 
calls of those Member States, who already have put in place more favourable 
mechanisms for ensuring the correct classification of persons performing platform 
work, for additional safeguards that the legal presumption of this Directive would not 
impede on these mechanisms. This is also taken up in recital 50. 
The Presidency also proposes to introduce a provision to clarify that Articles 4 and 4a 
do not affect the discretion of the courts and national authorities to ascertain the 
existence of an employment relationship, as defined by the law, collective agreements 
or practice in force in the Member State in question, with consideration to the case-law 
of the Court of Justice, regardless of the number of criteria fulfilled. 
 
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2. 
UNILATERAL DETERMINATION OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS:  
Article 2(4b) in conjunction with Article 4(1), Recital 24aa 
The Presidency suggests introducing a definition for terms and conditions, which is 
inspired by a similar provision in the Business to Platforms Regulation6. Article 4 
stipulates that the criteria of the presumption may be fulfilled by virtue of the digital 
labour platform’s applicable terms and conditions or in practice. The introduced 
definition clarifies that only those provisions of the terms and conditions which are 
unilaterally determined by the Digital Labour Platform are relevant in this regard. 
Further guidance on when terms and conditions are to be considered as unilaterally 
determined are provided in recital 24aa. This is also inspired by the said regulation.  
3. 
OTHER CHANGES 
Recitals 24a, 24b, 25, 25a 
In response to requests of delegations, other limited changes have been made in the said 
recitals.  
IV.  CONCLUSION 
While the requests of Member States could not be accommodated in all instances, the 
Presidency is persuaded that the text in the Annex addressed the main outstanding issues of 
delegations without distorting the general balance of the text.  
The Committee of Permanent Representatives is invited to:  

examine and approve the compromise text as set out in the Annex to this report; and 

submit it to the Council (EPSCO) with a view to reaching a general approach at its 
session on 12 June 2023.  
 
________________________ 
                                                 
6 
Article 2(10) of Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council 
of 20 June 2019 on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online 
intermediation services, OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 57–79 
 
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ANNEX 
Proposal for a 
DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 
on improving working conditions in platform work 
(Text with EEA relevance) 
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, 
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 153 
(2), point (b), in conjunction with Article 153 (1), point (b), and Article 16(2) thereof, 
Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission, 
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments, 
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee7
Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions8
Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, 
                                                 
7 
OJ C , , p.  
 
8 
OJ C , , p. . 
 
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Whereas: 
(1) 
Pursuant to Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union, the objectives of the Union are, 
amongst others, to promote the well-being of its peoples and to work for the sustainable 
development of Europe based on a highly competitive social market economy, aiming at full 
employment and social progress. 
(2) 
Article 31 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (‘the Charter’) 
provides for the right of every worker to working conditions which respect his or her health, 
safety and dignity. Article 27 of the Charter protects the workers’ right to information and 
consultation within the undertaking. Article 8 of the Charter provides that everyone has the 
right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her. Article 16 of the Charter 
recognises the freedom to conduct a business. 
(3) 
Principle No 5 of the European Pillar of Social Rights, proclaimed at Gothenburg on 17 
November 20179, provides that, regardless of the type and duration of the employment 
relationship, workers have the right to fair and equal treatment regarding working 
conditions, access to social protection and training; that, in accordance with legislation and 
collective agreements, the necessary flexibility for employers to adapt swiftly to changes in 
the economic context is to be ensured; that innovative forms of work that ensure quality 
working conditions are to be fostered, that entrepreneurship and self-employment are to be 
encouraged and that occupational mobility is to be facilitated; and that employment 
relationships that lead to precarious working conditions are to be prevented, including by 
prohibiting abuse of atypical contracts. The Porto Social Summit of May 2021 welcomed 
the Action Plan accompanying the Social Pillar10
                                                 
9 
Interinstitutional Proclamation on the European Pillar of Social Rights (OJ C 428, 
13.12.2017, p. 10). 
10 
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the 
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, ‘The 
European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan’, COM(2021) 102 final, 4.3.2021. 
 
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(4) 
Digitalisation is changing the world of work, improving productivity and enhancing 
flexibility, while also carrying some risks for employment and working conditions. 
Algorithm-based technologies, including automated monitoring or decision-making systems, 
have enabled the emergence and growth of digital labour platforms. 
(5) 
Platform work is performed by individuals through the digital infrastructure of digital labour 
platforms that provide a service to their customers. By means of the algorithms, the digital 
labour platforms may control, to a lesser or greater extent – depending on their business 
model – the performance of the work, its remuneration and the relationship between their 
customers and the persons performing the work. Platform work can be performed 
exclusively online through electronic tools (‘online platform work’) or in a hybrid way 
combining an online communication process with a subsequent activity in the physical 
world (‘on-location platform work’). Many of the existing digital labour platforms are 
international business actors deploying their activities and business models in several 
Member States or across borders. 
(6) 
Platform work can provide opportunities for accessing the labour market more easily, 
gaining additional income through a secondary activity or enjoying some flexibility in the 
organisation of working time. At the same time, platform work is rapidly evolving, resulting 
in new business models and forms of employment that sometimes escape the existing 
paradigms. Such novelties are exemplified in the field of Union competition law, where the 
Commission has adopted Guidelines on its application to collective agreements regarding 
the working conditions of solo self-employed persons. For these reasons, it is important to 
accompany this process with adequate safeguards for persons performing platform work, 
irrespective of the nature of the contractual relationship, avoiding discrimination and 
promoting new opportunities. Notably, platform work can blur the boundaries between 
employment relationship and self-employed activity, and the responsibilities of employers 
and workers. Misclassification of the employment status has consequences for the persons 
affected, as it is likely to restrict access to existing labour rights. It also leads to an uneven 
playing field with respect to businesses that classify their workers correctly, and it has 
implications for Member States’ industrial relations systems, their tax base and the coverage 
and sustainability of their social protection systems. While such challenges are broader than 
platform work, they are particularly acute and pressing in the platform economy. 
 
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(7) 
Court cases in several Member States have shown the persistence of misclassification of the 
employment status in  certain types of platform  work, in particular in sectors where digital 
labour platforms exert a certain degree of control over the remuneration and performance of 
work.  While  digital  labour  platforms  frequently  classify  persons  working  through  them  as 
self-employed  or  ‘independent  contractors’,  many  courts  have  found  that  the  platforms 
exercise  de  facto  direction  and  control  over  those  persons,  often  integrating  them  in  their 
main business activities and unilaterally determining the level of remuneration. Those courts 
have therefore reclassified purportedly self-employed persons as workers employed by the 
platforms.  
(8) 
Automated monitoring or decision-making systems powered by algorithms increasingly 
replace functions that managers usually perform in businesses, such as allocating tasks, 
giving instructions, evaluating the work performed, providing incentives or imposing 
sanctions. Digital labour platforms use such algorithmic systems as a standard way of 
organising and managing platform work through their infrastructure. Persons performing 
platform work subject to such algorithmic management often lack information on how the 
algorithms work, which personal data are being used and how their behaviour affects 
decisions taken by automated systems. Workers’ representatives and labour inspectorates do 
not have access to this information either. Moreover, persons performing platform work 
often do not know the reasons for decisions taken or supported by automated systems and 
lack the possibility to discuss those decisions with a contact person or to contest them. 
(9) 
When platforms operate in several Member States or across borders, it is often unclear 
where the platform work is performed and by whom. Also, national authorities do not have 
easy access to data on digital labour platforms, including the number of persons performing 
platform work, their employment status, and their working conditions. This complicates the 
enforcement of applicable rules. 
 
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(10)  A body of legal instruments provides for minimum standards in working conditions and 
labour rights across the Union. This includes in particular Directive (EU) 2019/1152, 
Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council11, Directive 
2008/104/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council12, and other specific 
instruments on aspects such as health and safety at work, pregnant workers, work-life 
balance, fixed-term work, part-time work, posting of workers, among others.  
(11)  Council Recommendation 2019/C 387/0113 recommends Member States to take measures 
ensuring formal and effective coverage, adequacy and transparency of social protection 
schemes for all workers and self-employed.  
(12)  Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council14 (‘General Data 
Protection Regulation’) ensures the protection of natural persons with regard to the 
processing of personal data, and in particular provides certain rights and obligations as well 
as safeguards concerning lawful, fair and transparent processing of personal data, including 
with regard to automated individual decision-making.  
                                                 
11 
Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 
concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time (OJ L 299, 18.11.2003, p. 9). 
12 
Directive 2008/104/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 
2008 on temporary agency work (OJ L 327, 5.12.2008, p. 9). 
13 
Council Recommendation of 8 November 2019 on access to social protection for workers 
and the self-employed (2019/C 387/01) (OJ C 387, 15.11.2019, p. 1). 
14 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 
on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the 
free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection 
Regulation) (OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1). 
 
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(12a)  Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council15 promotes 
fairness and transparency for ‘business users’ using online intermediation services provided 
by operators of online platforms. [The European Commission has proposed further 
legislation laying down harmonised rules for providers and users of artificial intelligence 
systems]16
(12b)  Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council17 establishes a general 
framework setting out minimum requirements for the right to information and consultation 
of employees in undertakings or establishments within the Union.  
(13)  While existing Union legal acts provide for certain general safeguards, challenges in 
platform work require some further specific measures. In order to adequately frame the 
development of platform work in a sustainable manner, it is necessary for the Union to set 
minimum standards to address the challenges arising from platform work. Measures 
facilitating the correct determination of the employment status of persons performing 
platform work in the Union should be introduced, and transparency on platform work should 
be improved, including in cross-border situations. In addition, persons performing platform 
work should be provided a number of rights aiming at promoting transparency, fairness and 
accountability in algorithmic management. This should be done with a view to improving 
legal certainty and aiming at a level playing field between digital labour platforms and 
offline providers of services and supporting the sustainable growth of digital labour 
platforms in the Union.  
                                                 
15  
Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 
on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services 
(OJ L 186, 11.7.2019, p. 57). 
16  
[COM(2021) 206 final, 21.4.2021.] 
17  
Directive 2002/14/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2002 
establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European 
Community (OJ L 80, 23.3.2002, p. 29). 
 
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(14)  The Commission has undertaken a two-stage consultation of the social partners, in 
accordance with Article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 
(TFEU), on the improvement of working conditions in platform work. There was no 
agreement among the social partners to enter into negotiations with regard to those matters. 
It is, however, important to take action at Union level in this area by adapting the current 
legal framework to the emergence of platform work. 
(15)  In addition, the Commission held extensive exchanges with relevant stakeholders, including 
digital labour platforms, associations of persons performing platform work, experts from 
academia, Member States and international organisations and representatives of civil 
society. 
(15a)  This Directive aims to improve the working conditions of platform workers and to protect 
the personal data of persons performing platform work by regulating the use of algorithmic 
management in the context of platform work. Both objectives are being pursued 
simultaneously and, whilst mutually reinforcing and inseparably linked, one is not secondary 
to the other. As regards Article 153(1)(b) TFEU, this Directive sets out rules aimed at 
supporting the correct determination of the employment status of persons performing 
platform work and improving transparency on platform work, including in cross-border 
situations. As regards Article 16 TFEU, this Directive establishes a framework to improve 
the protection of natural persons performing platform work regarding the processing of their 
personal data by increasing transparency, fairness and accountability of relevant algorithmic 
management procedures in platform work.  
(16)  This Directive should apply to persons performing platform work in the Union, 
independently of their employment status. 
 
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(17)  This Directive should establish mandatory rules that apply to all digital labour platforms, 
irrespective of their place of establishment and irrespective of the law otherwise applicable, 
provided that the platform work organised through that digital labour platform is performed 
in the Union.  
(18)  Digital labour platforms differ from other online platforms in that they use automated 
monitoring or decision-making systems to organise work performed by individuals at the 
request, one-off or repeated, of the recipient of a service provided by the platform. 
Automated monitoring and decision-making systems collect personal data of persons 
performing platform work and take or support decisions that affect work conditions. 
Organising work performed by individuals should imply at a minimum a significant role in 
matching the demand for the service with the supply of work by an individual who has a 
contractual relationship with the digital labour platform and who is available to perform a 
specific task. This can include other activities such as processing payments. Online 
platforms which do not organise the work performed by individuals but merely provide the 
means by which service providers can reach the end-user, for instance by advertising offers 
or requests for services or aggregating and displaying available service providers in a 
specific area, without any further involvement, should not be considered a digital labour 
platform. The definition of digital labour platforms should not include providers of a service 
whose primary purpose is to exploit or share assets, such as short-term rental of 
accommodation, or to resell goods or services, nor those who organise the activities of 
volunteers. It should be limited to providers of a service for which the organisation of work 
performed by the individual, such as transport of persons or goods or cleaning, constitutes a 
necessary and essential and not merely a minor and purely ancillary component. 
 
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(18a)  In some cases, persons performing platform work do not have a direct contractual 
relationship with the digital labour platform, but are in a relationship with an intermediary 
through which they perform platform work through digital labour platform. Such a way to 
organize platform work often results in a vast array of different and complex triangular 
relationships, as well as in blurred responsibilities between the digital labour platform and 
the intermediaries concerning platform work. Persons performing platform work through 
intermediaries are exposed to the same risks in terms of misclassification of their 
employment status and automated monitoring or decision-making systems as persons 
performing platform work directly for the digital labour platform. Member States should 
therefore lay down adequate measures, including by establishing systems of joint 
responsibility, if appropriate, in order to ensure that, under this Directive, they enjoy the 
same level of protection as persons performing platform work who have a direct contractual 
relationship with the digital labour platform.  
(19)  To combat false self-employment in platform work and to facilitate the correct 
determination of the employment status, Member States should have appropriate procedures 
in place to prevent and address misclassification of the employment status of persons 
performing platform work. The aim of those procedures should be to ascertain the existence 
of an employment relationship as defined by national law, collective agreements or practice 
with consideration to the case-law of the Court of Justice, and thereby to ensure that 
platform workers enjoy the rights related to that employment relationship deriving from 
relevant Union law, national law and collective agreements. Where self-employment or an 
intermediate employment status – as defined at national level – is the correct employment 
status, rights and obligations pursuant to that status apply.  
 
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(20)  In its case law, the Court of Justice has established criteria for determining the status of a 
worker18. The interpretation by the Court of Justice of those criteria should be taken into 
account in the implementation of this Directive. The abuse of the status of self-employed 
persons, either at national level or in cross-border situations, is a form of falsely declared 
work that is frequently associated with undeclared work. False self-employment occurs 
when a person is declared to be self-employed while fulfilling the conditions characteristic 
of an employment relationship. The Court of Justice has ruled19 that the classification of a 
self-employed person under national law does not prevent that person from being classified 
as a worker within the meaning of Union law if their independence is merely notional, 
thereby disguising an employment relationship.  
(21)  The principle of primacy of facts, meaning that the determination of the existence of an 
employment relationship should be guided primarily by the facts relating to the actual 
performance of work, including its remuneration, and not by the parties’ description of the 
relationship, in accordance with the 2006 Employment Relationship Recommendation (No 
198) of the International Labour Organisation, is particularly relevant in the case of platform 
work, where contractual conditions are often unilaterally determined by one party. 
                                                 
18  
Judgments of the Court of Justice of 3 July 1986, Deborah Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-
Württemberg, C-66/85, ECLI:EU:C:1986:284; 14 October 2010, Union Syndicale Solidaires 
Isère v Premier ministre and Others, C-428/09, ECLI:EU:C:2010:612; 4 December 2014, 
FNV Kunsten Informatie en Media v Staat der Nederlanden, C-413/13, 
ECLI:EU:C:2014:2411; 9 July 2015, Ender Balkaya v Kiesel Abbruch- und Recycling 
Technik GmbH, C-229/14, ECLI:EU:C:2015:455; 17 November 2016, Betriebsrat der 
Ruhrlandklinik gGmbH v Ruhrlandklinik gGmbH, C-216/15, ECLI:EU:C:2016:883; 16 July 
2020, UX v Governo della Repubblica italiana, C-658/18, ECLI:EU:C:2020:572; and order 
of the Court of Justice of 22 April 2020, B v Yodel Delivery Network Ltd, C-692/19, 
ECLI:EU:C:2020:288. 
19  
Judgements of the Court of Justice of 13 January 2004, Debra Allonby v Accrington & 
Rossendale College, Education Lecturing Services, trading as Protocol Professional and 
Secretary of State for Education and Employment, C-256/01, ECLI:EU:C:2004:18 ; 11 
November 2010, Dita Danosa v LKB Līzings SIA, C-232/09, ECLI:EU:C:2010:674 and 
4 December 2014 FNV Kunsten Informatie en Media v Staat der Nederlanden, C-413/13, 
ECLI:EU:C:2014:2411 
 
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(22)  When the existence of an employment relationship is established based on facts, the party 
acting as employer should be clearly identified and that party should fulfil all the obligations 
resulting from its role as employer. 
(23)  Ensuring correct determination of the employment status should not prevent the 
improvement of conditions of genuine self-employed persons performing platform work. 
Where a digital labour platform decides – on a purely voluntary basis or in agreement with 
the persons concerned – to pay for social protection, accident insurance or other forms of 
insurance, training measures or similar benefits to self-employed persons working through 
that platform, those benefits as such should not be regarded as determining elements 
indicating the existence of an employment relationship. 
(24)  Direction and control, or legal subordination, is an essential element of the definition of an 
employment relationship in the Member States and in the case-law of the Court of Justice. 
Control and direction can be exerted over persons performing platform work by a 
wide variety of means and in different circumstances, as both national courts and the 
Court of Justice have ascertained. When digital labour platforms control the execution of 
work, they act like employers in an employment relationship. In addition, some terms and 
conditions applicable to persons performing platform work are typically determined 
and imposed unilaterally in practice by the digital labour platform, leaving no 
possibility for the person performing platform work to influence the substance of such 
terms and conditions. Therefore, contractual relationships of this kind should be deemed, 
by virtue of a legal presumption, to be an employment relationship between the platform and 
the person performing platform work through it, where a digital labour platform exercises, 
either through its terms and conditions applicable to the contractual relationship in question 
or its acting in practice, a certain level of direction and control, expressed by fulfilling at 
least three of the criteria for triggering the presumption. […] 
(24aa) In order to establish whether certain terms and conditions are unilaterally determined, 
the name or form of the terms and conditions, or the fact that a negotiation took place 
should not, in itself, be decisive. 
 
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(24a)  When the digital labour platform complies with measures or rules which are required by law 
or collective agreements, applicable to genuine solo self-employed, which are necessary, in 
particular, to safeguard the health and safety of either the recipients of the service or the 
person performing platform work this is not as such to be understood as fulfilling one or 
more criteria for triggering the legal presumption under this Directive.  
(24b)  In its guidelines on the application of Union competition law to collective agreements 
regarding the working conditions of solo self-employed persons, the Commission clarifies 
that, in its view, collective agreements by solo self-employed persons who are in a situation 
comparable to that of workers fall outside the scope of Article 101 TFEUIt is important 
that Member States take into account the opportunities outlined by the Guidelines on the 
application of Union competition law to collective agreements regarding the working 
conditions of genuine solo self-employed persons, published by the European 
Commission20. According to the Commission, collective agreements between solo self-
employed persons and digital labour platforms relating to working conditions fall outside the 
scope of Article 101 TFEU, offering the opportunity to improve working conditions of such 
solo self-employed persons, in particular those performing platform work. These collective 
agreements should, however, not undermine the objectives pursued by this Directive, 
in particular the correct classification of persons performing platform work with 
regard to their employment status. 
                                                 
20  
C(2022) 6846 final 
 
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(25)  Criteria indicating that a digital labour platform controls the execution of work and that a 
person performing platform work is likely to be in an employment relationship should be 
included in the Directive in order to make the legal presumption operational and facilitate 
the enforcement of workers’ rights. Those criteria should be inspired by Union and national 
case law. The criteria should include concrete elements showing that the digital labour 
platform determines the upper limits of the level of remuneration or its range, requires the 
respect of rules and gives instructions with regard to appearanceconduct towards the 
recipient of the service or performance of the work, restricts the discretion to choose 
working hours or periods of absence, to refuse tasks, to use subcontractors or substitutes or 
prevents the person performing platform work from developing business contacts with 
potential clients, including by using a number of conditions or through a system of 
sanctions. The criteria should also comprise concrete elements showing that the digital 
labour platform closely supervises the performance of work, also by thoroughly verifying 
the quality of the results of the work of persons performing platform work. This includes 
assessing or regularly taking stock of the work performance or work progress which can also 
be performed by electronic means, such as camera surveillance, location tracking, counting 
keystrokes or taking screenshots or using other functions in computers or smartphones. 
Supervision does not include, on the contrary, the use of electronic tools for matching the 
person performing platform work and the recipient of the service. At the same time, the 
criteria should not cover situations where the persons performing platform work are genuine 
self-employed. Genuine self-employed persons are themselves responsible vis-à-vis their 
customers for how they perform their work and the quality of their outputs. The freedom to
notably, choose working hours or periods of absence, to refuse tasks, to use subcontractors 
or substitutes or not to be limited in working for any third party is to be considered one of 
the characteristics of genuine self-employment. Restricting such freedom can take 
different forms, considering that the platform economy model is constantly evolving.   
 
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(25a)  Member States should, in accordance with their national legal and judicial systems, establish 
a framework of supporting measures to ensure the effective implementation of the legal 
presumption. Such implementation is relevant to all parties that have a stake in the 
correct determination of the employment status, such as the worker, the digital labour 
platform and social partner organisations. In order for the presumption to be effective in 
practice, three of the criteria indicating that the person performing platform work is likely to 
be considered in an employment relationship should be always fulfilled to trigger its 
application. The purpose of these criteria is to provide a set of easily understandable 
indications that point to the likely existence of an employment relationship and thus 
facilitate the access of the person performing platform work to the relevant rights derived 
from the existence of an employment relationship by means of the legal presumption. 
(25c)  In line with the objective of this Directive to improve working conditions for platform 
workers, by correctly determining their employment relationship and thereby ensuring that 
they enjoy the relevant rights deriving from Union law, national law and collective 
agreements, the legal presumption should apply in all relevant administrative or judicial 
proceedings, where the employment status of the person performing platform work is at 
stake. While this Directive does not impose any obligation on Member States to apply the 
legal presumption in tax, criminal and social security proceedings, nothing in this Directive 
should prevent Member States, as a matter of national law, from applying that presumption 
in those or other administrative or judicial proceedings or from recognising the results of 
proceedings in which the presumption has been applied for the purposes of providing rights 
to reclassified workers under other areas of law.  
(26)  […]  
(27)  […] 
 
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(28)  The relationship between a person performing platform work and a digital labour platform 
may not meet the requirements of an employment relationship in accordance with the 
definition laid down in the law, collective agreements or practice in force of the respective 
Member State with consideration to the case-law of the Court of Justice, even though criteria 
indicate that a person performing platform work is likely to be in an employment 
relationship. In judicial or administrative proceedings, where the legal presumption applies, 
Member States should ensure the possibility to rebut the legal presumption by proving, on 
the basis of the aforementioned definition, that the relationship in question is not an 
employment relationship. Digital labour platforms have a complete overview of all factual 
elements determining the legal nature of the relationship, in particular the algorithms 
through which they manage their operations. Therefore, they should have the burden of 
proof where they argue that the contractual relationship in question is not an employment 
relationship. In addition, when the person performing platform work who is the subject of 
the presumption seeks to rebut the legal presumption, the digital labour platform should be 
required to assist that person, notably by providing all relevant information held by the 
platform in respect of that person. A successful rebuttal of the presumption in judicial or 
administrative proceedings should not preclude the application of the presumption in 
subsequent judicial proceedings or appeals, in accordance with national procedural law.  
(28a)  While the legal presumption should apply in proceedings initiated by a person performing 
platform work where the employment status is at stake, Member States might grant 
competent national administrative authorities in charge of verifying compliance with or 
enforcing relevant legislation, such as labour inspectorates, a discretion not to apply that 
presumption, if they act on their own initiative and if it is manifest that the person 
performing platform work is not a worker as defined by the law, collective agreements or 
practice in force in the Member State in question, with consideration to the case-law of the 
Court of Justice. A national framework to reduce litigation and increase legal certainty is 
important.  
 
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(28b)  Member States should be able to provide that judicial or administrative proceedings initiated 
by the digital labour platforms in order to challenge the decision of a judicial or 
administrative authority taken on the basis of the application of the legal presumption do not 
have a suspensive effect on the relevant decision. 
(28c)  In the interest of legal certainty, the legal presumption should not have any retroactive legal 
effects before the transposition date of this Directive and should therefore only apply to the 
period starting from that date, including for contractual relationships entered into before and 
still ongoing on that date. Claims relating to the possible existence of an employment 
relationship before that date and resulting rights and obligations until that date should 
therefore be assessed only on the basis of national law and Union law predating this 
Directive.  
(28d)  Effective implementation of the legal presumption through appropriate measures, such as 
disseminating information to the public, developing guidance and providing for effective 
controls and inspections is essential to ensure legal certainty and transparency for all parties 
involved. These measures should avoid reclassification of genuine self-employed, take into 
account the specific situation of start-ups to support the entrepreneurial potential and the 
conditions for the sustainable growth of digital labour platforms in the Union.  
 
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(29)  In the context of platform work, persons performing platform work are often subject to 
decisions taken through or with the support of automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems. Consent of persons performing platform work to the processing of personal data is 
not always freely given, as persons performing platform work not systematically have a 
genuine free choice or are able to refuse or withdraw consent without detriment concerning 
their contractual relationship, despite such consent not being necessary to perform platform 
work, and there is an imbalance between the person performing platform work and the 
digital labour platform running the automated monitoring or decision-making systems. 
While Regulation (EU) 2016/679 establishes the general framework for the protection of 
natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data, it is necessary to lay down 
specific rules addressing the concerns that are related to the processing of personal data by 
use of automated monitoring or decision-making systems in the context of platform work. In 
particular, digital labour platforms should not process any personal data on the emotional or 
psychological state of the person performing platform work, process any personal data in 
relation to their private conversations, and should not collect any personal data while the 
person performing platform work is not offering or performing platform work. In this 
context, terms relating to the protection of personal data in this Directive should be 
understood in light of the definitions set out in Regulation (EU) 2016/679. 
(30)  […]  
(31)  […]  
 
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(32)  Without affecting the rights and obligations stemming from Regulation (EU) 2016/679, this 
Directive provides for additional safeguards concerning the use of automated monitoring or 
decision-making systems in the context of platform work. Digital labour platforms should be 
subject to transparency obligations in relation to automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems that are used to collect data, supervise or evaluate the work performance through 
electronic means; and automated decision-making systems which are used to take or support 
decisions that significantly affect persons performing platform work working conditions, 
including their access to work assignments, their earnings, their safety and health, their 
working time, their promotion and their contractual status, including the restriction, 
suspension or termination of their account. In addition to what is provided in Regulation 
(EU) 2016/679, information concerning such systems should also be provided where 
decisions are not solely based on automated processing, provided that they are supported by 
automated systems. It should also be specified which kind of information should be 
provided to persons performing platform work regarding such automated systems, as well as 
in which form and when it should be provided. Information on automated monitoring or 
decision-making systems should also be provided to representatives of platform workers and 
to national labour authorities, in order to enable them to exercise their functions. 
(33)  This information obligation should not require digital labour platforms, to disclose the 
detailed functioning of their automated monitoring or decision-making systems, including 
algorithms, or other detailed data that contains commercial secrets or is protected by 
intellectual property rights. However, the result of those considerations should not be a 
refusal to provide all the information required by this Directive. 
(34)  […] 
 
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(35)  Digital labour platforms make extensive use of automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems in managing persons performing platform work. Monitoring by electronic means 
can be intrusive and decisions taken or supported by such systems, such as those related to 
the offer of assignment of tasks, the earnings, their safety and health, their working time, 
their access to training, their promotion or status within the organisation and contractual 
status, directly affect the persons performing platform work, who might not have a direct 
contact with a human manager or supervisor. Digital labour platforms should therefore 
monitor and regularly evaluate the impact of individual decisions taken or supported by 
automated monitoring or decision-making systems on working conditions. Digital labour 
platforms should ensure sufficient human resources for this purpose. The persons charged by 
the digital labour platform with the function of monitoring should have the necessary 
competence, training and authority to exercise that function and in particular the right to 
cancel automated decisions. They should be protected from dismissal, disciplinary measures 
or other adverse treatment for exercising their functions. In addition to obligations under 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679, this Directive provides for distinct obligations, which apply in 
the context of platform work. 
(36)  Regulation (EU) 2016/679 requires data controllers to implement suitable measures to 
safeguard data subjects’ rights and freedoms and legitimate interests in cases where the latter 
are subject to decisions based solely on automated processing. That provision requires, as a 
minimum, the data subject’s right to obtain human intervention on the part of the controller, 
to express his or her point of view and to contest the decision.  
 
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(37)  This Directive provides for rules in addition to Regulation 2016/679 in the context of 
algorithmic management in platform work. Persons performing platform work should have 
the right to obtain an explanation from the digital labour platform for a decision, the lack of 
decision or a set of decisions taken or supported by automated systems that significantly 
affect them. For that purpose the digital labour platform should provide the possibility for 
them to discuss and clarify the facts, circumstances and reasons for such decisions with a 
human contact person at the digital labour platform. In addition, if a digital labour platform 
restricts, suspends or terminates the account of a person performing platform work, refuses 
the remuneration for work performed by that person, or affects his or her contractual status, 
the digital labour platform should provide the person performing platform work with a 
written statement of reasons for that decision. as such decisions are likely to have 
particularly significant negative effects on persons performing platform work, in particular 
their potential earnings. Where the explanation or reasons obtained are not satisfactory or 
where persons performing platform work consider their rights infringed by any decision that 
significantly affects them, they should also have the right to request the digital labour 
platform to review the decision and to obtain a substantiated reply without undue delay. 
Where such decisions infringe those persons’ rights, such as labour rights, the right to non-
discrimination or to the protection of their personal data, the digital labour platform should 
rectify such decisions without undue delay or, where that is not possible, provide 
compensation for the damage sustained, and take the necessary steps to avoid similar 
decisions in the future.  
 
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(38)  Council Directive 89/391/EEC21 introduces measures to encourage improvements in the 
safety and health of workers at work, including the obligation for employers to minimise 
risks and to assess the occupational health and safety risks. As automated monitoring or 
decision-making systems potentially can have significant impact on the physical and mental 
health of platform workers, digital labour platforms should evaluate those risks, assess 
whether the safeguards of the systems are appropriate to address those risks and take 
appropriate preventive and protective measures. They should avoid that the use of such 
systems results in undue pressure on workers or puts their health at risk. In order to 
strengthen the effectiveness of these provisions, the digital labour platform should make 
their risk evaluation and the assessment of the mitigating measures available to platform 
workers, their representatives and the competent authorities.  
(39)  As the introduction of or substantial changes in the use of automated monitoring or decision-
making systems by digital labour platforms have direct impacts on the work organisation 
and individual working conditions of platform workers, it is key to ensure that rights and 
obligations on information and consultation, and in particular those laid down under 
Directive 2002/14/EC, can be directly exercised by platform workers' representatives and, 
where there are no representatives, by platform workers. Additional measures are necessary 
to ensure that digital labour platforms inform and consult platform workers or their 
representatives before such decisions are taken, at the appropriate level and, given the 
technical complexity of algorithmic management systems, with the assistance of an expert 
chosen by the platform workers or their representatives in a concerted manner where needed. 
The information and consultation measures as contained in Directive 2002/14/EC remain 
unaffected by this Directive.  
                                                 
21  
Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to 
encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work (OJ L 183, 29.6.1989, 
p. 1). 
 
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(40)  Persons who do not have an employment relationship constitute a significant part of the 
persons performing platform work. The impact of automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems used by digital labour platforms on the protection of their personal data and their 
earning opportunities is similar to that on platform workers. Therefore, the rights in this 
Directive pertaining to the protection of natural persons in relation to the processing of 
personal data in the context of algorithmic management, namely those regarding 
transparency on automated monitoring or decision-making systems, restrictions to process or 
collect personal data, human monitoring and review of significant decisions, should also 
apply to persons performing platform work who do not have an employment relationship. 
The rights pertaining to health and safety at work and information and consultation of 
platform workers or their representatives, which are specific to workers in view of Union 
law, should not apply to them. Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 provides safeguards regarding 
fairness and transparency for self-employed persons performing platform work, provided 
that they are considered business users within the meaning of that Regulation. With regards 
to human review of significant decisions, the specific provisions of Regulation (EU) 
2019/1150 should prevail in respect of business users. 
(41)  In order to ensure that digital labour platforms comply with labour legislation and 
regulations, in particular if they are established in another country than the Member State in 
which the platform worker is performing work, digital labour platforms should declare work 
performed by platform workers to the competent authorities of the Member State in which 
the work is performed. This obligation should not replace the obligations of declaration or 
notification established by other Union instruments.  
 
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(42)  Information on the number of persons performing platform work through digital labour 
platforms, information on their contractual or employment status and the general terms and 
conditions applicable to those contractual relationships is essential to support relevant 
authorities in correctly determining the employment status of persons performing platform 
work and in ensuring compliance with legal obligations as well as representatives of 
platform workers in the exercise of their representative functions and should therefore be 
made accessible to them. Those authorities and representatives should also have the right to 
ask digital labour platforms for additional clarifications and details regarding the 
information provided. 
(43)  An extensive system of enforcement provisions for the social acquis in the Union has been 
developed, elements of which should be applied to this Directive in order to ensure that 
persons performing platform work have access to effective and impartial dispute resolution 
and a right to redress, including compensation for the damage sustained. Specifically, having 
regard to the fundamental nature of the right to effective legal protection, persons 
performing platform work should continue to enjoy such protection even after the end of the 
employment or other contractual relationship giving rise to an alleged breach of rights under 
this Directive. 
(44)  Representatives of persons performing platform work should be able, in accordance with 
national law and practice, to represent one or several persons performing platform work in 
any judicial or administrative proceedings to enforce any of the rights or obligations arising 
from this Directive. Bringing claims on behalf of or supporting several persons performing 
platform work is a way to facilitate proceedings that would not have been brought otherwise 
because of procedural and financial barriers or a fear of reprisals. 
 
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(45)  Platform work is characterised by the lack of a common workplace where workers can get to 
know each other and communicate with each other and with their representatives, also in 
view of defending their interests towards the digital labour platform. It is therefore necessary 
to create digital communication channels, in line with the digital labour platforms’ work 
organisation, where persons performing platform work can exchange with each other and be 
contacted by representatives of platform workers. Digital labour platforms should create 
such communication channels within their digital infrastructure or through similarly 
effective means, while respecting the protection of personal data and refraining from 
accessing or monitoring those communications. 
(46)  In administrative or judicial proceedings regarding the correct determination of the 
employment status of persons performing platform work, the elements regarding the 
organisation of work allowing to establish the employment status and in particular whether 
the digital labour platform controls certain elements of the performance of work may be in 
the possession of the digital labour platform and not easily accessible to persons performing 
platform work and competent authorities. National courts or competent authorities should 
therefore be able to order the digital labour platform to disclose any relevant evidence which 
lies in their control, including confidential information, subject to effective measures to 
protect such information. 
(47)  Given that this Directive provides for rules in addition to Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in the 
context of platform work to ensure the protection of personal data of person performing 
platform work, the national supervisory authorities referred to in Regulation (EU) 2016/679 
should be competent to monitor the application of those safeguards. The procedural 
framework of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 should apply for the enforcement of the additional 
rules of this Directive, in particular as regards supervision, cooperation and consistency 
mechanisms, remedies, liability and penalties, including the competence to impose 
administrative fines up to the amount referred to in that Regulation. 
 
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(48)  Automated monitoring or decision-making systems used in the context of platform work 
involve the processing of personal data of persons performing platform work and affect the 
working conditions and rights of the platform workers among them, which raises issues of 
data protection law as well as of related fields of law, like labour law. Data protection 
supervisory authorities and other competent authorities should therefore cooperate in the 
enforcement of this Directive, including by exchanging relevant information with each 
other, without affecting the independence of data protection supervisory authorities. 
(48a)  In order to make the protection by this Directive effective, it is essential to protect persons 
performing platform work, who exercise their respective rights granted by the Directive, 
from dismissalas far as platform workers are concerned, or termination of contract, as far as 
self-employed persons are concerned, and from equivalent measures.  
(49)  Since the objective of this Directive, namely to improve working conditions in platform 
work, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States but can rather, by reason of the 
need to establish common minimum requirements, be better achieved at Union level, the 
Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in 
Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of 
proportionality as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary 
in order to achieve that objective. 
(50)  This Directive lays down minimum requirements, thus leaving untouched Member States’ 
prerogative to introduce and maintain provisions which are more favourable for persons 
performing platform work. Rights acquired under the existing legal framework should 
continue to apply, in particular as regards mechanisms to ascertain the existence of an 
employment relationship, unless more favourable provisions are introduced by this 
Directive. The implementation of this Directive cannot be used to reduce existing rights set 
out in existing Union or national law in this field, nor can it constitute valid grounds for 
reducing the general level of protection in the field covered by this Directive. 
 
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(50a)  The autonomy of the social partners is to be respected. It should therefore be possible for the 
social partners to consider that in specific situations related to platform workers’ working 
conditions different provisions are more appropriate, for the pursuit of the purpose of this 
Directive, than certain standards set out in this Directive. Member States should therefore be 
able to allow the social partners to maintain, negotiate, conclude and enforce collective 
agreements which differ from certain provisions contained in those Articles, while 
respecting the overall protection of platform workers. 
(51)  In implementing this Directive Member States should avoid imposing administrative, 
financial and legal constraints in a way which would hold back the creation and 
development of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Member States should assess 
the impact of their transposition measures on start-ups and on small and medium-sized 
enterprises in order to ensure that they are not disproportionately affected, giving specific 
attention to micro-enterprises and to the administrative burden. Member States should also 
publish the results of such assessments. 
(52)  The Member States may entrust the social partners with the implementation of this 
Directive, where the social partners jointly request to do so and provided that the Member 
States take all the necessary steps to ensure that they can at all times guarantee the results 
sought under this Directive. They should also, in accordance with national law and practice, 
take adequate measures to ensure that the social partners are effectively involved and to 
promote and enhance social dialogue with a view to implementing the provisions of this 
Directive. 
(53)  In accordance with the Joint Political Declaration of 28 September 2011 of Member States 
and the Commission on explanatory documents,22 Member States have undertaken to 
accompany, in justified cases, the notification of their transposition measures with one or 
more documents explaining the relationship between the components of a directive and the 
corresponding parts of national transposition instruments. With regard to this Directive, the 
legislator considers the transmission of such documents to be justified. 
                                                 
22  
OJ C 369, 17.12.2011, p. 14. 
 
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(54)  The European Data Protection Supervisor was consulted in accordance with Article 42(1) of 
Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council23 and delivered 
an opinion on 2.02.202224
HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE: 
                                                 
23 
Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 
2018 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by 
the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and on the free movement of such data, 
and repealing Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 and Decision No 1247/2002/EC (OJ L 295, 
21.11.2018, p. 39). 
24 
Doc. 5966/22 
 
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CHAPTER I 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 
Article 1 
Subject matter and scope 
1. 
The purposes of this Directive are to improve the working conditions of platform workers and 
the protection of persons performing platform work regarding the processing of their personal 
data through the use of automated monitoring or decision-making systems. 
1a.  These purposes are pursued by: 
• 
introducing measures to facilitate the correct determination of the employment status of 
persons performing platform work; 
• 
improving transparency, fairness and accountability in the use of automated monitoring 
or decision-making systems for persons performing platform work; and 
• 
improving transparency on platform work, including in cross-border situations. 
2. 
[…] 
3. 
This Directive applies to persons performing platform work in the Union, to digital labour 
platforms organising platform work performed in the Union, irrespective of the platform’s 
place of establishment and irrespective of the law otherwise applicable. 
4. 
With respect to representatives of persons performing platform work other than those 
representing platform workers, this Directive shall apply only to the extent that a 
representation of persons performing platform work is provided for by national law and 
practices.  
 
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Article 2 
Definitions 
1. 
For the purposes of this Directive, the following definitions shall apply: 
(1)  ‘digital labour platform’ means any natural or legal person providing a service which 
meets all of the following requirements: 
(a)  it is provided, at least in part, at a distance through electronic means, such as a 
website or a mobile application; 
(b)  it is provided at the request of a recipient of the service;  
(c)  it involves, as a necessary and essential component, the organisation of work 
performed by individuals in return for payment, irrespective of whether that work 
is performed online or in a certain location; 
(d)  it involves the use of automated monitoring or decision-making systems. 
(2)  ‘platform work’ means any work organised through a digital labour platform and 
performed in the Union by an individual on the basis of a contractual relationship 
between the digital labour platform and the individual or an intermediary, irrespective 
of whether a contractual relationship exists between the individual or an intermediary 
and the recipient of the service; 
(3)  ‘person performing platform work’ means any individual performing platform work, 
irrespective of the nature of the contractual relationship or its designation by the parties 
involved;  
(4)  ‘platform worker’ means any individual performing platform work who has an 
employment contract or is deemed to have an employment relationship as defined by 
the law, collective agreements or practice in force in the Member States with 
consideration to the case-law of the Court of Justice; 
 
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(4a)  'intermediary' means any natural or legal person who establishes a contractual 
relationship, including by subcontracting, with a person performing platform work or a 
digital labour platform for the purposes of making platform work available through that 
digital labour platform; 
(4b-new)  ‘terms and conditions’ means any term and condition or specification, 
irrespective of their name or form, which govern the contractual relationship 
between the digital labour platform and a person performing platform work and 
are unilaterally determined by the digital labour platform. 
(5)  […] 
(6)  […] 
(6a)  ‘automated monitoring systems’ means systems which are used to collect personal data 
on persons performing platform work, supervise or evaluate their work performance 
through electronic means; 
(6b)  ‘automated decision-making systems’ means systems which are used to take or support 
decisions that significantly affect persons performing platform work, in particular the 
offer or assignment of tasks to them, their earnings, their safety and health, their 
working time, their access to training and their contractual status, including the 
restriction, suspension or termination of their account.  
2. 
The definition of digital labour platforms laid down in paragraph 1, point (1), shall not include 
providers of a service whose primary purpose is to exploit or share assets or to resell goods or 
services.  
Article 2a 
Intermediaries 
Member states shall ensure that the use of intermediaries does not lead to a reduction in the 
protection afforded by this Directive to persons performing platform work.  
 
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CHAPTER II  
EMPLOYMENT STATUS 
Article 3 
Correct determination of the employment status 
1. 
Member States shall have in place appropriate procedures to verify and ensure the correct 
determination of the employment status of persons performing platform work, with a view to 
ascertaining the existence of an employment relationship as defined by the law, collective 
agreements or practice in force in the Member States with consideration to the case-law of the 
Court of Justice, and ensuring that platform workers enjoy the rights related to that 
employment relationship. 
2. 
The determination of the existence of an employment relationship shall be guided primarily 
by the facts relating to the actual performance of work, taking into account the use of 
automated monitoring or decision-making systems in the organisation of platform work, 
irrespective of how the relationship is classified in any contractual arrangement that may have 
been agreed between the parties involved. Where the existence of an employment relationship 
is established based on facts, the party assuming the obligations of the employer shall be 
clearly identified in accordance with national legal systems.  
Article 4 
Legal presumption 
1. 
Unless Member States provide for more favourable provisions persuant to Article 20, 
the relationship between a digital labour platform and a person performing platform work 
through that platform shall be legally presumed to be an employment relationship when the 
digital labour platform exerts control and direction over the performance of work by that 
person.  
 
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For the purpose of the previous subparagraph, exerting control and direction shall be 
understood as fulfilling, either by virtue of its applicable terms and conditions or in practice, 
at least three of the criteria below:  
(a)  The digital labour platform determines upper limits for the level of remuneration; 
(b)  The digital labour platform requires the person performing platform work to respect 
specific rules with regard to appearance, conduct towards the recipient of the service or 
performance of the work;  
(c)  The digital labour platform supervises the performance of work including by electronic 
means; 
(d)  The digital labour platform restricts the freedom, including through sanctions, to 
organise one’s work by limiting the discretion to choose one’s working hours or periods 
of absence; 
(da)  The digital labour platform restricts the freedom, including through sanctions, to 
organise one’s work by limiting the discretion to accept or to refuse tasks; 
(db)  The digital labour platform restricts the freedom, including through sanctions, to 
organise one’s work by limiting the discretion to use subcontractors or substitutes; 
(e)  The digital labour platform restricts the possibility to build a client base or to perform 
work for any third party. 
1a.  The rules laid down in this Article and Article 4a shall not affect the discretion of courts 
and competent authorities to ascertain the existence of an employment relationship, as 
defined by the law, collective agreements or practice in force in the Member State in 
question, with consideration to the case-law of the Court of Justice, regardless of the 
number of criteria fulfilled. 
 
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2. 
[…]  
3. 
[…]  
4. 
[…]  
Article 4a 
Application of the presumption and rebuttal 
1. 
The legal presumption shall apply in all relevant administrative or judicial proceedings where 
the correct determination of the employment status of the person performing platform work is 
at stake.  
The legal presumption shall not apply to tax, criminal and social security proceedings. 
However, Member States may apply the legal presumption in those proceedings as a matter of 
national law. 
2. 
Member States may grant competent national administrative authorities a discretion not to 
apply the presumption, in cases where: 
a) 
those authorities are verifying compliance with or enforcing relevant legislation on their 
own initiativeand  
b) 
it is manifest that the person performing platform work is not a platform worker.  
 
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3. 
Member States shall ensure, in proceedings where the presumption applies, the possibility for 
any of the parties to rebut the legal presumption.  
To this effect: 
a) 
where the digital labour platform argues that the contractual relationship in question is 
not an employment relationship as defined by the law, collective agreements or practice 
in force in the Member State in question, with consideration to the case-law of the Court 
of Justice, the burden of proof shall be on that digital labour platform;  
b) 
where the person performing the platform work argues that the contractual relationship 
in question is not an employment relationship as defined by the law, collective 
agreements or practice in force in the Member State in question, with consideration to 
the case-law of the Court of Justice, the digital labour platform shall be required to 
assist the proper resolution of the proceedings, notably by providing all relevant 
information held by it. 
4. 
With regard to contractual relationships entered into before and still ongoing on the date set 
out in Article 21(1), the legal presumption referred to in Article 4 shall only apply to the 
period starting from that date. 
5. 
Where a digital labour platform challenges an administrative or judicial decision determining 
the employment status of a person performing platform work on the basis of the application of 
the presumption, Member States may provide that such a proceeding shall not have a 
suspensive effect on that decision. 
 
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Article 4b 
Framework of supporting measures 
Member States shall establish a framework of supporting measures in order to ensure the effective 
implementation of the legal presumption referred to in Article 4. In particular, they shall: 
(a)  ensure that information on the application of the legal presumption is made publicly available 
in a clear, comprehensive and easily accessible way; 
(b)  develop guidance for digital labour platforms, persons performing platform work and social 
partners to understand and put in practice the legal presumption including its rebuttal; 
(c)  in line with national law or practice, develop guidance for competent national authorities to 
proactively target and pursue non-compliant digital labour platforms; 
(d)  in line with national law or practice, provide for effective controls and inspections conducted 
by national authorities, while ensuring that such controls and inspections are proportionate 
and non-discriminatory. 
Article 5  
[…] 
 
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CHAPTER III  
MANAGEMENT BY AUTOMATED MONITORING OR DECISION-MAKING SYSTEMS  
Article 5a 
Limitations on processing of personal data by means of automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems 
1. 
Digital labour platforms shall not, by means of automated monitoring or decision-making 
systems: 
(a)  process any personal data on the emotional or psychological state of the person 
performing platform work; 
(b)  process any personal data in relation to private conversations; including exchanges with 
platform workers’ representatives; 
(c)  collect any personal data while the person performing platform work is not offering or 
performing platform work. 
Article 6 
Transparency on automated monitoring or decision-making systems 
1. 
Member States shall require digital labour platforms to inform persons performing platform 
work of the use of automated monitoring or decision-making systems.  
This information shall concern: 
(a)  as regards automated monitoring systems: 
(i) 
the fact that such systems are in use or are in the process of being introduced; 
(ii)  the categories of actions supervised, evaluated or for which data is collected by 
such systems, including evaluation by the recipient of the service; 
 
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(b)  as regards automated decision-making systems: 
(i) 
the fact that such systems are in use or are in the process of being introduced; 
(ii)  the categories of decisions that are taken or supported by such systems; 
(iii)  the main parameters that such systems take into account and the relative 
importance of those main parameters in the automated decision-making, including 
the way in which the personal data or behaviour of the person performing 
platform work influence the decisions; 
(iv)  the grounds for decisions to restrict, suspend or terminate the account of the 
person performing platform work, to refuse the payment for work performed by 
them, as well as for decisions on their contractual status or any decision with 
similar effects. 
3. 
Digital labour platforms shall provide the information referred to in paragraph 1 in the form of 
a written document which may be in electronic format. They shall provide that information at 
the latest on the first working day, as well as in the event of substantial changes and at any 
time upon the request of the person performing platform work. The information shall be 
presented in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and 
plain language. 
4. 
Digital labour platforms shall also make the information referred to in paragraph 1 available 
to platform workers’ representatives. They shall also make this information available to 
competent national authorities upon their request.  
5. 
[…] 
 
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Article 7 
Human monitoring of automated systems 
1. 
Member States shall ensure that digital labour platforms monitor and regularly evaluate the 
impact of individual decisions taken or supported by automated monitoring or decision-
making systems on persons performing platform work.  
2. 
[…] 
3. 
Member States shall require digital labour platforms to ensure sufficient human resources for 
monitoring and evaluating the impact of individual decisions taken or supported by automated 
monitoring or decision-making systems. The persons charged by the digital labour platform 
with the function of monitoring and evaluating shall have the necessary competence, training 
and authority to exercise that function, including for overriding automated decisions. They 
shall enjoy protection from dismissal or its equivalent, disciplinary measures or other adverse 
treatment for exercising their functions.  
4. 
Information on the evaluation pursuant to paragraph 1 shall be made available to persons 
performing platform work and to platform workers’ representatives. They shall also make this 
information available to the competent national authorities upon their request. 
Article 8 
Human review of significant decisions 
1. 
Member States shall ensure that persons performing platform work have the right to obtain an 
explanation from the digital labour platform for any decision taken or supported by an 
automated decision-making system that significantly affects them without undue delay. 
Member States shall ensure that digital labour platforms provide persons performing platform 
work with access to a contact person designated by the digital labour platform to discuss and 
to clarify the facts, circumstances and reasons having led to the decision. Digital labour 
platforms shall ensure that such contact persons have the necessary competence, training and 
authority to exercise that function. 
 
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Digital labour platforms shall provide the person performing platform work with a written 
statement of the reasons for any decision taken or supported by an automated decision-making 
system to restrict, suspend or terminate that person’s account, any decision to refuse the 
payment for work performed, any decision on the contractual status of the person performing 
platform work or any decision with similar effects, without undue delay. 
2. 
Where persons performing platform work are not satisfied with the explanation or the written 
statement of reasons obtained or consider that the decision referred to in paragraph 1 infringes 
their rights, they shall have the right to request the digital labour platform to review that 
decision. The digital labour platform shall respond to such request by providing the person 
performing platform work with a substantiated reply in the form of a written document which 
may be in electronic format without undue delay and in any event within two weeks of receipt 
of the request. 
3. 
Where the decision referred to in paragraph 1 infringes the rights of a person performing 
platform work, the digital labour platform shall rectify that decision without delay and in any 
event within two weeks or, where such rectification is not possible, offer compensation for the 
damage sustained. The digital labour platform shall take the necessary steps, including, if 
appropriate, a modification of the automated decision-making system, in order to avoid such 
decisions in the future.  
4. 
This Article does not affect disciplinary and dismissal procedures laid down in national law 
and practices and collective agreements. 
5. 
This Article shall not apply to persons performing platform work who are also 'business users' 
within the meaning of Regulation (EU) 2019/1150.  
 
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Article 8a 
Safety and health 
1. 
Without affecting Council Directive 89/391/EEC and related directives in the field of safety 
and health at work, with regard to platform workers, digital labour platforms shall: 
(a)  evaluate the risks of automated monitoring or decision-making systems to their safety 
and health, in particular as regards possible risks of work-related accidents, 
psychosocial and ergonomic risks; 
(b)  assess whether the safeguards of those systems are appropriate for the risks identified in 
view of the specific characteristics of the work environment;  
(c)  introduce appropriate preventive and protective measures.  
2. 
Digital labour platforms shall not use automated monitoring or decision-making systems in 
any manner that puts undue pressure on platform workers or otherwise puts at risk the 
physical and mental health of platform workers. 
Article 9 
Information and consultation 
1. 
Without affecting the rights and obligations under Directive 2002/14/EC, Member States shall 
ensure information and consultation of platform workers’ representatives or, where there are 
no such representatives, of the platform workers concerned by digital labour platforms, on 
decisions likely to lead to the introduction of or substantial changes in the use of automated 
monitoring or decision-making systems.  
2. 
[…] 
 
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3. 
The platform workers’ representatives or the platform workers concerned may be assisted by 
an expert of their choice, in so far as this is necessary for them to examine the matter that is 
the subject of information and consultation and formulate an opinion. Where a digital labour 
platform employs more than 500 workers in the Member State concerned, the expenses for the 
expert shall be borne by the digital labour platform, provided that they are proportionate. 
Member States may determine the frequency of requests for an expert and the upper limit of 
expenses to be borne by the digital labour platform, while ensuring the effectiveness of the 
assistance. 
Article 10 
[…] 
 
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CHAPTER IV 
TRANSPARENCY ON PLATFORM WORK 
Article 11 
Declaration of platform work  
Member States shall require digital labour platforms which are employers to declare work 
performed by platform workers to the competent authorities of the Member State in which the work 
is performed, in accordance with the rules and procedures laid down in the law of the Member 
States concerned. This shall not affect specific obligations under Union law according to which 
work shall be declared to relevant bodies of the Member State in cross-border situations. 
Article 12 
Access to relevant information on platform work  
1. 
Member States shall ensure that digital labour platforms make the following information 
available to competent national authorities as well as to representatives of platform workers: 
(a)  the number of persons performing platform work through the digital labour platform 
concerned on a regular basis and their contractual or employment status; 
(b)  the general terms and conditions, determined by the digital labour platform, applicable 
to those contractual relationships, which apply to a large number of contractual 
relationships; 
(c)  the intermediaries the digital labour platform has a contractual relationship with.  
 
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2. 
The information shall be provided for each Member State in which persons are performing 
platform work through the digital labour platform concerned. The information shall be 
updated at least every six months, and, as regards paragraph 1, point (b), each time the terms 
and conditions are substantially modified. 
3. 
The competent authorities set out in paragraph 1 and representatives of platform workers shall 
have the right to ask digital labour platforms for additional clarifications and details regarding 
any of the information provided. The digital labour platforms shall respond to such request 
within a reasonable period of time by providing a substantiated reply. 
4. 
With regard to digital labour platforms which are micro, small or medium-sized enterprises, 
Member States may provide that the periodicity for updating information in accordance with 
paragraph 2 is reduced to once every year. 
 
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CHAPTER V 
REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT 
Article 13 
Right to redress 
Without affecting Articles 79 and 82 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Member States shall ensure 
that, persons performing platform work, including those whose employment or other contractual 
relationship has ended, have access to effective and impartial dispute resolution and a right to 
redress, including compensation for the damage sustained, in the case of infringements of their 
rights arising from this Directive.  
Article 14 
Procedures on behalf or in support of persons performing platform work 
1. 
Without affecting Article 80 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Member States shall ensure that 
representatives of persons performing platform work and legal entities which have, in 
accordance with national law or practice, a legitimate interest in defending the rights of 
persons performing platform work, may engage in any judicial or administrative procedure to 
enforce any of the rights or obligations arising from this Directive. They may act on behalf or 
in support of one or several persons performing platform work in the case of an infringement 
of any right or obligation arising from this Directive, in accordance with national law and 
practice. 
2. 
[…] 
 
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2a. 
When necessary for the defence of the rights of persons performing platform work with 
regard to the protection of their personal data, digital labour platforms shall make the 
information referred to in Article 6, paragraph 4 and Article 7, paragraph 4, available to 
representatives of persons performing platform work other than representatives of 
platform workers. 
Article 15 
Communication channels for persons performing platform work 
Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that digital labour platforms create the 
possibility for persons performing platform work to contact and communicate with each other, and 
to contact and communicate with worker’s representatives, through the digital labour platforms’ 
digital infrastructure or similarly effective means, while complying with the obligations under 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and Directive 2002/58/EC. Member States shall require digital labour 
platforms to refrain from accessing or monitoring those contacts and communications. 
Article 16 
Access to evidence  
1. 
Member States shall ensure that in the proceedings referred to in Article 4a, national courts or 
competent authorities are able to order the digital labour platform to disclose any relevant 
evidence which lies in their control. 
2. 
Member States shall ensure that national courts have the power to order the disclosure of 
evidence containing confidential information where they consider it relevant to the 
proceeding. They shall ensure that, when ordering the disclosure of such information, national 
courts have at their disposal effective measures to protect such information. 
3. 
[…] 
 
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Article 17 
Protection against adverse treatment or consequences  
Member States shall introduce the measures necessary to protect persons performing platform work, 
including those among them who are their representatives, from any adverse treatment by the digital 
labour platform and from any adverse consequences resulting from a complaint lodged with the 
digital labour platform or resulting from any proceedings initiated with the aim of enforcing 
compliance with the rights provided for in this Directive. 
Article 18 
Protection from dismissal or termination of contract  
1. 
Member States shall take the necessary measures to prohibit the dismissal, termination of 
contract or their equivalent and all preparations for dismissal, termination of contract or their 
equivalent of persons performing platform work, on the grounds that they have exercised the 
rights provided for in this Directive. 
2. 
Persons performing platform work who consider that they have been dismissed, their contract 
has been terminated or have been subject to measures with equivalent effect, on the grounds 
that they have exercised the rights provided for in this Directive, may request the digital 
labour platform to provide duly substantiated grounds for the dismissal, termination of 
contract or any equivalent measures. The digital labour platform shall provide those grounds 
in writing without undue delay. 
3. 
Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that, when persons performing 
platform work referred to in paragraph 2 establish, before a court or other competent authority 
or body, facts from which it may be presumed that there has been such a dismissal, , 
termination of contract or equivalent measures, it shall be for the digital labour platform to 
prove that the dismissal, termination of contract or equivalent measures were based on 
grounds other than those referred to in paragraph 1. 
 
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4. 
[…] 
5. 
Member States shall not be required to apply paragraph 3 to proceedings in which it is for the 
court or other competent authority or body to investigate the facts of the case. 
6. 
Paragraph 3 shall not apply to criminal proceedings, unless otherwise provided by the 
Member State. 
Article 19 
Supervision and penalties 
1. 
The supervisory authority or authorities responsible for monitoring the application of 
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 shall also be responsible for monitoring and enforcing the 
application of Articles 5a to 8 of this Directive, in accordance with the relevant provisions in 
Chapters VI, VII and VIII of Regulation (EU) 2016/679. The ceiling for administrative fines 
referred to in Article 83(5) of that Regulation shall be applicable to infringements of Articles 
5a to 8 of this Directive. 
2. 
The authorities referred to in paragraph 1 and other competent national authorities shall, 
where relevant, cooperate in the enforcement of this Directive, within the remit of their 
respective competences, in particular where questions on the impact of automated monitoring 
or decision-making systems on persons performing platform work arise. For that purpose, 
those authorities shall exchange relevant information with each other, including information 
obtained in the context of inspections or investigations, either upon request or at their own 
initiative. 
3. 
Without prejudice to paragraph 1, Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties 
applicable to infringements of national provisions adopted pursuant to provisions of this 
Directive or of the relevant provisions already in force concerning the rights which are within 
the scope of this Directive. The penalties provided for shall be effective, proportionate and 
dissuasive. 
 
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CHAPTER VI 
FINAL PROVISIONS 
Article 20 
Non-regression and more favourable provisions  
1. 
This Directive shall not constitute valid grounds for reducing the general level of protection 
already afforded to platform workers within Member States, including with regards to 
established procedures for the correct determination of the employmnent status of 
persons persorming platform work. In particular, the legal presumption set out in 
Article 4 shall not affect existing national rules providing for reclassification procedures 
which are more favourable to platform workers.  
2. 
This Directive shall not affect the Member States’ prerogative to apply or to introduce laws, 
regulations or administrative provisions which are more favourable to platform workers, or to 
encourage or permit the application of collective agreements which are more favourable to 
platform workers, in line with the objectives of this Directive. As regards persons performing 
platform work who are not in an employment relationship, this paragraph shall apply insofar 
as such national rules are compatible with the rules on the functioning of the internal market.  
3. 
This Directive is without prejudice to any other rights conferred on persons performing 
platform work by other legal acts of the Union. 
Article 20a 
Member States may, by law or by collective agreements, provide for more specific rules to ensure 
the protection of the rights and freedoms in respect of the processing of persons performing 
platform work's personal data under Articles 6, 7 and 8 of this Directive. Member States may allow 
the social partners to maintain, negotiate, conclude and enforce collective agreements, in 
accordance with national law or practice, which, while respecting the overall protection of platform 
workers, establish arrangements concerning platform work which differ from those referred to in 
Articles 8a, 9, 11 and 12 of this Directive.  
 
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Article 21 
Transposition and implementation 
1. 
Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions 
necessary to comply with this Directive by [2 years after entry into force] at the latest. They 
shall immediately inform the Commission thereof. 
When Member States adopt those provisions, they shall contain a reference to this Directive 
or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The 
methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States. 
2. 
Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the main measures of 
national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. 
3. 
Member States shall, in accordance with their national law and practice, take adequate 
measures to ensure the effective involvement of the social partners and to promote and 
enhance social dialogue with a view to implementing this Directive. 
4. 
Member States may entrust the social partners with the implementation of this Directive, 
where the social partners jointly request to do so and provided that Member States take all 
necessary steps to ensure that they can at all times guarantee the results sought under this 
Directive. 
Article 22 
Review by the Commission  
By [5 years after entry into force], the Commission shall, after consulting the Member States, the 
social partners at Union level and key stakeholders, and taking into account the impact on micro, 
small and medium-sized enterprises, review the implementation of this Directive and propose, 
where appropriate, legislative amendments. In such review, the Commission shall pay particular 
attention to the impact of the use of intermediaries on the overall implementation of this Directive. 
 
 
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Article 23 
Entry into force 
This Directive shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the 
Official Journal of the European Union. 
Article 24 
Addressees 
This Directive is addressed to the Member States. 
Done at, 
For the European Parliament 
For the Council 
The President 
The President 
 
 
 
 
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