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Annual Action Programme for 2015 for Election Observation missions (EOMs) and 
complementary activities 
On the basis of the objectives as set out in the EIDHR, this Annual Action Programme 
contains the actions to be financed and the budget breakdown for year 2015 as follows: 
- for procurement (implemented under direct management) (1.2) 
The overall budgetary allocation reserved for procurement contracts in 2015 amounts to 
EUR 41.267.086.  
1.2.1.  EU Election Observation Missions (EU EOMs) and complementary activities 
Legal basis: 
Regulation (EU) No 235/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March
2014 establishing a financial instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights 
worldwide (EIDHR) 
Budget line: 
19 04 01 
Subject matter of the contracts envisaged:  
The bulk of the expenditure under this decision is related to the operational aspects of mission 
deployment, such us transportation, logistics and security, provision of office space and 
accommodation, communication, equipment and administrative support. 
In the framework of election observation the following types of mission can be deployed: 
¾  Exploratory Missions (ExMs) 
The purpose of ExMs is to collect information to assess whether an EU EOM would 
be useful, advisable and feasible. The objective of the ExM is to provide pertinent 
information and recommendations to the HR/VP ahead of the final decision on the 
deployment of a possible EU EOM; 
¾  Fully-fledged EU EOMs 
EU Election Observation Missions (EOMs) are the most powerful tool of EU election 
observation. They consist of Observers (long- and short-term ones headed by a Chief 
Observer, Member of the European Parliament), a Core Team of experts and a service 
provider (in charge of the implementation of the mission). Observers are deployed all 
over the observed country to assess, but not to intervene, the campaign period, the 
legal framework, the overall political environment and the overall electoral process. 
Overall, an average EOM is present in the field for approximately three to four 
months, until the completion of the electoral process; 

¾  Election Assessment Teams (EATs) 
In a limited number of cases, and depending primarily on the security conditions 
prevailing on the ground, the decision is to deploy an EAT instead of a fully-fledged 
EOM. EATs cover a limited part of the full EOM, with less observers and limited 
geographical coverage. EATs may, when appropriate and possible, be headed by a 
Chief Observer, who is Member of the European Parliament in case high political 
visibility needs to be ensured. For example until now such missions have been 
deployed in Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya; 
¾  Election Experts Missions (EEMs) 
EEMs are composed of a small number of experts only, who analyse the electoral 
process and are not endowed with any visibility. EEMs can be deployed to assess the 
entire electoral cycle, including specific early stages of the electoral process, such as 
voter registration; 
¾  Election Follow-up Experts Missions (EFM) 
One of the outcomes of EU EOMs and EEMs is a set of recommendations to the 
authorities of the country on how to improve the conduct of future elections. Election 
Follow-up Experts Missions (EFM) may be deployed to take stock of the way these 
recommendations have been dealt with, to help develop a political dialogue with the 
country on democracy and human rights, and to help donors support these 
improvements. Follow-up missions may, when possible and appropriate, be headed by 
the former Chief Observer of the latest EOM deployed in the given partner country. 
As regards the implementation of fully-fledged EU EOMs, the Commission services (Service 
for Foreign Policy Instruments - FPI) have recourse to four potential service providers under a 
multiple framework contract EuropeAid/132614/C/SER/multi, who bid for the provision of 
essential logistic, security and other support services. 
With respect to other missions - EEMs, ExMs and EFMs – FPI currently uses the Framework 
Contract BENEF 2013 EuropeAid/132633/C/SER/multi. 
In order to ensure economies of scale, to lower costs, gain time and to deepen impact through 
complementary activities, several recurrent activities relating to the preparation, organisation 
and follow-up of EOMs are covered by separate procurement procedures which serve the 
needs of all EOMs, namely: 
Election Observation and Democracy Support project (EODS - 
provides methodological support to EOMs and specific training for EU observers, 
international partners and domestic observers' networks.  
Promotion and awareness-raising of EOM activities through electronic media is 
covered by a service provider recruited through an EC framework contract (until now 
the Framework Contract FPI-2011-01 and RTD-L05-2010-INFORMATION 
PRODUCTS LOT 1have been used). Other communication activities are financed 
under the FWC for EU EOMs. 
Pre-deployment training on security for EOMs to be deployed in high risk countries 
is part of the service provider's assignment under the FWC for EU EOMs.  
Procurement of EU observers’ working, medical, security and visibility equipment is 
also is part of the service provider's assignment under the FWC for EU EOMs. 

Efforts are being undertaken to standardise the equipment with a view to 
rationalizing its use and cost.  
Type of contract and type of procurement: 
Specific contracts under existing FWCs: EuropeAid/132614/C/SER/multi FWC for fully 
fledged EU EOMs, BENEF 2013  EuropeAid/132633/C/SER/multi FWC for other missions, 
and EC FWCs for electronic media; procurement of services. 
Indicative amount per contract:  
Based on the latest figures available, EU EOMs cost on average 3,5 million euros, depending 
on the specific situation of each mission. The main factors influencing the cost of a mission 
are: duration of the mission, number of experts/observers deployed, security situation and 
logistical constraints in the country where the mission is deployed.  
The analysis of the budget of recently closed EU EOMs shows the following budget 
•  Staff costs and fees account for 58% of the mission expenditure. This figure includes 
the Service Provider's experts fees (20%, including both the salary of the experts in 
charge of mission implementation and the profit margin of the Service Provider), 
Core Team fees and observers allowances (10%), per diems (23%, for all mission 
members) and local staff (5%).  
•  Transport accounts for 17% mission costs, and includes international and local travel. 
•  Administrative and operational costs linked to the implementation of the mission, 
such as office, equipment, utilities and other running costs, account for 25% of a 
mission budget. 
The security-related costs amount to an average of 13.7% of a mission’s budget. However, in 
countries where the security situation is highly volatile, the cost of ensuring the security and 
safety of the mission’s members is considerably higher.  
Exploratory Missions and Election Expert Missions (including Follow-up Missions) are 
implemented through the BENEF 2013 FWC and cost a maximum of EUR 300,000 each.
Exploratory missions cost on average EUR 120,000, while for Election Expert Missions the 
cost varies from EUR 150,000 to EUR 300,000, depending on the number of experts 
deployed (usually 2 to 4 experts) and the security situation.  
The EODS project is financed with an amount of EUR 3.999.750 over 3 years of 
implementation (2013-2015).  

Indicative number of contracts envisaged: 
Considering the average mission cost, the budgetary allocation allows for approximately 10 to 
12 EU EOMs, 8 EEMs and 4 EFMs in the period covered by this decision. The exact number 
of missions deployed depends on the electoral calendar, the priority list for EU EOMs, and on 
the cost of specific missions to be deployed (depending mainly on the security situation and 
length of the mission). 
Indicative timeframe for launching the procurement procedure: 
The Annual Action Programme (AAP) must be adopted in advance in year ‘n-1’. This is 
because a number of EOMs are regularly intended to be launched in the first three months of 
the year to which the AAP refers (year ‘n’, in this case 2015), and funds might be required to 
be committed early 2015. In order to allow flexibility, the AAP contains an indicative list of 
the countries which are likely to be selected for election observation missions in the period 
covered by this decision, as well as other possible candidates if observation in priority 
countries turns out not to be feasible. The list can be modified in the course of the year, 
depending on political developments which cannot be foreseen at the time of adoption of this 
decision, because elections have been cancelled or postponed, because the authorities did not 
invite the EU to observer elections, or because the conditions prevailing in the country do not 
allow for the deployment of a mission. The definitive list of priority countries is established 
and updated by the EEAS, after consulting the FPI on budget availability and feasibility, and 
after consulting Member States and the European Parliament. The decision whether to send an 
election observation mission, as well as the appointment of the Chief Observer is taken by the 
High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs & Security Policy/Vice-President of the 
European Commission (HR/VP) on the basis of a proposal by the EEAS. The EEAS Deputy
Secretary General confirms these decisions, in writing, to the FPI. The HR/VP will inform the 
College, twice a year, of the decisions taken to send election observation missions. 
Priority countries for election observation in 2015 may include the following: Lebanon and 
Palestine1 (in case elections do not take place in 2014),  Nigeria, Egypt, Togo, Guatemala, 
Guinea Conakry, Burundi, Ivory Coast, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Myanmar, Philippines 
(Mindanao), Afghanistan, Libya, Yemen, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Haiti. 
The final list of priorities and format of mission to be deployed (EOM, EAT or EEM) will be 
defined by the HR/VP following consultation with the Member States and the European 
The budget commitment of this financing decision may cover elections which are not included 
in the above indicative list and/or elections which take place effectively in year n+1.  
The action is implemented by FPI under direct management. FPI is responsible for the 
1 This designation shall not be construed as recognition of a State of Palestine and is without prejudice to the 
individual positions of the Member States on this issue 

operational, budgetary and security part. The EEAS is responsible for the political and 
electoral part of the process.