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ANNEX 1 
of the Commission Implementing Decision on the adoption of the Annual Action Programme 
2015 for the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) 
Action Document for Supporting 110 Calls for Proposals targeting local civil society 
through Country Based Support Schemes 
1. 
IDENTIFICATION  
Title/Number  Supporting 110 Calls for Proposals targeting local civil society 
through Country-Based Support Schemes (CBSS) 
CRIS number: EIDHR 
Total cost 
Total estimated cost: EUR 82 750 000 
Total amount of EU budget contribution EUR 82 750 000  
Aid method / 
Project approach 
Management 
mode and 
Direct management – Call for proposals 
type of 
Direct management – Procurement of services (Support Measures) 
financing 
 
DAC-code 
15160 
Sector 
Human Rights and 
Democracy 
2. 
RATIONALE AND CONTEXT 
2.1. 
Summary of the actions and its objectives 
This Action Document sets out the implementation modalities of the EIDHR Country Based 
Support Schemes (CBSS), which will be managed at country level by European Union 
Delegations. 
These 110 local calls for proposals will aim to implement the objectives 1, 2 and 3 set out in 
the annex of the EIDHR regulation 2014-2020 and will target local civil society. 
Objective 1 supports Human Rights and Human Rights Defenders in situations where they are 
most at risk. Objective 2 supports other EU Human Rights Priorities, and objective 3 supports 
Democracy. 
2.2. 
Context 
Any actions under this Action Document shall respect and shall be implemented in 
accordance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Furthermore, 
actions shall be in line with all existing EU guidelines on human rights related issues, the EUs 
Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy, and all other 
relevant human rights policy documents. 
The activities under this Action Document are embedded in the EU Human Rights Country 
Strategies where they exist. 
 

This Action Document is also a key tool to contribute to the implementation of the 
Democracy Support Agenda for Action, including for the pilot delegations of this agenda. 
2.3. 
Lessons learnt 
Country Based Support Schemes policy is a long-established element of the European 
Union’s human rights and democracy policy under its external action and has been built on 
experience with CBSS under the EIDHR Strategies 2007-2013 and with micro project 
facilities under the previous European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights. It has 
been the object of an in-depth evaluation in 2010. The evaluation showed that the CSSS 
constitutes an important source of funding as it can work in a more flexible way, for example 
without host country government consent. In this way it manages to target the more difficult 
issues which can be hard to fund under other instruments. 
2.4. 
Complementary actions 
The Delegation ensures the complementarity and synergies with other EU instruments. Other 
thematic instrument, in particular the Civil Society component of the DCI (CSO-LA) often 
offers good opportunities for synergies but also risk overlap if complementarity is not 
safeguarded. 
The issue of complementarity between geographic and thematic instruments is of particular 
importance in the case of CBSS, as EIDHR can often be used to complement support under 
the geographic instruments. Support for democracy and human rights under the geographic 
instruments is used mainly to strengthen public institutions, though in a limited manner they 
also target civil society organisations (CSOs). Under EIDHR, however, the key target group 
are CSOs and priority is given, whenever possible, to more sensitive issues targeted by civil 
society organisations, in line with the instruments’ added value of not relying on partner 
governments’ consent. For example, in the context of the pre-accession process, the 
complementarity focus of the EIDHR is on the role of the CSOs with an emphasis on areas 
linked to the Copenhagen political criteria. This way, EIDHR complements support under 
other instruments such as for example the structural dialogue. This search for 
complementarity is fully in line with the Council Conclusions on Democracy Support Agenda 
for Action. 
A specific enhanced operational coordination is essential regarding the CSOs component of 
the DCI, in particular the pillar in the areas of its support to the enabling environment of civil 
society actors, mapping of CSO organisation and local call for proposals and CSO roadmaps. 
Complementarity with actions funded under the IcSP and in particular Article 4 funded 
actions aimed at providing support to in-country civil society actors in conflict prevention, 
peace-building and crisis preparedness should be ensured by EU Delegations. Synergies will 
also be ensured between the EIDHR and ECHO operations,  as refugees and other 
beneficiaries of humanitarian relief are often also victims of human rights violations that need 
to be documented, registered and treated, while respecting the different mandates of 
judicial/accountability mechanisms and humanitarian action. There will also be close 
coordination with ECHO over projects on international humanitarian law (IHL) to ensure 
complementarity and avoid overlap. 
2.5. 
Donor coordination 
The Commission services within Delegations prepare their Calls for Proposals based on 
consultation with civil society organisations, Member States and other donors, ensuring 
complementarity and synergies with their actions. 


3. 
DETAILED DESCRIPTION 
3.1. 
Objectives 
The objective of this action is to support civil society and human rights defenders in third 
countries in working on human rights (political, civil, economic, social and cultural), and 
democratisation, so as to:  
i) pursue common agendas for human rights and democratic reform; 
ii) build consensus on disputed or controversial areas of policy; 
iii) enhance political representation and participation; 
iv) enhance the inclusiveness and pluralism of civil society; 
v) increase safety structures for human rights defenders; 
vi) counter the worrying trends of shrinking space for civil society; 
vii) support activities aimed at promoting the issues covered by EU Human Rights guidelines 
and in the EUs Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy; 
viii) enhance the rule of law and good governance. 
3.2. 
Expected results and main activities 
The local thematic priority setting under the Human Rights Country Strategies, as agreed by 
Delegations and Heads of Mission in the various countries, and local civil society 
consultations will provide guidance for the selection of relevant fields of intervention. 
Moreover, three key areas of the new EIDHR need to get further attention from EU 
Delegations, in order that the aggregated financial support is in line with the Multiannual 
indicative programming: 
•  Human Rights Defenders 
•  Economic and Social Rights 
•  Democracy support and promotion 
Examples of fields of intervention (where and when these match local priorities): 
– 
support, protection and defence of human rights defenders; 
– 
support the fight against impunity, in particular civil society actions ensuring the 
effective functioning of the International Criminal Court (ICC); 
– 
supporting gender equality (women’s rights, women in decision-making, right to 
participate in peace-building and reconstruction processes, fight against violence and harmful 
practices, etc.); 
o  supporting the rights of indigenous peoples e.g through activities to implement 
the Outcome document of the United Nations’ World Conference on 
Indigenous Peoples (September 2014) 
o  Supporting rights of persons belonging to minorities, people affected by caste 
based discrimination, Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender and Intersex 
(LGBTI) people and other vulnerable groups; 
– 
– 
supporting freedom of expression and freedom of religion or beliefs, 
– 
support to civil society organisations' actions and campaigns against the death penalty, 
against  torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment; 


– 
support for civil society organisations’ activities preparing the ground for elections 
(e.g. civic and voter education, domestic observation, dialogue and training for political 
actors) and post-election observation, including following up on the recommendations 
formulated by the EU or the OSCE/ODIHR Electoral Observation Missions (EOM). In such 
cases and where applicable, increased consistency with geographic election assistance 
programmes is needed; 
– 
protection of the social, economic and cultural rights, especially for groups 
particularly vulnerable to discrimination, such as the poor, women, children, indigenous 
peoples, migrants and the rights of persons belonging to minorities. 
– 
support for the structure and operation of trade unions, enabling social dialogue 
between different groups, developing mechanisms for exchange of opinions and democratic 
dialogue. 
 
Other priorities can be pursued if these are more pertinent to the local situation, and can 
include getting civil society involved in, and contributing to, stronger regional human rights 
mechanisms. 
Specific outcomes could cover a very wide range of topics, such as (non-exhaustive list): 
i) parliamentary agreements and government decisions, following concerted CSO campaigns, 
to legislate on gender equality, on rights for indigenous peoples, on the abolition of the death 
penalty, on prevention of torture, on new constitutional provisions for oversight of the 
military, on the enforcement of provisions on child labour and/or violence against children, or 
on the independent composition of the electoral commission; integration in the law and 
enforcement of economic, social and cultural rights ; 
ii) regular reporting from local civil society and indigenous peoples’ organisations on the 
country’s international commitments on human rights, e.g. regular reports by a consortia of 
civil society bodies on the Universal Periodical Review of countries at UN level, and on the 
implementation of European Neighbourhood Policy action plans; an independent detailed 
diagnosis of challenges to human rights and democracy, endorsed by leading civil society 
stakeholders, monitoring and reporting of rights pertaining the UN Declaration on the rights 
of indigenous peoples, reporting on the implementation of the International human rights 
instruments that the country has ratified, including on economic, social and cultural rights;; 
iii) broad consensus between groups with opposing interests on directions for legislation on 
land reform and compensation, on the terms of reference and resources for a truth and 
reconciliation commission; regular dialogues between CSOs divided on religious or ethnic 
grounds and certain common activities launched; regular dialogues between CSOs, the 
general public, government agencies, armed groups and other parties to conflict and certain 
common activities launched; 
iv) multi-party agreements and draft legislation, after CSO dialogues, for boosting women’s 
participation in political life; party platforms that include commitments to enhance 
transparency on electoral legislation; changes in the penal code; creation of an ombudsman 
function; combating discrimination on any grounds; greater decentralisation; 
v) new CSOs formed, membership development and activities driven on by the target group 
itself. For example: AIDS orphans organising and playing an active role in subject CSO 


umbrella bodies; special women’s officer and women’s section created within main trade 
union, liaising with women NGOs and the media; strengthened participation of people with 
disabilities in CSOs; national level coalitions of indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities, 
campaigns for promoting anti-discrimination legislation, founding and strengthening of CSOs 
engaging for the rights of LGBTI persons (this is a non-exhaustive list of examples); 
vi) setting up and strengthening social partner organisations (trade unions, etc.). 
3.3. 
Risks and assumptions 
Some projects implemented under this Action, take place in extremely difficult, dangerous 
and volatile contexts. They are confronted with various political and physical risks that must 
not be underestimated. 
Given the sensitivity of the implementation of this Action in some countries and to guarantee 
the security of local partners/applicants, special attention will be paid to the requirements for 
confidentiality and security when needed. 
3.4. 
Cross-cutting issues 
Cross-cutting issues for the implementation of this Action include: promotion of human 
rights, gender equality, democracy, good governance, conflict prevention, children's rights 
and indigenous peoples, environmental sustainability and combating HIV/AIDS, non-
discrimination, the rights of persons belonging to minorities, the rights of persons affected by 
caste based discrimination, the rights of persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. 
Delegations are encouraged to launch, as much as possible, at least the publication of the call 
for proposals itself in local languages. 
3.5. 
Stakeholders 
The Country Based Support Schemes (CBSS) are managed at country level by the 
Commission through EU Delegations. The relevant section in each EU Delegation is asked to 
define the most appropriate objectives within the areas described in the EIDHR regulation and 
the appropriate eligibility criteria, and to formulate guidelines for local calls for proposals. 
The applicants will be primarily civil society organisations with no geographical requirements 
set a priori. Given the nature of the objectives, however, the actions’ focus will be preferably 
on in-country civil society organisations, which may wish to cooperate with regional, 
European or other organisations and national public-sector institutions1. 
Natural persons, entities without legal personality and, in exceptional and duly justified cases, 
other bodies or actors not identified in this paragraph, are eligible for funding under the CBSS 
when this is necessary to achieve the objectives of the instrument, as per article 11 of the 
Common Implementation Regulation. 
Projects will preferably be based on partnerships of civil society organisations or, where 
justified, may require the close involvement of a range of in-country organisations and 
stakeholders. Independent political foundations and national parliamentary bodies will 
likewise be judged eligible to achieve the objectives of the EIDHR. 
                                                            

National public-sector institutions include National Human Rights Institutions. 


4. 
IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES 
4.1. 
Financing agreement 
In order to implement this action, it is not foreseen to conclude a financing agreement with the 
partner country, referred to in Article 184(2)(b) of Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012. 
4.2. 
Indicative operational implementing period 
The indicative operational implementation period of this action, during which the activities 
described in sections 3.2. and 4.3. will be carried out, is 60 months from the adoption of this 
Action Document, subject to modifications to be agreed by the responsible authorising officer 
in the relevant agreements. The European Parliament and the relevant Committee shall be 
informed of the extension of the operational implementation period within one month of that 
extension being granted. 
4.3. 
Implementation components and modules 
4.3.1. 
Grants: call for proposal (direct management) 
4.3.1.1.  Objectives of the grants, fields of intervention, priorities of the year and expected 
results 
The objective of this action is to support civil society and human rights defenders in third 
countries in working on human rights (political, civil, economic, social and cultural), and 
democratisation, as further explained in 3.1. 
The local thematic priority setting under the Human Rights Country Strategies, as agreed by 
Delegations and Heads of Mission in the various countries, and local civil society 
consultations will provide guidance for the selection of relevant fields of intervention for the 
specific local calls, as further explained in 3.2. 
The expected result is a civil society that is strengthened in its work on promoting human 
rights and democratisation. Examples of possible specific outcomes are further explained in 
3.2. 
The detailed specific objectives, fields of intervention, priorities and expected results will be 
fixed in the Guidelines for each individual country call for proposal. 
Grants awarded under the CBSS scheme are not expected to fall below EUR 50.000, except in 
duly justified cases. 
CBSS implementation should be done using to the maximum extent existing flexibilities as 
well as use pragmatic modalities such as re-granting, program approaches, use of suspensive 
clause in duly justified cases (as inter alia the need to make efficient use of procedures, 
biannual rhythm of calls and allocations, pooling of funds, targeted project, direct grant and or 
follow-up grants. 
4.3.1.2.  Eligibility conditions 
The eligibility criteria for applicants are the one defined in the Article 11.2 of Regulation 
(EU) No 236/2014 on common rules and procedures for the implementation of the Union's 
instruments for financing external action (CIR). 


4.3.1.3.  Essential selection and award criteria 
The essential selection criteria are the financial and operational capacity of the applicant, as 
well as the expertise of the applicant in the field of the call.  
The essential award criteria are relevance of the proposed action to the objectives of the call; 
design, effectiveness, feasibility, sustainability and cost-effectiveness of the action. 
4.3.1.4.  Maximum rate of co-financing 
The maximum possible rate of co-financing for grants under this call is 95%.  
The maximum possible rate of co-financing may be up to 100 % in accordance with Articles 
192 of Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 966/2012 if full funding is essential for the action to be 
carried out. The essentiality of full funding will be justified by the responsible authorising 
officer in the award decision, in respect of the principles of equal treatment and sound 
financial management. 
4.3.1.5.  Indicative trimester to launch calls is the 3rd trimester of 2015. 
Under the responsibility of the authorising officer by delegation, the recourse to an award of a 
grant without a call for proposals is justified under Art. 6c(ii) CIR (direct award under the 
EIDHR). In addition, direct grants may be awarded if a target country is in a crisis situation 
referred to in Article 190(2) RAP; other exceptional and duly justified situations as per Article 
190(1) RAP. 
4.3.2. 
Procurement (direct management) – Support Measures 
The Commission, through EU Delegations, will be able to spend up to 10 % of the respective 
annual operational country allocation on support measures accompanying the implementation 
of country-based support schemes (to ensure information, outreach, evaluations, audits, 
visibility of projects, exchanges of best practices, trainings including on Right Based 
Approach to Development, actions to ensure the sustainability of projects). This 10% can also 
be used to support the advocacy by Human Rights activists or defenders including their 
capacity to attend and provide input to meetings out of the country as well as to support non-
EIDHR human right related activities. It is expected an average of 4 contracts per delegation 
for a total of 110 countries. 
The relevant section of EU Delegations should also use part of allocations for Support 
Measures to publish the beneficiaries of the local calls for proposals and increase visibility of 
the instrument. 
4.4. 
Scope of geographical eligibility 
The geographical eligibility in terms of place of establishment for participating in 
procurement and grant award procedures and in terms of origin of supplies purchased as 
established in the basic act shall apply. 
4.5. 
Indicative budget 
The total indicative amount for 2015 is EUR 82,750,000
The tentative list of countries and allocations for the CBSS 201 are in appendix of this Action 
Document. This list can be adapted pending the results of call of proposals or the evolution of 
third countries situations. Any remaining balance from one country allocation may be 
reallocated to another country, preferably within the same region. 


 
Module 
Amount in EUR 
thousands 

4.3.1. – Call for proposals (direct management) 
74,475 
4.3.2. – Support Measures (direct management) 
8,275 
Totals 82,750 
 
4.6. 
Performance monitoring 
The project will be monitored according to standard procedures. Project monitoring and 
evaluation will be based on periodic assessment of progress on delivery of specified project 
results and towards achievement of project objectives. Clear indicators will be identified. 
Reporting will be done in accordance to the requirements set in the General Conditions. 
Progress reports will be prepared every six months during the period of implementation of the 
tasks. They will be provided along with the corresponding invoice, the financial report and an 
expenditure verification report, if foreseen, defined in the General Conditions. There must be 
a final report, a final invoice and the financial report accompanied by an expenditure 
verification report, if foreseen, at the end of the period of implementation of the tasks.  
Each report shall consist of a narrative section and a financial section. The financial section 
will contain details of the time inputs of the experts, of the incidental expenditure and of the 
provision for expenditure verification, if foreseen.  
4.7. 
Evaluation and audit 
Where provided for in the applicable General Conditions, expenditure verification will have 
to be submitted as part of the contract requirements. Evaluations of the results achieved may 
be done by external experts hired by the European Commission as well as external audits at 
the initiative of the Commission, if necessary. 
4.8. 
Communication and visibility 
Communication and visibility of the EU is a legal obligation for all external actions funded by 
the EU. 
This action shall contain communication and visibility measures which shall be based on a 
specific Communication and Visibility Plan of the Action, to be elaborated before the start of 
implementation and supported with the budget of a particular project and/or with the budget 
of Support Measures indicated in section 4.3.2 above. 
The measures shall be implemented (a) by the Commission, and/or (b) by the contractor in 
close cooperation with partner countries, grant beneficiaries and entrusted entities. 
Appropriate contractual obligations shall be included in procurement contracts. 
The Communication and Visibility Manual for European Union External Action shall be used 
to establish the Communication and Visibility Plan of the Action and the appropriate 
contractual obligations.  


 
Appendix to Action Document 1 
Proposed 
Region 
Country 
Allocation 
2015 

Western 
Balkans & 

Albania 
500,000 
Candidate 
countries 

Western 
Balkans & 

Bosnia Herzegovina 
1,000,000 
Candidate 
countries 
Western 
Balkans & 

Former Yugoslav Republic 
600,000 
Candidate 
of Macedonia 
countries 
Western 
Balkans & 

Kosovo* 
500,000 
Candidate 
countries 
Western 
Balkans & 

Montenegro 
600,000 
Candidate 
countries 
Western 
Balkans & 

Serbia  
1,000,000 
Candidate 
countries 
Western 
Balkans & 

Turkey 
3,000,000 
Candidate 
countries 

SUB TOTAL WB&CC 
7,200,000 
  
Sub total % of total CBSS 
9% 
ENPI Algeria 
600,000 
ENPI Armenia 
900,000 
ENPI Azerbaijan 
1,100,000 
ENPI Belarus 
1,000,000 
ENPI Egypt 
1,500,000 
ENPI Georgia 
800,000 
ENPI Israel 
1,200,000 
ENPI Jordan 
700,000 
ENPI Lebanon 
600,000 
ENPI Libya 
500,000 


ENPI Moldova 
700,000 
ENPI Morocco 
1,000,000 
ENPI Russia 
3,000,000 
ENPI Syria 
2,000,000 
ENPI Tunisia 
1,200,000 
ENPI Ukraine 
1,000,000 
ENPI 
West Bank & Gaza 
1,500,000 
19 
SUB TOTAL ENP 
19,300,000 
  
Sub total % of total CBSS 
23% 
Central & 
Latin 

Argentina 
500,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Belize 
100,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Bolivia 
500,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Brazil 
800,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Chile 
300,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Colombia 
900,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Costa Rica 
300,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Ecuador 
400,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Guatemala 
700,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Honduras 
700,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Mexico 
1,000,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Nicaragua 
800,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Panama 
300,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Paraguay 
400,000 
America 
10 

Central & 
Latin 

Peru 
600,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Salvador 
700,000 
America 
Central & 
Latin 

Uruguay 
500,000 
America 
20 

SUB TOTAL 
9,500,000 
  
Sub total % of total CBSS 
11% 
ACP 
Cuba 
300,000 
Caribbean 
ACP 

Dominican Republic 
700,000 
Caribbean 
ACP 

Guyana 
300,000 
Caribbean 
ACP 

Haiti 
500,000 
Caribbean 
ACP 

Jamaica 
400,000 
Caribbean 
ACP 

Trinidad and Tobago 
100,000 
Caribbean 
Sub SUB TOTAL ACP 
 
2,300,000 
Caribbean 
 
Sub total % of total CBSS 
4% 
ACP Angola 
800,000 
ACP Benin 
900,000 
ACP Burkina 
Faso 
1,000,000 
ACP Burundi 
1,000,000 
ACP Cameroun 
900,000 
ACP Cap 
Verde 
300,000 
ACP Comores 
300,000 
ACP Cote 
d’Ivoire 
1,000,000 
ACP Congo 
Brazzaville  700,000 
ACP Djibouti 
300,000 
ACP DRC 
1,500,000 
ACP Eritrea 
300,000 
ACP Gabon 
600,000 
ACP Guinea 
300,000 
ACP Guinea 
Equatoriale 300,000 
ACP Kenya 
900,000 
ACP Lesotho 
1,000,000 
ACP Liberia 
800,000 
ACP Madagascar 
1,300,000 
ACP Mali 
1,000,000 
ACP Malawi 
450,000 
ACP Mauritanie 
500,000 
ACP Mauritius 
100,000 
11 

ACP Mozambique 
900,000 
ACP Namibia 
600,000 
ACP Nigeria 
600,000 
ACP 
Papua New Guinea 
300,000 
ACP RCA 
600,000 
ACP Rwanda 
600,000 
ACP Sao 
Tome-et-Principe 
100,000 
ACP Senegal 
600,000 
ACP Seychelles 
100,000 
ACP Sierra 
Leone 
600,000 
ACP Solomon 
300,000 
ACP Somalia 
1,000,000 
ACP South 
Africa 
600,000 
ACP South 
Sudan 
1,000,000 
ACP Sudan 
1,000,000 
ACP Tanzania 
600,000 
ACP Timor 
Leste 
600,000 
ACP Togo 
500,000 
ACP Uganda 
1,000,000 
ACP Zambia 
600,000 
ACP Zimbabwe 
900,000 
  
SUB TOTAL ACP 
31,650,000 
  
sub total % of total CBSS 
38% 
Asia & 
Afghanistan 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Bangladesh 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Burma/ Myanmar 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Cambodia 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

China 
1,000,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

India 
900,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Indonesia 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Kazakhstan 
600,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Kyrgyzstan 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Laos 
800,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Mongolia 
300,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Nepal 
500,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Pakistan 
800,000 
Central Asia 
12 

Asia & 
Philippines 
900,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Sri Lanka 
1,000,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Tajikistan 
1,000,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Thailand 
300,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Uzbekistan 
400,000 
Central Asia 
Asia & 

Vietnam 
900,000 
Central Asia 
ENPI Yemen 

900,000 
  
SUB TOTAL ASIA 
15,100,000 
  
sub total % of total CBSS 
18% 
All regions 
TOTAL  
82,750,000 
* This designation is without prejudice on status, and is in line with the UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ 
Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence 
13 

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