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europol te-s
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2013
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eu terrorism situatioN 
aND treND report


 
TE-SAT 2013
EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report


TE-SAT 2013
© European Police Office, 2013
All rights reserved.  
Reproduction in any form or by any means is allowed only with the prior 
permission of Europol.
This publication and more information on Europol are available on the Internet: 
Website:  
www.europol.europa.eu 
Facebook:   www.facebook.com/Europol 
Twitter: @Europol_EU 
YouTube:   www.youtube.com/EUROPOLtube
Acknowledgements 
The EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) has been produced by analysts and experts at Europol,  
drawing on contributions from EU Member States and external partners. Europol would like to express its gratitude to Member States, 
Eurojust, third countries and partner organisations for their high-quality contributions. 
Print and DTP: Van Deventer, the Netherlands

conTEnTS
  
Foreword 5 
 
 
Key judgments and trends 
7
general 
  1. 
General overview of the situation in the EU in 2012  
8
over
 
view of  
the situ
 
ation  
1.1 
Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects 
9
in the eu in 2012 1.2  Terrorist and violent extremist activities  
11
 
1.3 
Convictions and penalties 
14
 
religiously 
 2.  
Religiously inspired terrorism  
16
inspired
 
 
terrorism
2.1 
Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects 
17
 
2.2 
Terrorist and violent extremist activities 
18
 
2.3  
Terrorist situation outside the EU 
20
 
ethno- 
 3.  
Ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism  
24
na
 
tionalist 
and separatist 
terrorism
 
left-wing and    4.  Left-wing and anarchist terrorism   
30
anarchist
 
 
terrorism 
4.1  
Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects  
31
 
4.2  
Terrorist and violent extremist activities  
32
right-wing 
 
5. 
Right-wing terrorism   
34
terrorism
 
 
5.1  
Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects  
35
 
5.2  
Violent right-wing extremism  
36
single-issue 
 
6. 
Single-issue terrorism   
38
terrorism
 
 
 
annexes 
 
Annexes  
41
 
1  
Overview of the failed, foiled and completed attacks  
 
in 2012 per EU Member State and per affiliation 
42 
2  
Arrests in 2012 per EU Member State and per affiliation  43
 
3  
Convictions and penalties (Eurojust) 
44
 
4  
Methodology 
48
 

Acronyms and translations 
50
 
6  
Amendments in national legislation on  
 
terrorism in 2012 
51





FoREWoRD
The fight against terrorism remains a top priority  structured groups and networks 
for the European Union and for Europol. The ter-
to smaller EU-based groups and 
rorist bomb attack at Burgas airport in Bulgaria 
solo terrorists or lone actors, 
and the shootings by a lone gunman in France claimed the 
while the Internet remains a key 
lives of 14 people in 2012 and illustrate the serious threat 
facilitator for terrorism-related 
that terrorism poses to the EU and its citizens, both inside 
activities.
and outside the Union’s territory. Three other citizens also 
Terrorism manifests itself in a variety of ways and can be 
lost their lives to terrorism in 2012, in separate attacks in 
driven by diverse motivations, including religion and strong 
Belgium, France and Northern Ireland. Europol continues 
ethno-nationalist sentiments that lead to separatist terror-
to play a key role in combating organised crime and terror-
ism. The activities of religiously inspired terrorists are often 
ism, using its unique information capabilities and expertise 
triggered by developments in other parts of the world. This 
to support the competent authorities of the EU Member 
trend was especially evident in 2012 with increasing num-
States.
bers of radicalised EU citizens travelling to regions of conflict 
The TE-SAT is one of Europol’s most significant strategic 
to engage in terrorist activities. There is growing awareness 
analysis products. It offers law enforcement officials, poli-
of the threat posed by these people, should they return to 
cymakers and the general public facts and figures regard-
the European Union intent on committing acts of terrorism. 
ing terrorism in the EU while, at the same time, seeking 
In this respect, the developments in the Sahel region are of 
to identify developing trends in this phenomenon. It is a 
major interest to the security situation of the EU.
public document produced annually and is based on in-
I take this opportunity to thank all Member States and Eu-
formation provided and verified by the competent authori-
rojust for their contributions, which are essential to the an-
ties of the EU Member States. This and previous editions 
nual production of the TE-SAT. I would also like to express 
of the TE-SAT reports are available on Europol’s website: 
my gratitude to authorities in Colombia, Croatia, Iceland, 
www.europol.europa.eu.
Norway, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, Turkey and 
EU Member States define terrorism as acts which aim to 
the United States of America for their contributions. Finally, 
intimidate populations, compel states to comply with the 
I would like to recognise the work of the members of the 
perpetrators’ demands and/or destabilise the fundamental 
Advisory Board, consisting of the ‘Troika’ (EU Council Presi-
political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a 
dencies of Cyprus, Ireland and Lithuania), France, Spain, Eu-
country or international organisation. This document rec-
rojust, the EU Intelligence Analysis Centre (INTCEN) and the 
ognises that definition in the collection and reporting of its 
Office of the EU Counter Terrorism Coordinator. Their sup-
source data.
port throughout the year and their valuable contributions 
are an important part of the production of this, the 2013 
In contrast to previous years, the total number of terrorist at-
edition of the TE-SAT.
tacks and terrorism-related arrests in the EU in 2012 showed 
a marked increase. The threat from terrorism, therefore, 
remains strong in Europe. It also continues to evolve from 
Rob Wainwright
Director of Europol


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eu terrorism situation and trend report

key judgments and trends 7
kEy juDgmEnTS 
AnD TREnDS
The terrorist threat in the EU remains strong  The current civil war in Syria has attracted a number of 
and varied as indicated by an increase in the 
radicalised EU citizens. In recent years, such individuals 
number of attacks. The terrorist threat in the EU 
seeking to engage in either fighting or training in conflict 
remains diverse; there were 17 deaths as a result of terrorist 
zones have travelled to the Afghanistan/Pakistan region, 
activity of all types in 2012, a steep rise in comparison to 
Yemen or Somalia – all regions that are relatively difficult 
the figure of two deaths reported last year1.  The majority 
to access. However, in 2012 there was a distinct rise in the 
of the fatalities were the result of two major terrorist inci-
number of EU citizens travelling to Syria, in a number of 
dents: one bomb attack at Burgas airport in Bulgaria and 
cases fighting alongside groups associated with religiously 
the three attacks committed by a solo terrorist in Toulouse 
inspired terrorism. Comparative ease of entry and robust fa-
and Montauban in France. There were no attacks attributed 
cilitation networks offer these individuals a smoother path 
to ETA during 2012, continuing the general decrease from 
to the country. The full implications of increased participa-
the previous year. However, terrorist attacks by Dissident Re-
tion of EU citizens are currently unclear but may have an 
publican groups in Northern Ireland continued to feature 
impact on the future security situation in the EU.
and included the murder of a prison officer. The merger 
An increased use of firearms has been observed across 
of a number of dissident republican factions in 2012 is of 
a variety of terrorist and extremist groups. A number 
concern. Although al-Qaeda’s organisational command and 
of firearms-related incidents occurred across the EU in 
control may have been severely weakened in recent years, 
2012, the most prominent of which involved a religiously 
the threat from religiously inspired terrorism, especially to 
inspired solo terrorist, who shot and killed seven people. 
soft targets, remains a key issue for the security of the EU 
In the course of separate investigations, weapons and am-
Member States and their interests abroad.
munition were also found with other religiously inspired 
The situation in the Middle East and North Africa  cells in 2012. Furthermore, fatal and non-fatal shootings 
(MENA) is significant for the terrorist threat in the EU. 
have been carried out by separatist terrorists and anarchists. 
Two years on from the ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings, the situation 
Right-wing terrorists and violent extremists have also been 
in North Africa remains unstable. Two attacks in Benghazi, 
found in possession of a significant amount of firearms and 
Libya – one in June against the UK Ambassador and the 
ammunition over the reporting period. The use of firearms 
other in September against the US Ambassador, which re-
by terrorists and violent extremists has increased in recent 
sulted in his murder – underline the threat. The volatile situ-
years. This modus operandi appears to be emerging across 
ation in Mali also requires significant attention, as it offers a 
a range of ideologies and is of concern.
new theatre that may appear an attractive destination for 
The current economic conditions in the EU do not ap-
those seeking to engage in armed conflict in support of re-
pear to have had a significantly negative impact on the 
ligiously inspired insurgents. These individuals may pose a 
overall terrorism and violent extremism picture. In the 
threat on their return to the EU. There has been a rise in the 
face of the continuing challenges of the economic situa-
number of kidnapping cases in the MENA region, especially 
tion and the associated governmental austerity measures, 
in light of the developing conflict in Mali. EU citizens are of-
attacks by terrorists and violent extremists have not mark-
ten amongst the kidnap victims, detained as ‘human shields’ 
edly increased since 2008. Although financial institutions, 
against the intervention of EU troops in the region. Kidnap-
government buildings and officials have been targeted in 
ping, in MENA and other African countries, also serves as 
some EU Member States in 2012, principally by violent left-
a major fundraising tactic for groups associated with reli-
wing and anarchist extremists, attacks and violent demon-
giously inspired terrorism.
strations appear to have been relatively sporadic. However, 
this does not preclude the potential for a future increase in 
similarly motivated offences.

In 2011, two persons were killed as a result of terrorist attacks 
in the EU. In addition, 77 people died in the attacks carried out 
by Anders Breivik in Oslo (Norway).


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gEnERAL oVERVIEW oF ThE SITuATIon In ThE Eu In 2012
 In 2012,  
17 people died 
as a result of terrorist attacks in the EU
 219 terrorist attacks 
carried out in EU Member States
   537 individuals arrested 
in the EU for terrorist related offences
   Court proceedings for terrorism charges 
concluded in relation to a total of  
400 individuals



chapter 1 | general overview of the situation in the eu in 2012 9
1 gEnERAL 
oVERVIEW oF  
ThE SITuATIon In 
ThE Eu In 2012
1.1.  Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects
In 2012, 17 people died as a result of terrorist attacks in  Religiously inspired terrorists carried out six attacks on EU 
the EU. Eight of the deaths were the result of attacks 
territory in 2012; there were no such attacks in 2011.3 The 
related to religiously inspired terrorism.
number of attacks by left-wing and anarchist groups fell 
from 37 in 2011 to 18 in 2012.
In total 219 terrorist attacks were carried out in seven EU 
Member States in 2012, an increase on the corresponding 
On 18 July 2012, a remotely activated improvised explosive 
figure for 2011 by 26%.2 In common with previous years, the 
device (IED), which was hidden in a backpack, killed seven 
majority of attacks occurred in France (125) and Spain (54). 
people at Burgas airport in Bulgaria. Five Israeli tourists, a 
Most of these were related to separatist terrorism. 
Bulgarian national and the individual carrying the backpack 
lost their lives. In addition, a further 37 people were injured 
in the attack. Bulgarian investigations, aided by Europol and 
70%
other international partners, revealed possible connections 
of attacks  
in EU:  
to Hezbollah, although at the time of writing the responsi-
Separatist 
terrorism
bility for the attack had not been determined definitively.
Although an IED was discovered at the main railway station 
in Bonn (Germany) in December 2012, the precise motiva-
tion behind the device remains unclear. This case does not 
therefore feature in the figures for this report.

For an overview of all attacks per EU Member State and per 

The attack at Frankfurt Airport in March 2011, which killed 2 US 
affiliation, see Annex 1: Failed, foiled and completed attacks in 
military personnel, was not defined as terrorism according to 
2012 per EU Member State and per affiliation.
German legislation.















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eu terrorism situation and trend report
Figure 1
Number of failed, foiled or completed attacks; number of arrested suspects 2010 to 2012
arrests
attacks
611
537
484
249
219
174
2010
2011
2012
A total of 537 individuals were arrested for terrorism-related 
The number of arrests related to right-wing and left-wing 
offences in 2012, a rise of 53 from last year. Most arrests oc-
terrorism remains low in comparison to those for offences 
curred in France (186), the Republic of Ireland (66) and the 
related to separatist and religiously inspired terrorism.
Netherlands (62).4 Arrests in the UK increased from 62 to 84.5
The rise in arrests for membership of a terrorist organisation, 
Arrests related to religiously inspired terrorism increased  already reported in 2011, continued in 2012.
from 122 to 159 in 2012. In France, the number of arrests in 
this category nearly doubled from 46 to 91.
Arrests linked to separatist terrorism continue to represent 
2010
2011
2012
the greatest number in the EU and remain relatively stable 
33
32
28
at 257. The largest increase was recorded in the Netherlands 
average age 
average age 
average age 
arrested 
arrested 
arrested 
as a result of one raid, during which 55 persons linked to the 
supects
supects
supects
Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan (PKK, Kurdistan Workers’ Party) 
were arrested.

For an overview of all arrests per EU Member State and per 
affiliation, see Annex 2: Arrests in 2012 per EU Member State 
and per affiliation.

For the UK, figures represent the number of charges in 2012, 
to provide a more accurate comparison with the number of 
judicial arrests in the other Member States. However, at this 
stage, in the criminal justice process, it is not possible for the 
UK to assign an affiliation to individual cases.


chapter 1 | general overview of the situation in the eu in 2012 11
1.2.  Terrorist and violent extremist activities
Financing of terrorism
offers investigators an insight into the complex money trail 
of terrorist financiers.
Tried and tested methodologies that provide profitable re-
turns, such as social benefit fraud, credit card misuse, loan 
The trafficking and sale of the drug known as ‘khat’ report-
applications and defaults, continue to be exploited by ter-
edly offers a funding stream for the Somalia-based Harakat 
rorists.
al-Shabab al-Mujahidin (HSM, Young Mujahidin Movement) 
terrorist organisation. In January 2012, the Dutch govern-
Hostage taking outside the EU remains a significantly effec-
ment decided to legislate against the trade and possession 
tive tactic for some terrorist groups with a view to financially 
of khat and, subsequently, placed it on the list of illegal 
supporting their operational activities.
drugs in the Netherlands.
Fundraising through extortion, especially within immi-
The ‘White Power’ music scene along with sales of para-
grant communities, also persists. Funds are collected un-
phernalia (for example magazines, newspapers, CDs and 
der the cover of donations or charitable donations as well 
DVDs) continues to provide revenue for right-wing extrem-
as through a form of illegal taxation. Donations remain an 
ist groups. It is evident that a variety of methods and tech-
active part of facilitating travel and training for terrorist pur-
niques continue to be successfully used by terrorists and 
poses. Such funding may continue once an individual has 
violent extremists to fund travel, recruitment, training and 
arrived in a region of conflict, providing direct support for 
other activities.  
related terrorism activities.
Organisations within the EU have been identified as provid-
Explosives
ing logistical support to, for example, the PKK. The PKK has 
an active media wing, exploiting television, radio, websites 
In contrast to previous years, in 2012 terrorists made use 
and newspaper portals in various EU Member States. All 
of firearms and incendiary devices with greater frequency 
provide propaganda and revenue opportunities.
than improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The reduction in 
use of IEDs may be the result of law enforcement activities 
PKK revenue streams include the so-called taxing of illegal 
to impede terrorists’ access to explosives.
drugs during shipment to Turkey prior to reaching the EU 
market, protection and ‘arbitration taxes’, human trafficking 
Nevertheless, explosives and chemical precursors for the 
and cigarette smuggling. Law enforcement actions and in-
production of home-made explosives (HMEs), and sus-
tervention operations counter these threats.
pects in possession of them, are regularly identified during 
the course of counter-terrorism operations. Furthermore, 
Internet forums and the online sale of propaganda materials 
instruction manuals for the production of HMEs and IEDs 
are fully exploited by terrorist groups and have served to in-
were also found during investigations in 2012.
crease fundraising revenues. Subscription to some Internet 
sites often allows the user access to more secure zones that 
Separatist terrorists in France and Spain continue to use 
would otherwise be unavailable. Seized encrypted media 
IEDs as their preferred method for carrying out attacks. In 
December 2012, a number of IEDs were planted in Corsica 

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eu terrorism situation and trend report
(France) targeting secondary residences. In Spain, multiple 
Communication
IEDs and improvised incendiary devices (IIDs), mainly target-
ing infrastructure, were also used, although the lethal nature 
The Internet remains an essential communication platform 
of these devices diminished compared with previous years 
for terrorist organisations and their sympathisers, enabling 
due to the use of smaller charges.
increasingly wide-spread access, anonymity and connec-
tion to a global audience that can be addressed in a tar-
In previous years, left-wing terrorists carried out coordinat-
geted way.
ed campaigns using IEDs aiming at multiple targets in differ-
ent EU Member States. Several law enforcement operations 
There are only a limited number of online forums responsi-
in the EU, which led to the arrest of key members of these 
ble for a substantial part of the distribution of terrorist prop-
terrorist organisations, may have reduced their capability to 
aganda on the Internet. In the case of religiously inspired 
plan and execute such attacks. During 2012, the use of flam-
terrorism, for example, the number of important forums is 
mable liquids and firearms was predominant in left-wing 
assessed as ranging from 10 to 20. Such forums can have 
terrorist acts, with a small number of IEDs mainly targeting 
thousands of members, many of whom will further prom-
official buildings but not individuals.
ulgate messages to other forums with no apparent terrorist 
affiliation. In addition, self-proclaimed media outlets edit, 
The majority of IEDs used had a low level of sophistication 
translate and re-publish terrorist content issued by foreign 
and included pipe bombs and mixed explosive-incendiary 
terrorist groups. Some terrorist organisations have designat-
devices using black powder and gas canisters. Most of the 
ed particular forums or media outlets as their official com-
devices analysed by Europol incorporated rudimentary  munication channels.
components such as mechanical timers and home-made 
initiators.
The rapid development of social media on the Internet has 
provided new opportunities for instant and personalised 
Whereas some thwarted plots may not be considered terror-
access to supporters as well as potential recruits for terror-
ist offences under national legislation, the procurement of 
ist groups. When terrorist Internet forums are targeted by 
chemical precursors for the production of HMEs continues 
hacker attacks, as happened with religiously inspired ter-
to be a threat to the security of EU citizens. Terrorist attacks 
rorist forums several times in 2012, propagandists rely on 
were thwarted in Spain in October 2012, when about 150 
social media or video sharing sites to continue publishing 
kg of chemical precursors were seized; and in Poland in No-
their messages.
vember, when a substantial amount of chemical precursors 
were found. Approximately 50 kg of chemical precursors 
For terrorist groups located outside the EU, social media have 
that could have potentially been used for the production of 
the added advantage of enabling the user to instantly report 
HMEs were also seized in Finland. Most of the chemical pre-
new developments from the area in real time. However, this 
cursors seized in these and other police operations are listed 
involves bypassing established lines of information commu-
in Regulation (EU) No 98/2013 of the European Parliament 
nication from trusted media outlets and forum members, 
and of the Council on the marketing and use of explosives 
which served as a means to authenticate the message. As 
precursors of 15 January 2013. 
a result terrorist groups have, on occasions, been forced to 
deny reports published by others in their name.
Violent right-wing extremists make extensive use of social 
media for networking purposes. Social media are used, 
amongst other things, to create groups and to share links 
to right-wing extremist websites or professionally produced 
videos on Internet sharing platforms. Moreover, such net-
works can be used for the purpose of recruiting and they 
allow users to remain anonymous if desired. Certain online 
campaigns that have been initiated may not appear, on the 
face of it, to be of a right-wing extremist nature. They do 
however aim to arouse the interest and curiosity of vulner-
able young individuals.




































































































































































































chapter 1 | general overview of the situation in the eu in 2012 13
arrests
Figure 2 
Terrorist attacks and  arrests in the EU in 2012
attacks
2
5
66
84
24
8
62
2
2
8
1
2
186
125
16
10
2
38
54
43
11
3
1
1




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eu terrorism situation and trend report
1.3.  Convictions and penalties6
In 2012, 149 concluded court proceedings on terrorism-
repeatedly releasing PKK-related TV programmes, thereby 
related charges were reported by 13 EU Member States.7 This 
functioning as a mouthpiece for the PKK, as well as dissemi-
constitutes a slight decrease compared to 2011. The court 
nating invitations to join the organisation and participate in 
cases concluded in 2012 referred to acts committed in a pe-
its terrorist activities, while mentioning PKK and its terror-
riod of time starting as early as the 1970s and ending in 2012.
ist activities in a glorifying manner. In connection with the 
sentencing, the court emphasised the length of the period, 
A total of 400 individuals were tried in these reported court 
during which the acts were carried out, the frequency and 
proceedings concluded in 2012. Eighteen individuals were 
dissemination of the acts, the detailed planning, and the 
brought to court in several proceedings for different offenc-
way in which the TV station attempted to appear as inde-
es. Furthermore, in Denmark and France legal entities were 
pendent, while being funded and influenced by the PKK. 
also found guilty of terrorist offences. The total number of 
The decision was appealed to the High Court.
verdicts pronounced in 2012 – towards individuals and enti-
ties – amounts to 437.
Similar to previous years, the majority of verdicts reported 
in 2012 relate to separatist terrorism. Again, Spanish courts 
pronounced the highest number of verdicts in separatist ter-
Figure 3
rorism cases in 2012, followed by France. All court decisions 
Number of individuals in concluded court proceedings in 
reported by Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Neth-
2010, 2011 and 2012, as reported to Eurojust8
erlands and Sweden concern religiously inspired terrorism, 
while the majority of verdicts in relation to left-wing terrorism 
2010
2011
2012
were rendered in France. No concluded court proceedings 
reported to 
reported to 
reported to 
Eurojust
Eurojust
Eurojust
on right-wing terrorism were reported to Eurojust in 2012.
317
316
400
individuals 
individuals 
individuals 
In June 2012, a Belgian court rendered a decision concern-
tried
tried
tried
ing five persons charged with terrorism-related offences. 
Some of them managed websites that were used for re-
cruiting people for armed struggle. A link to al-Qaeda ap-
peared from the content of these websites. In its decision, 
the court ruled that the offence of participating in the crimi-
nal activities of a terrorist group did not have to consist of 
As in previous years, Spain is the Member State with the 
actually committing a terrorist offence. The existence of a 
highest number of individuals in court proceedings for  long-lasting organisation was inferred from the defendants’ 
terrorist offences concluded in 2012. Belgium, Denmark, 
role in spreading propaganda promoting terrorist views on 
France, Greece, Italy and the UK saw an increase as com-
Internet forums, which also facilitated the recruitment of 
pared to 2011, while the Netherlands saw a decrease. In 
volunteers to support the terrorist group. The court consid-
2012, for the first time the Czech Republic reported a terror-
ered that the use of websites for such purposes constituted 
ism-related court decision.
a concrete and tangible act of participation in the activities 
In a court proceeding in Denmark, the Copenhagen City 
of a terrorist group. Four of the accused were convicted 
Court found ROJ TV A/S and Mesopotamia Broadcast A/S 
of terrorism-related offences, either solely of leadership or 
METV guilty of promoting a terrorist organisation and sen-
participation in the activities of a terrorist group, or of these 
tenced each to 40 day fines of DKK 65 000 (EUR 8 700). Both 
crimes in combination with other crimes charged. One de-
ROJ TV and Mesopotamia Broadcast were prosecuted for 
fendant was acquitted. Two other individuals were found 
guilty of offences not related to terrorism. An appeal was 

Please refer to Annex 3: Convictions and penalties (Eurojust)
submitted and the decision of the court is expected in 2013.
for additional information and clarification on the numbers 
In 2012 acquittals constituted 30% of all the verdicts pro-
mentioned in this section.

The data for Belgium includes three court proceedings 
nounced for terrorist offences. The figure is similar to that of 
in which three individuals were convicted of violation of 
2011. Of the 50 female defendants in the reported court pro-
anti-racism and/or anti-discrimination legislation. One of the 
ceedings concluded in 2012, 14 were completely acquitted 
individuals was prosecuted in two of the proceedings. The 
and one was acquitted in one proceeding and convicted in 
data provided by the UK covers England, Scotland and Wales 
another.
and does not include data for Northern Ireland. The data for 
the UK in 2012 refers solely to convictions. At the time of 
Six of the 13 EU Member States with reported court deci-
writing, Eurojust had received no contributions on terrorism-
sions on terrorism cases in 2012 have a full conviction rate. 
related court decisions from the Republic of Ireland. Four 
other Member States, with possibly no terrorism-related court 
Germany and the Netherlands reported no acquittals in 
decisions, did not confirm the absence of relevant verdicts.
2010, 2011 and 2012. As in previous years, France had most-

The data for the previous years corresponds to the data 
ly successful prosecutions.
reported in the respective TE-SAT reports.

chapter 1 | general overview of the situation in the eu in 2012 15
The reported verdicts in relation to religiously inspired ter-
rorism have the highest acquittal rate (35%), which is dis-
similar to previous years, in which the highest acquittal rate 
was registered for separatist terrorism verdicts. In 2012 left-
wing terrorism verdicts included 32% acquittals, followed 
by separatist terrorism with an acquittal rate of 29%.
In certain cases, the acquittal rates can be considered in the 
general context of preventive and protective efforts put in 
place by the EU Member States. Conspiracy to commit ter-
rorist activities and preparatory acts, such as recruitment, 
training and public provocation, are criminalised and pros-
ecuted to prevent terrorist attacks from occurring.
The average prison sentence imposed in 2012 in Europe for 
acts of terrorism was approximately eight years, equal to 
that in 2011. The severity of prison sentences in 2012 ranged 
Figure 4
from two months to life imprisonment.
Average sentences (excluding non-prison penalties) in 2012 
9
as reported to Eurojust10
The highest average prison sentence in 2012 was reported 
in Greece, where several sentences of up to 34 years’ impris-
onment for left-wing terrorist offences were handed down. 
Member State
Average sentences in years
In Spain and France, the average penalty decreased com-
pared to 2011, while in Germany it increased.
Austria
In 2012 the Spanish Audiencia Nacional convicted two 
Belgium
individuals of two counts of assassination, 51 counts of in-
Czech Republic
tended assassination and terrorist ravage, and sentenced 
them to 843 years’ imprisonment each. The two were 
Denmark
 
prosecuted as authors of an attack carried out in August 
2002, which targeted the Guardia Civil barracks in Santa 
France
Pola, resulting in two deaths and 51 people injured, as well 
Germany
as considerable material damage. Several days later the at-
tack was claimed by Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque 
Greece
Fatherland and Liberty) in a message to the Gara newspa-
per. The two men had previously been convicted in France 
Netherlands
for participation in an armed group in France and were 
Portugal
extradited to Spain in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The 
court also ordered that they should pay compensation to 
Spain
the state and those affected by the attack. The decision 
United Kingdom
became final in June 2012. In another proceeding in May 
2012, the two suspects were found guilty of placing ex-
plosives and causing damage in 2002, and sentenced to 
six and a half years’  imprisonment each.

In some EU Member States, suspended sentences were imposed 
in the relevant court proceedings. These have also been included 
in the numbers in Figure 4. In some cases a pecuniary penalty was 
imposed as the only penalty or in combination with a prison term 
or with community service. Furthermore, on certain occasions 
prison terms were pronounced as an alternative to community 
service or pecuniary penalties. In the UK, some sentences ordering 
imprisonment for public protection were handed down as well. 
These have been included in the overview with the indicated 
minimum term to be served. In some cases, in addition to 
imprisonment, convicted individuals were expelled from the 
10 
In Spain, for example, cumulative sentences of hundreds of 
country (Denmark) or banned from entering national territory 
years were given for separatist terrorism offences. For the 
(France) upon completion of the prison term, or restrictions on 
purpose of the overview, sentences exceeding 40 years and life 
their civil rights were imposed on them (Belgium, Spain).
sentences have been counted as 40 years.


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RELIgIouSLy InSPIRED TERRoRISm
 8 people lost their lives as a result of attacks  
related to religiously inspired terrorism in 20121
 Religiously inspired terrorists carried out  
6 attacks on EU territory in 2012 compared to  
0 attacks defined as terrorism in 20112
 Arrests related to religiously inspired terrorism 
increased from 122 in 2011 to 159 in 2012
 EU citizens increasingly targeted for kidnapping 
by terrorist groups
 EU nationals continue to travel to regions such as the 
Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Afghanistan, 
Pakistan and Somalia for terrorist purposes
1  A further seven people were killed as a result of the terrorist attack at Burgas (Bulgaria) airport. 
Although Hezbollah is suspected of carrying out the attack, the responsibility was not determined 
definitively at the time of writing. 

The attack at Frankfurt Airport in March 2011, which killed 2 US military personnel, was not defined as 
terrorism according to German legislation.





chapter 2 | religiously inspired terrorism 17
2 RELIgIouSLy 
InSPIRED 
TERRoRISm
2.1.  Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects
The diverse range of threats from religiously moti- special interest is Merah’s use of firearms rather than explo-
vated terrorism was evidenced by several attacks 
sives, mirroring other recent incidents with similar modus 
committed in the EU in 2012. The three related 
operandi, including the 2011 Frankfurt (Germany) airport 
attacks committed by Mohammed Merah, which killed  shooting and the 2011 US embassy shooting in Sarajevo 
seven people between 11 and 19 March in Toulouse and 
(Bosnia and Herzegovina).
Montauban (France), illustrate different dimensions of the 
In October 2012, a home-grown terrorist group respon-
threat: a solo terrorist aided by other actors, having received 
sible for a grenade attack against a kosher grocery in Paris 
terrorist training in the Afghanistan/Pakistan  region.11 Of  (France) was dismantled whilst in the planning stages of 
further attacks against Jewish targets. All members of the 
group were born in France and had been radicalised on the 
Internet. Most were converts to Islam. Their leader, who had 
2010
2011
2012
several issues of the Inspire magazine, which is associated 
32
30
25
with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), and a leaflet 
average age 
average age 
average age 
arrested 
arrested 
arrested 
justifying the actions of Mohammed Merah in his posses-
supects
supects
supects
sion, died in an armed confrontation with police officers at-
tempting to arrest him.
In March 2012, the murder of the imam of a Shi’i mosque in 
Brussels (Belgium) during an arson attack on the property 
may have been a consequence of tensions between Shi’is 
and Sunnis, exacerbated by the Syrian conflict. However, no 
11 
Solo terrorist refers to an individual executing acts of terrorism 
other significant incidents of this nature inside the EU were 
without others but who is actively supported and assisted by a 
reported to Europol.
wider terrorist organisation.


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At the beginning of August 2012, Spanish security forces ar-
on suspicion of plotting a terrorist attack. The three were 
rested three individuals on suspicion of intending to com-
provisionally charged with illegal possession of automatic 
mit a terrorist attack in the EU. The suspects, two Russian 
weapons and related ammunition, but are also suspected 
citizens – one of Dagestani and the other of Chechen origin 
of having been involved in the preparation of a terrorist act.
– and a Turkish national, had links to Afghani-Pakistani net-
The combination of radicalised individuals resident in EU 
works associated with al-Qaeda.
Member States with intent to commit attacks, and their ac-
cessing of terrorist literature, was evidenced in April 2012, 
70%
when four males of Bangladeshi and Pakistani origin were 
of arrested 
suspects  
arrested in the UK. The subjects were suspected of plotting 
>30 
attacks in the UK and were subsequently charged with en-
years old
gaging in conduct in preparation of acts of terrorism. Several 
of the suspects were additionally charged with possession 
of extremist material. In early March 2013, the defendants 
pleaded guilty to engaging in conduct in preparation of 
acts of terrorism and will be sentenced later in the year.
In 2012 there were a number of arrests across the EU involv-
At least one such apparent home-grown religiously inspired 
ing persons suspected of being home-grown terrorists. Ter-
plot may have been motivated by the activities of an English 
rorist propaganda material as well as weapons and compo-
nationalist group. In July 2012, six people were arrested and 
nents for constructing improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 
subsequently charged with engaging in conduct in prepa-
were regularly recovered in law enforcement operations, in-
ration of acts of terrorism. They are all suspected of plotting 
cluding during an arrest by the Dutch police in Amsterdam 
an attack in South Yorkshire.
in March 2012, in which a suspect had also been searching 
the Internet for manuals on how to make explosives. In April 
2012, three males of Jordanian, Turkish and Egyptian ori-
gin were arrested in Denmark for weapons possession and
2.2.  Terrorist and violent extremist activities
Logistics and facilitation
public attention due to their controversial demonstrations 
and statements. They have been careful not to incite their 
In 2012, several facilitation networks in the EU enabling the 
supporters to commit acts of terrorism. Nevertheless, they 
transfer of individuals to conflict zones, in particular Syria 
praise terrorist groups and present perpetrators of terror-
and Somalia, were disrupted. Member States’ law enforce-
ist attacks as heroes. Through such activities, the Sharia4 
ment authorities investigated several cases of terrorist travel 
groups contribute to spreading a highly intolerant inter-
to East Africa, financing and propaganda activities related 
pretation of Islam, including the support of violent acts in 
to Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahidin (HSM, Young Mujahidin 
the name of religion, in the public sphere, thereby exposing 
Movement). Investigations and arrests in Finland, Switzer-
vulnerable individuals to radical ideas. Individual members 
land and the UK concerned recruitment and financing for 
of these groups, which actively seek to provoke non-Muslim 
HSM through differing means including trafficking in hu-
sections of the public, violently resisted or attacked law en-
man beings and international drug trafficking. Furthermore, 
forcement forces in some Member States in 2012. There are 
there were investigations into several websites, used by  indications that the ideology spread by Sharia4Belgium and 
HSM supporters for propaganda purposes. Two networks 
other groups has contributed to the radicalisation and en-
facilitating the transfer of potential fighters from Europe to 
gagement of EU citizens in the Syrian conflict.
Syria and Somalia were also dismantled, resulting in a num-
ber of arrests in Belgium in 2012.
Internet propaganda and recruitment
In September 2012, German police arrested a suspected 
member of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)  In 2012 a series of arrests were made of extremist users of the 
in Bonn on suspicion of fundraising and recruiting volun-
Internet. Predominant features of these individuals are their 
teers for the group, as well as gathering information on the 
exceptional computer skills, multiple online user aliases, the 
German political situation for dissemination to the group’s 
use of varying social networking sites for terrorist purposes 
propaganda outlet in Waziristan (Pakistan).
and, frequently, the founding or management of terrorist fo-
rums. The majority continue to engage in the dissemination 
In 2012 radical Muslim groups using a name composed 
of propaganda or instructional information and maintain 
of ‘Sharia4’ and the name of a country or region, such as 
private chat rooms to conduct online meetings with others. 
Sharia4Belgium and Sharia4Holland, received widespread 




































































































































































































chapter 2 | religiously inspired terrorism 19
Whilst some of these individuals remain active primarily in on-
national, arrested in March 2012 by Spanish police for ad-
line environments, a number have transitioned towards pre-
ministrating a terrorist forum, is a noteworthy exception. 
paring acts of terrorism beyond the confines of the Internet.
The individual was responsible for various Internet platforms 
dedicated to supporting differing terrorist activities includ-
One such example was the arrest, in March 2012, of a  ing the selection, indoctrination, recruitment and transfer 
20-year-old Moroccan national in Italy on suspicion of plot-
of militants to conflict areas. He was also managing several 
ting an attack against a synagogue in Milan. The subject had 
Internet chat rooms, in which he provided terrorist content, 
been particularly active on the Internet, using at least eight 
including statements, manuals and training courses on ter-
social media profiles accessible only through a complex se-
rorism for other users.
ries of controls that he had created. He also used more than 
10 separate email addresses. He instructed users to avoid 
A similar function was performed by a French national ar-
posting extreme videos and religious songs and to restrict 
rested in Toulon in July 2012. This individual acted as an 
themselves to discussing weapons and explosives. Another 
administrator of a high-profile website and was an inter-
example occurred in April, when an Italian citizen (a convert 
mediary for providing information and relaying instructions 
to Islam), who had been actively engaged in spreading ter-
amongst terrorist groups in regions including Yemen, Paki-
rorist propaganda via the Internet as well as documents on 
stan and Afghanistan.
training in the use of weapons and explosives, was arrested. 
Despite the death of its principal authors in 2011, the AQAP-
Neither of these individuals belonged to any structured or-
associated Inspire magazine continues to be a recurring tool 
ganisation, they merely shared the same ideology.
inciting extremists to conduct attacks in the EU and else-
Most suspects associated with Internet activity were below 
where. Two issues of Inspire were released in 2012.
the age of 30. However, a 51-year-old Jordanian-born Saudi 
2
arrests
attacks
Figure 5  
Number of failed, foiled or completed attacks 
and number of suspects arrested for religiously 
inspired terrorism in EU Member States  
in 2012
2
8
7
2
1
6
1
91
4
15
1
8
16
1


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2.3.  Terrorist situation outside the EU
Kidnappings
One of the most pertinent overseas threats to EU Member 
The kidnappings are assessed to be motivated by the ter-
States, especially France, Italy and Spain, continues to ema-
rorist group’s desire to acquire funding through ransom 
nate from al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). While it 
payments for the release of hostages, allowing the group to 
is judged that the group does not have sufficient organisa-
acquire heavy weapons and recruit fighters from the poor 
tional capability to carry out a large-scale attack in the EU, 
population of northern Mali.
it remains able to target EU interests in the Maghreb and 
In Nigeria, nationals from France, Germany, Italy and the UK 
Sahel regions. EU citizens are at particular risk of kidnap-
were kidnapped by religiously inspired groups in 2012. In 
ping by AQIM throughout the Sahel region. Some victims 
March, a Briton and an Italian were killed in northwest Nige-
continue to endure prolonged periods of captivity. By the 
ria by a group linked to Ansar al-Muslimin fi Bilad al-Sudan 
end of 2012, the group continued to hold captive six French 
(Supporters of Muslims in Sub-Saharan Africa), also known 
nationals, one Dutch, one Swede and one Briton in north-
as Ansaru, during a special forces raid. Both had been ab-
ern Mali, from kidnappings in 2010 and 2011. AQIM officially 
ducted in 2011. In December, a French engineer was kid-
announced, on two occasions, threats to kill its French cap-
napped in Rimi in northern Nigeria during a well-planned 
tives, should France intervene militarily in northern Mali. 
operation. This kidnapping was also claimed by Ansaru. 
The Mouvement pour l’Unicité et le Jihad en Afrique de 
Ansaru split in 2012 from Jama’at Ahl al-Sunna lil-Da’wa wal-
l’Ouest (MUJAO, Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West 
Jihad (Group of the Sunnis for Preaching and Jihad), better 
Africa) was another group responsible for the kidnapping 
known as Boko Haram, citing disapproval of Boko Haram’s 
and detention of French, Italian and Spanish nationals. MU-
targeting of Nigerian civilians. Both groups maintain the 
JAO also announced its intention to destroy French strategic 
shared goal of enforcing Islamic law throughout the coun-
interests, especially in Niger, Senegal and the Ivory Coast. 

chapter 2 | religiously inspired terrorism 21
try and have conducted kidnappings of Western citizens in-
In a number of countries, protests have turned violent or 
volved in construction projects in northern Nigeria.
have escalated into full-blown conflict as in the case of Syria. 
In 2011 and 2012, Yemen faced a rapid deterioration of pub-
There were three instances of Swiss nationals being kid-
lic order after popular protests against President Ali Abdul-
napped by terrorists in 2012, occurring in Mali, the Philip-
lah Salih’s rule. This allowed AQAP to occupy a large territory 
pines and Yemen. Two of these victims remained in cap-
in the south of the country in May 2011, which it was able to 
tivity at the time of writing. Two Spanish citizens working 
maintain until June 2012.
for the Spanish branch of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, 
Doctors without Borders), who were kidnapped in Kenya in 
AQAP continues to perpetrate terrorist attacks in Yemen. In 
late 2011, were still in the hands of their captors, who are 
addition, in April 2012, the group attempted to repeat its 
believed to be, or involved with, the Somali organisation 
2009 failed attack against aviation using an IED concealed 
HSM. In December 2012, two Finnish and one Austrian citi-
in underwear. This attempt underlined the continued intent 
zen were kidnapped by an unidentified armed group in the 
and capability of the group to carry out external operations 
Yemeni capital Sana’a. Although no claims of responsibility 
aimed at Western interests. It also demonstrated AQAP’s 
or ransom demand had emerged at the time of writing, it 
commitment to developing more sophisticated IEDs in-
cannot be excluded that elements associated with AQAP 
tended to thwart security measures. The presence of a num-
were involved in the kidnapping.
ber of foreign fighters in Yemen provides AQAP with poten-
tial avenues to project the threat to Western countries.
Two journalists – a Dutch and a British national – were ab-
ducted by militants in Syria in July 2012. Both were shot and 
The turmoil in Syria and Yemen, and the uncertain future 
wounded during an attempted escape before being liber-
political landscape in Egypt and Libya, have had significant 
ated by members of the Free Syrian Army after several days 
effects on how terrorist groups present their struggle and 
in captivity. An investigation into this abduction was initi-
justify their violent actions, in particular those committed 
ated in the Netherlands and the UK, as a result of which two 
to the idea of a global ‘jihad’ as promoted by al-Qaeda and 
people were arrested in the UK in autumn 2012.
its affiliates. The emergence of Islamist political groups with 
primarily local agendas has called into question al-Qaeda’s 
Developments in MENA countries
dogma of global confrontation. In Iraq, the local al-Qaeda 
affiliate lost popular support due to repeated attacks on 
The instability in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) 
the population. There and in other countries, the al-Qaeda 
post ‘Arab Spring’ continues to be exploited by extremist 
brand is seen more and more in a negative light. Some 
groups, which have capitalised on the profusion of unse-
terrorist groups have reacted by avoiding references to al-
cured weapons and reduced security levels in some states 
Qaeda. In Yemen, for example, AQAP created a new brand, 
in order to consolidate their presence.
Ansar al-Shari’a, in an effort to establish an administration 
and garner local support. Likewise, Jabhat al-Nusra, a group 
Libya continues to be highly unstable. The attack on the 
fighting in Syria that has strong links to the al-Qaeda affili-
convoy carrying the UK Ambassador to Libya in Benghazi in 
ate in Iraq, the Islamic State in Iraq, stressed the local nature 
June 2012, using rocket-propelled grenades and small arms 
of its struggle and deliberately omitted the ideology and 
fire, and the death of the US Ambassador to Libya in a ter-
brand of al-Qaeda and its global ‘jihad’. Ansar al-Din in Mali 
rorist attack on the US consulate in Benghazi in September 
did not openly admit its purported alliance with AQIM but 
2012, illustrate that the national government has difficulties 
emphasised its efforts to provide much-needed services for 
in controlling armed groups in the country. These two in-
the population and restore justice and security through the 
cidents have been widely hailed as examples to follow by 
imposition of Islamic law.
terrorist groups in other countries. At present, however, ter-
rorist groups in these countries primarily pose a threat to EU 
With regard to recruitment of EU citizens and residents, 
interests in the region, rather than to the territory of the EU.
these new images, which emphasise local over global is-
sues, may significantly increase the attractiveness of com-
Members of the Millatu Ibrahim group – proscribed in Ger-
bat zones and terrorist groups that have shed their image 
many in 2012 – emigrated from Europe to relocate in Egypt 
of clandestine guerrilla groups of dubious credentials. This 
and Libya, from where they have disseminated messages in 
reorientation may have helped to increase the flows of po-
German, inciting acts of terrorism. Amongst these persons 
tential fighters relocating to combat zones to join fighting 
are well-known and influential Muslim converts and propa-
groups.
gandists.12
12 
‘Deutsche Salafisten fliehen nach Ägypten’, Die Welt, 10 August 
2012.


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Foreign fighters in conflict zones
The senior leadership of al-Qaeda is judged to have been 
Syria emerged as the destination of choice for foreign fight-
considerably weakened following the elimination of senior 
ers in 2012. A number of EU nationals were arrested in Bel-
figures and affiliated leaders in the Afghanistan/Pakistan re-
gium, France, the Netherlands and the UK related to travel-
gion. Consequently, it has a reduced ability to initiate and 
ling to or returning from Syria. For example, in November 
direct attacks. Nevertheless, terrorists trained in the area 
2012, three individuals were arrested in the Netherlands 
continue to be intermittently dispatched to commit attacks 
intending to travel to Syria. During house searches in Rot-
inside Europe.
terdam, knives, a sword, a crossbow, farewell letters, packed 
backpacks and terrorist propaganda were recovered. A 
Although 2012 saw an increasing number of EU ‘jihadists’ di-
number of Belgian residents, mostly aged between 18 and 
vert from the Afghanistan/Pakistan region to other conflict 
24, intended to leave, actually left and successfully travelled 
zones, the area remains an important location for terrorist 
to Syria during 2012. Dutch, Finnish and Swedish authori-
recruits from the EU. For example, two Dutch citizens con-
ties also identified a number of individuals who had already 
nected to radical networks in The Hague returned home in 
travelled or attempted to travel to Syria. A number of EU na-
January 2012, having been detained in Pakistan since April 
tionals were reportedly killed whilst fighting in Syria in 2012. 
2011 on charges of illegal immigration. Similar cases were 
Others have remained in Syria and in some instances they 
reported in France, Germany and the UK. Some citizens 
were barred from returning to the EU. Returning fighters 
of EU Member States and other European countries were 
may incite EU volunteers to join the armed struggle in Syria. 
killed in the region in 2012, including a terrorist affiliated 
In addition, these individuals have the potential to utilise 
with al-Qaeda who had lived in Switzerland for several years 
their training, combat experience, knowledge and contacts 
and was reportedly killed by a drone attack. A number of 
for terrorist activities inside the EU. However, there was no 
high profile EU nationals remain in the region broadcasting 
concrete evidence of plans for any attacks against the EU at 
propaganda and incitement messages.
the time of writing.


chapter 2 | religiously inspired terrorism 23
Somalia witnessed an incipient, yet fragile consolidation of 
identified in the region. Two brothers, Danish nationals of 
its national state structures in 2012, with the formation of a 
Somali origin who lived in Denmark for 16 years, were ar-
constituent assembly and the election of a new president. 
rested by the Danish authorities in May 2012 on suspicion of 
The military containment of HSM, which publicly pledged 
preparing a terrorist attack. One of the suspects purportedly 
allegiance to al-Qaeda in February 2012, continued. By the 
attended a training camp in Somalia organised by HSM.
end of the year, it had been forced to abandon all major cit-
A small number of EU citizens travelled to West Africa in 
ies and retreat to its rural strongholds. There is a consequent 
2012 to join terrorist groups in northern Mali. Military gains 
risk of veteran fighters formerly associated with HSM con-
by rebel Tuareg groups in the northern desert spaces of Mali 
ducting autonomous attacks in the region or relocating to 
in early 2012, and a subsequent military coup in the capital 
other destinations. The movement tried to compensate its 
Bamako, were exploited by a loose alliance of AQIM, MUJAO 
setbacks with an increasing propaganda output praising its 
and Ansar al-Din, who seized significant population centres 
military successes.
in cooperation with the secular Tuareg secessionist Mouve-
The appeal of Somalia as a destination for foreign fighters is 
ment National de Libération de l’Azawad (MNLA, National 
judged to be less than that of Syria. Nevertheless, a number 
Liberation Movement of Azawad). After the collapse of the 
of EU nationals have been detected in the region and are be-
alliance, the MNLA was marginalised, and by the end of 
lieved to be affiliated with al-Qaeda or HSM. In 2012 some of 
2012 northern Mali was largely under the control of AQIM 
these individuals left Somalia for neighbouring Kenya, seek-
and its allies. A number of French nationals of African ori-
ing either to transit the country or to support terrorist at-
gin were arrested either in territory controlled by the Malian 
tacks. The terrorist threat posed to Kenya increased in 2012, 
government or in neighbouring states. A British national 
evidenced by a number of disrupted attack plots and fatal 
was deported from Mauritania after attempting to travel 
grenade attacks. One Belgian national, one German national 
to rebel-controlled Timbuktu. A number of other Member 
and one Swiss resident of Jordanian origin were detained 
States have expressed concern that their nationals may also 
in the region for terrorism-related offences. The Belgian and 
be leaving for Mali to join the fighting there. The interna-
German subjects were returned to their home countries 
tional military intervention in Mali, which started in early 
and arrested by national authorities. The Swiss resident was 
2013, may attract further potential fighters from the EU.
barred from returning to Switzerland. A British national is 
currently on trial in Kenya for terrorism offences. Other Eu-
ropean nationals, including a person connected to one of 
the perpetrators of the 2005 London bombings, have been 


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EThno-nATIonALIST AnD SEPARATIST TERRoRISm
 2 persons were killed 
in separatist terrorist attacks in 2012,  
including a prison officer in Northern Ireland
 167 attacks were carried out
 257 individuals were arrested 
for offences related to ethno-nationalist and separatist 
terrorism in EU Member States
 Arrest numbers continued to decrease in Spain:  
from 104 in 2010, to 41 in 2011, to 25 in 2012
 Dissident Republican groups continued to target 
police officers, soldiers and prison officers  
in Northern Ireland


chapter 3 | ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism 25
3 EThno-nATIonALIST 
AnD SEPARATIST 
TERRoRISm
ETA/Segi and Resistência Galega
In Spain, the ceasefire announced by Euskadi ta  ence on the political stage. The latest statement stipulated 
Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Fatherland and Liberty) on 20 
ETA’s aspiration for a ‘technical negotiation’ with Spanish 
October 2011 held. In 2012 the group carried out no 
and French governments on the disarmament of the or-
terrorist attacks. Counter-terrorist activity, at national and in-
ganisation; the unification of its prisoners in Basque peni-
ternational level, continued in 2012 and resulted in a num-
tentiaries, followed by their amnesty; an agreement on the 
ber of arrests.
return of fugitive members; and the removal of the Spanish 
police and armed forces from the Basque region and Na-
The extortion of businessmen and women, through the de-
varre. The group has made similar announcements in the 
mand of the ‘revolutionary tax’ in the Spanish Basque region 
past. Of concern is that the most radical sectors of ETA may 
and Navarre, appears to have ceased since 2010. Neverthe-
seek to resume terrorist activities, should they fail to achieve 
less, ETA reasserted that it will not disband, and it is believed 
their political objectives.
that the group maintains its logistical activities and contin-
ues to function as a clandestine organisation.
Resistência Galega (RG) continued to carry out terrorist at-
tacks in Galicia in 2012, in volumes similar to 2011, mainly us-
With regard to street violence, the number of attacks carried 
ing improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and IIDs. The attacks 
out by members and sympathisers of Segi (a banned youth 
can be divided into two different types: those perpetrated 
organisation associated with ETA), increased – motivated by 
by RG itself and those by groupings or individuals that are 
discontentment with the evolution of the political situation 
ideologically affiliated to RG but are not group members. 
in the Basque region. These attacks, utilising mostly home-
The attacks caused minor property damage, mainly target-
made explosives (HMEs) and improvised incendiary devices 
ing the premises of political parties and state infrastructure. 
(IIDs), caused only material damage and did not succeed in 
Counterterrorist activity against RG over recent years seems 
jeopardising the peaceful situation in the Basque country.
to have significantly reduced the operational capabilities of 
ETA issued five communiqués in 2012. It is assessed that 
the terrorist group. RG restricts its activities to the Spanish 
they were released in order to maintain the group’s pres-
region of Galicia.


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Dissident Republican groups
A small number of Dissident Republican (DR) groups in 
In 2012, the RIRA merged with Republican Action Against 
Northern Ireland (UK) aim to destabilise the peace process 
Drugs (RAAD), which had operated as an anti-drugs vigilan-
established in 1998 under the Good Friday Agreement,  te entity, and a small group of unaffiliated, but nonetheless 
which led to a power sharing executive in Northern Ire-
dangerous militants, to form a new organisation under the 
land. These include the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA), 
name of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). This ‘new’ IRA dem-
Óglaigh na h’Éireann (ONH, Warriors of Ireland) and the Con-
onstrated lethal intent and capability through the murder of 
tinuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA). The primary targets for 
a prison officer in the attack described above. It is thought 
these terrorists are police officers, soldiers and prison offic-
likely that the group will carry out further attacks.
ers. A majority of attacks have involved the use of crude, but 
ONH and CIRA remained outside the new amalgamation 
potentially lethal IEDs. There were also a number of more 
and continued to operate as autonomous entities. It is 
sophisticated attacks. In November 2012, a fatal attack took 
judged that ONH has been responsible for two attempted 
place in which the victim was a prison officer.
under-vehicle car bomb attacks since December 2012. Nei-
The number of attacks attributed to DR groups in 2012 was 
ther was successful.
similar to that of the year before and reduced from the 2010 
CIRA continued to experience internal problems and lead-
peak.13
ership struggles, having split into separate and independent 
DR groups also have a presence in the Republic of Ireland, 
entities. Nonetheless, this group is dangerous and contin-
where their primary activities are focused on providing fi-
ues to plan attacks. In late January 2012, CIRA claimed re-
nancial and logistical support for attacks in Northern Ireland.
sponsibility for a shooting attack against police officers in 
Lurgan (UK), although nobody was injured.
Security force activity resulted in significant numbers of ar-
rests, disruptions and the recovery of terrorist material. How-
ever, it is assessed that all DR groups retain the capability to 
conduct further attacks.
13 
It should be noted that these figures refer to attacks on 
‘national security targets’, which include attacks targeted 
principally, but not exclusively, against the security forces, 
those who support them and premises and institutions 
associated with policing, justice and security. All attacks 
occurred in Northern Ireland.

































































































































































































chapter 3 | ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism 27
On the other side of the sectarian divide, loyalist paramilitary 
National Liberation Front of Corsica
leaderships in Northern Ireland have remained committed 
to their ceasefires. Nevertheless, inter-communal tensions 
In Corsica (France), several IEDs were detonated in 2012, 
persist. Some loyalist individuals might commit acts of vio-
targeting holiday homes in the southern part of the island. 
lence against nationalist targets despite the commitment 
Suspicion of responsibility for the attacks, which killed one 
of their leaders. It is not believed that such activity is sanc-
man and seriously damaged approximately 20 buildings, fell 
tioned by the leaderships of loyalist paramilitary groups.
on the Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse (FLNC, Na-
tional Liberation Front of Corsica). The attacks were believed 
to have been executed to mark the island’s ‘national day’ on 
8 December.
Bombings, aggravated assaults, armed bank robberies and 
extortion via ‘revolutionary taxes’ are typical forms of crime 
committed by the FLNC. It is presently unclear what propor-
tion of FLNC activists are more engaged in organised crime 
than in seeking the island’s independence from France.
arrests
attacks
Figure 6 
Number of failed, foiled or completed attacks 
and number of suspects arrested for ethno 
nationalist and separatist terrorism in  
EU Member States in 2012
66
55
2
95
121
1
5
25
46
6
2



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Kurdistan Workers’ Party
No terrorist attacks were carried out in the EU in 2012 by the 
held in a holiday park in Ellemeet. They detained 55 people 
Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan (PKK, Kurdistan Workers’ Party) or 
alleged to be active in what was believed to be a training 
its affiliates. The main activities of the group in the EU con-
camp. The PKK is also thought to recruit young Kurds living 
tinue to be fundraising, propaganda, logistical support and 
in the Netherlands for its armed struggle against the Turkish 
the recruitment and training of potential fighters.
army and for potential involvement in terrorist activities.
In 2012 law enforcement authorities in several EU Member 
Since 1984, the PKK has been fighting for autonomy in the 
States undertook investigations into terrorist activities by 
predominantly Kurdish areas of south-east Turkey, where it 
the PKK. In March, Italian police carried out several raids and 
carried out a high number of terrorist attacks in 2012. The 
arrested five PKK members, on suspicion of extortion and 
core of the PKK’s fighters operate from the Qandil moun-
seriously injuring Turkish immigrants. The suspects were  tains in northern Iraq. Some attacks were also committed in 
charged with terrorism offences. In August, French authori-
Istanbul and Ankara (Turkey). The KCK is also active in Turkey, 
ties arrested six persons in southern France in connection 
northern Iraq and Europe. Whereas it is seen as a political 
with an attempt on the life of a member of the Kurdish com-
body by some, the Turkish authorities consider it to be a 
munity, which was considered to be an act of terrorism. In 
front organisation of the PKK, led by the same individuals.
September, eight Kurdish men were arrested in Denmark 
The number of attacks carried out against Turkish security 
on suspicion of financially supporting the PKK with sums 
forces, police, gendarmerie and local authorities peaked in 
amounting to DKK 140 million (EUR 18.7 million), obtained 
2012, reaching an intensity unobserved since 2006. Turkey 
from donations and the extortion of Kurdish businesses. The 
also reported that the PKK continued to attack schools and 
case came to light primarily through information resulting 
teachers in south-east Turkey: compared to 2011, attacks on 
from the investigation into Kurdish satellite TV station, ROJ 
schools increased by 60% and on teachers by 100% in 2012.
TV, which is considered to be the PKK’s main media outlet 
in Europe. In October, French authorities arrested three Turk-
Turkish investigation reports suggest that the PKK is in-
ish nationals and a French member of the PKK. These arrests 
volved in drug trafficking to finance its terrorist activities. 
were the result of an investigation launched in April 2012, 
The PKK is believed to collect money, via ‘taxes’, from drug 
following the recurrent visit to France of the senior leader 
traffickers crossing the Turkish border. Moreover, the group 
of the European branch of the Koma Civakên Kurdistan  takes a share of profits at each phase, including the ship-
(KCK, Kurdistan Communities Union). He is believed to have 
ment of drugs to and from Turkey, transportation to the EU, 
sought to obtain military-grade weapons and equipment in-
and the distribution and sale of drugs in the EU. In return, 
tended for the PKK’s armed struggle against the Turkish mili-
the traffickers are offered protection from the PKK and arbi-
tary. In December, Dutch police raided a secret PKK meeting 
tration in disputes.


chapter 3 | ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism 29
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) did not carry out 
The militant faction is pro-actively seeking support in terms 
any terrorist attacks in the EU in 2012. However, the organi-
of financing, logistics and propaganda. Their fundraising 
sation is still considered active and benefiting from (limited) 
methods are believed to include extortion, illegal lotteries 
support, especially in countries with a large Tamil commu-
and human trafficking. They are also suspected of dissemi-
nity.
nating propaganda via radio, TV stations and various web-
sites.
The LTTE is assessed to have split into two rival factions. 
One is promoting the use of political means to achieve their 
There are still on-going investigations concerning members 
aims, whereas the other – more actively militant – division 
of the LTTE in the Netherlands and in Switzerland.
is advocating violence. In November 2012, a senior member 
of the Tamil Coordination Committee in France was shot 
and killed in Paris, presumably as a result of an internal rift. 
Two suspects were arrested for the murder in Paris.


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LEFT-WIng AnD AnARchIST TERRoRISm
 18 terrorist attacks 
were carried out in the EU in 2012,  
continuing the  
downward trend since 2010
 24 individuals were  
arrested in 4 EU Member States
 Increasing use of violence 
by Italian anarchists,  
facilitated by firearms





chapter 4 | left-wing and anarchist terrorism 31
4 LEFT-WIng  
AnD AnARchIST 
TERRoRISm
4.1.  Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects
As in previous years, the number of terrorist at-  Informale (FAI, Informal Anarchist Federation), became man-
tacks by left-wing and anarchist groups in the 
ifest on 7 May 2012, when the chief executive officer (CEO) 
EU continued to decrease in 2012. The same 
of a nuclear energy company was intentionally shot in the 
trend was observed concerning the numbers of individu-
leg in Genoa (Italy). In September, two individuals believed 
als arrested on suspicion of left-wing and anarchist terrorist 
to be responsible for the attack were arrested. Italian author-
acts or activities.
ities assess that the increased number of arrests in recent 
years has greatly reduced the FAI’s operational capabilities. 
Left-wing and anarchist terrorism has traditionally had a par-
However, the organisation is structured in a way that allows 
ticularly strong presence in Greece, Italy and Spain, known 
it to replenish its ranks. Therefore, the FAI continues to pose 
as the Mediterranean Anarchist Triangle. In Italy the number 
a high threat.
of attacks and arrests increased in 2012. The threat posed 
by anarchist groups, in particular the Federazione Anarchica 
In February 2012, an improvised incendiary device (IID) 
was discovered and dismantled by bomb disposal experts 
aboard a metro train in Egaleo station in Athens (Greece). 
The device used, in this first attack ever on the Athens metro 
system, was designed to be initiated by a timer, but the ac-
2010
2011
2012
tivation system failed. Contrary to previous attacks by an-
45
37
18
archist groups in Greece, no advance warning was given. 
terrorist attacks 
terrorist attacks 
terrorist attacks 
by anarchist 
by anarchist 
by anarchist 
The attack was claimed by a terrorist group calling itself the 
or left-wing 
or left-wing 
or left-wing 
groups
groups
groups
Kinima 12 Flevari (12 February Movement).

































































































































































































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Arrests in Greece in 2010 (18) and 2011 (15), and the seizure 
Spanish authorities arrested four members of the disman-
of large quantities of weapons and explosives, may have sig-
tled left-wing terrorist organisation Grupos Antifascistas 
nificantly reduced the activities and capabilities of left-wing 
Primero de Octubre (GRAPO, Antifascist Groups First of Oc-
and anarchist terrorist groups. In 2012 one attack and one 
tober), who are suspected of involvement in the kidnapping 
arrest were reported.
and murder of a businessman in 1995.
4.2.  Terrorist and violent extremist activities
Left-wing and anarchist groups often carry out activities in 
and a differentiation of the FAI from other anarchist groups 
their home countries, targeting interests of foreign states, as 
by using different modus operandi.
a way of showing solidarity with groups in these countries.
In recent years, signs of international coordination among 
In 2012 the anarchist movement in Italy gained strength. 
left-wing and anarchist groups have been observed. The 
The FAI’s claim of responsibility for the attack on 7 May 2012 
international revolutionary front, initiated by the Greek ter-
outlines the elements that characterise the evolution of the 
rorist organisation Synomosia Pyrinon Fotias (Conspiracy 
anarchist agenda: a full internationalisation aiming at an 
of Fire Cells), is a diffuse, horizontal structure of informal 
international revolutionary front; an escalation of violence; 
groups worldwide, which are not in direct contact but 
arrests
attacks
Figure 7 
Number of failed, foiled or completed attacks 
and number of suspects arrested for left-wing 
and anarchist terrorism in EU Member  
States in 2012
1
5
7
17
10
1
1


chapter 4 | left-wing and anarchist terrorism 33
 
communicate by carrying out direct action in the frame-
In most cases, left-wing and anarchist groups aim to dam-
work of specific campaigns. In this context, the FAI has links 
age property rather than to injure or kill people. As in past 
to groups or individuals in Greece, Spain, Chile, Indonesia 
years, banks and fiscal agencies remained preferred targets 
and Mexico. In 2012 arson attacks in the UK and the Nether-
in Italy in 2012. However, in a number of EU Member States, 
lands were claimed in the name of the FAI. To date, there is 
the choice of potential targets has become more focused 
no intelligence to indicate that those behind these attacks 
since 2011. In 2012 an anti-fascist group in Poland published 
have any links to the more extreme Italian FAI. The attacks 
a list of Polish neo-Nazis, fascists and nationalists on its web-
did not exhibit the same levels of technical sophistication 
site, encouraging others to take action against them.
as those in Italy.
Also in May 2012, an attack claimed by FAI targeted the 
On the operational level, the FAI attack in May, mentioned 
EU Delegation in Buenos Aires (Argentina). An improvised 
above, indicates a change in strategy from traditional anar-
explosive device (IED) was left at the main entrance of the 
chist practices towards more violent attacks. Over the past 
EU Delegation, exploding shortly after it was deployed. The 
10 years, anarchist groups have preferred the use of parcel 
explosion damaged the entrance and broke windows in 
bombs and IIDs as part of their modus operandi. The use 
neighbouring buildings. Nobody was injured in this attack. 
of firearms can be seen as a clear escalation of violence, as 
A few days before the attack, the EU had warned Argentina 
stated in the claim of responsibility for the attack by the FAI. 
against the planned nationalisation of a Spanish-owned oil 
Firearms were last used in a left-wing or anarchist attack in 
company.
Greece in 2010, when a journalist was murdered by the ter-
Besides traditional ideological themes such as anti-capi-
rorist organisation Sekta Epanastaton (Revolutionaries’ Sect).
talism, anti-militarism and anti-fascism, violent left-wing 
Left-wing and anarchist groups continue provocative ac-
and anarchist extremists also focus on a number of other 
tion and deliberately cause clashes with the police during 
themes and issues. The vehicle of a senior EU official re-
violent protests against right-wing opponents. Particularly 
sponsible for overseeing the implementation of austerity 
alarming is the direct targeting of police officers. German 
measures in Greece was the subject of an arson attack in 
authorities counted up to 500 police officers injured in 2011, 
Germany. In Belgium a campaign targeted EU civil servants 
and this trend continued in 2012 with even more aggressive 
with anti-EU leaflets and stickers; a number of vehicles were 
attacks. Some attacks even reached the level of criminal of-
also damaged. Furthermore, within the framework of the 
fences classified as attempted homicides. In May 2012, two 
anti-capitalism campaign, ‘attack capital in the streets’, sev-
officers in a patrol car were attacked by a group of unidenti-
eral luxury cars were set on fire.
fied people with stones and IIDs in Berlin (Germany).


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RIghT-WIng TERRoRISm
 2 right-wing terrorist attacks 
reported in 2012
 10 individuals arrested 
for right-wing terrorist offences
 The Internet and social media  
continue to facilitate violent right-wing extremism
 A prevalence of weapons and ammunition  
held by members of the extremist right-wing 
community


chapter 5 | right-wing terrorism 35
5 RIghT-WIng 
TERRoRISm
5.1.  Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects
In June 2012, a man was injured when an improvised ex- In November 2012, Italian police arrested four persons and 
plosive device (IED) exploded outside the offices of the 
searched 17 houses across Italy in an investigation concern-
Roma political party Evroroma, in the central Bulgarian 
ing the Italian forum of a neo-Nazi website. The suspects 
town of Sandanski.
are accused of having used the website to incite ethnic and 
racial hatred. The network is believed to have compiled a 
As a result of preventive measures on precursors for explo-
list of political figures, including the President of the Italian 
sives, Polish authorities were able to thwart an attack on 
Chamber of Deputies, a cabinet minister and a senior figure 
constitutional bodies in Poland. In November 2012, police 
from the Jewish community in Rome, whom it considered 
arrested a 45-year-old Polish citizen in Kraków (Poland) on 
to be its enemies.
suspicion of planning to detonate an IED near the Polish 
parliament and of attacking high-ranking state representa-
tives, including the Polish President and government mem-
bers. He was apparently motivated by the belief that ‘for-
eigners’ controlled Poland and that, therefore, the president 
and the government needed to be eliminated. Military and 
industrial explosives, gun powder and other materials that 
could be used to produce IEDs were seized during house 
searches in several locations in Poland. The suspect was also 
in possession of illegal firearms, ammunition, ballistic vests, 
kevlar helmets as well as counterfeit domestic and foreign 
license plates. He appears to have used his position as a uni-
versity lecturer to identify and recruit people holding similar 
political views.


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5.2.  Violent right-wing extremism
Following the attacks committed by Anders Behring Breivik 
ent mosques, as well as a defamatory cartoon competi-
in Norway, and the discovery in Germany of the existence 
tion. Confrontations between members of the group and 
of the right-wing terrorist group Nationalsozialistischer Un-
salafists resulted in violent clashes.
tergrund (NSU, National Socialist Underground) in 2011, EU 
Whereas right-wing extremist political parties are unlikely 
Member States have increased their monitoring of the right-
to orchestrate serious violent offences against Muslims, it is 
wing extremist scene. In 2012, this led to a greater number 
assessed that such events may incite certain participants to 
of law enforcement measures than in previous years.
commit criminal offences. Arson attacks targeting, for exam-
For some individuals, Breivik has become an inspirational 
ple, halal butchers and mosques have been reported by a 
figure. In 2012, a number of threats to emulate his 2011 at-
number of EU Member States.
tacks were issued over social networks or via email. In April 
In the UK, recent anti-Islamic protests have led to a rap-
2012, police arrested a suspect in Tyneside in the UK, after 
prochement between the right-wing extremist scene and 
he issued threats on a social networking site to carry out a 
the English Defence League (EDL) as well as its splinter 
bomb and firearms attack against Muslims. 
groups. This is mirrored elsewhere, with the EDL and its 
counterpart ‘defence leagues’ in other EU Member States 
Islamophobia
linking up with right-wing extremist groups. 
Several incidents in 2012 were linked to perceptions by 
In March 2012, anti-Islamic activists gathered in the Dan-
right-wing extremists that increasing immigration and the 
ish city of Aarhus in an attempt to form a European anti-Is-
alleged growth of Islam in Europe were threats to national 
lamic movement consisting of separate organisations from 
culture and values.
across the EU. This ‘European Counter-Jihad Meeting’ was 
attended by ‘defence leagues’ from countries including the 
In Germany, in 2012, a small right-wing extremist party  UK, France, Poland and the Scandinavian countries, in addi-
organised a series of demonstrations in front of differ-
tion to groups such as Stop Islamisation of Europe (SIOE). 


chapter 5 | right-wing terrorism 37
The Aarhus rally, organised by the EDL, was attended by be-
A phenomenon that has developed recently on social me-
tween 160 and 200 supporters. Another event took place 
dia is a movement, established initially in France, which 
in August 2012 in Stockholm (Sweden). Representatives of 
opposes multiculturalism and French social politics. The 
anti-immigration groups from the EU, the US and Canada 
movement uses the Lambda symbol as a logo. It has re-
participated in this so-called first ‘Annual Global Counter-
ceived significant positive feedback and to date has been 
Jihad’ rally.
replicated in Belgium, Germany and Austria. This movement 
advocates a national, racially-defined identity to counteract 
Internet
a perceived demographic imbalance caused by increasing 
immigration.
As a result of law enforcement investigations in 2012, a 
The Netherlands reported a similar development called 
number of right-wing extremist Internet forums were  ‘Zwart Front’ (Black Front). This organisation was founded in 
banned or shut down, including the most prominent Ger-
2011 but was inactive until recently. As of December 2012, 
man-language right-wing extremist forums. Since 2009,  their website demonstrated significant activity.
German police have investigated a group of 29 individu-
als suspected of administrating an international right-wing 
It is assessed that the relevance and impact of such organi-
extremist website. The suspects, aged between 22 and 64, 
sations will depend upon their ability to convert their online 
were believed to have been uploading lyrics and songs in-
propaganda and rhetoric into violent action.
citing racial hatred and violence. At the time of disruption, 
the forum contained the lyrics of more than 2 400 songs 
Weapons and ammunition
and more than 1 400 downloadable audio files. Most of this 
content was publicly available.
Investigative measures in a number of EU Member States in 
2012 confirmed that right-wing extremists have access to 
Several EU Member States emphasise that the Internet has 
significant quantities of weapons and ammunition. Weap-
also been highly significant for radicalisation, recruitment, 
ons collections, as well as National Socialism and wartime 
networking and mobilisation purposes. Poland reported  paraphernalia have been traditionally common among 
that in 2012 neo-Nazi organisations resumed activity on the 
many right-wing extremists. Although there may be no spe-
online Polish version of the ‘Redwatch’ list, which includes 
cific intent to use the weapons in attacks, their possession 
pictures, personal data and addresses of political opponents.
constitutes a potential threat.


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SIngLE-ISSuE TERRoRISm
 Increased cooperation 
between violent ARE groups and militant  
‘eco-anarchists’
 ARE groups 
make effective use of the Internet 
for harassment campaigns



chapter 6 | single issue terrorism 39
6 SIngLE-ISSuE 
TERRoRISm
In 2012, as in previous years, there were no attacks or  ARE groups, such as the Anti-Dierproeven Coalitie (ADC, 
arrests related to single-issue terrorism reported by EU 
Anti-Animal Testing Coalition), the Animal Liberation Front 
Member States.
(ALF) and SHAC, carry out legitimate protests and illegal 
direct actions and have a clandestine cell structure. They 
However, Austria, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Re-
focus their activities inter alia on hunting associations, the 
public of Ireland and the UK reported a number of inci-
fur industry, factory farming, breeding facilities and the 
dents or arrests related to animal rights extremism (ARE). In 
pharmaceutical industry. Usually, these actions range from 
July 2012, British and Dutch citizens were arrested in Am-
vandalism, the liberation of animals and public disorder, to 
sterdam on behalf of the British authorities in connection 
serious acts of destruction and include the use of impro-
with ARE. The premises raided included the office of Dutch 
vised incendiary devices (IIDs) or IEDs.
animal rights organisation Respect voor Dieren (Respect for 
Animals). Various items were seized, including component 
Transport companies and their employees, as well as inves-
parts of an improvised explosive device (IED). As part of the 
tors and shareholders of the affected companies, are some-
same operation, a member of extremist animal rights or-
times randomly selected as targets. Although EU Member 
ganisation Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) was ar-
States report a decrease in criminal activity and direct action 
rested in the UK. Judicial proceedings are underway against 
by ARE groups in 2012 compared to previous years, research 
all three individuals on suspicion of blackmailing Hunting-
companies and institutions have voiced concerns that crim-
don Life Sciences.
inal acts associated with ARE have been under-reported in 
2012. 
2012
In those EU Member States in which large-scale infrastruc-
No single-
issue terrorist 
ture construction projects, such as the building of new 
attacks or 
arrests
airports, railroads, power plants or mining are underway, 
environmental activism increased in 2012. For example, 
members of violent environmental groups were arrested for 
public order offences during protests against the building 
of a gas refinery in Mayo (Republic of Ireland).

e u r o p o l   m a k i n g   e u r o p e   s a f e r
40
eu terrorism situation and trend report
In 2012 a number of test fields with genetically modified 
Members of ARE groups make very effective use of Inter-
crops were targeted by environmental activists. In July, two 
net websites for recruitment, propaganda, and intimidation 
fields planted with genetically modified potatoes were de-
or harassment campaigns against their targets. In January 
stroyed in Lelystad (the Netherlands). The damage caused 
2012, an airline company involved in the global transporta-
is estimated at EUR 88 000. In August, two additional fields 
tion of laboratory animals suffered attacks known as ‘email 
were destroyed in Valthermond (the Netherlands) causing 
bombs’, in which an email address is bombarded with 
estimated damage of EUR 150 000.
emails of similar content in a short period of time.
In recent years, increased cooperation between violent ARE 
In the past, environmental campaigns used to focus on is-
groups, militant environmental groups and militant anar-
sues including climate change or environmental concerns 
chist groups – particularly groups that could be described 
related to power generation from fossil fuels. In 2012 a shift 
as eco-anarchists – has been observed in several EU Mem-
towards nuclear energy was reported. To date, environmen-
ber States on a national and international level. It is believed 
talist groups have, for the main part, protested lawfully or 
that the current nature of these groups attracts individuals 
through direct action. However, such protests and non-
inclined to use violence.
violent direct actions have the potential to escalate, as the 
construction of nuclear power sites progresses.
In Italy, protests by the ‘NO TAV’ movement against the 
high-speed train project in Val di Susa (Turin) increased in 
frequency in 2012. Signalling equipment on the track was 
repeatedly sabotaged by arson attacks. In July 2012, a train 
had to stop after its pantograph broke as a result of an act 
of sabotage. This action, similar to others in the past, was 
carried out using modus operandi traditionally employed 
by anarchists.


chapter 6 | single issue terrorism 41
AnnExES

42
ANNEX 1
AnnEx
oVERVIEW oF ThE FAILED, FoILED 
AnD comPLETED ATTAckS In 2012 
PER Eu mEmbER STATE AnD PER 
AFFILIATIon
1
Overview of the failed, foiled and completed attacks in 2012 per EU Member State and per affiliation14
Religiously 
Member State
inspired
Left-wing
Right-wing
Separatist
Not specified
Total 2012
Belgium
2
0
0
0
0
2
Bulgaria
0
0
1
0
1
2
France
4
0
0
121
0
125
Greece
0
1
0
0
0
1
Italy
0
10
0
0
1
11
Spain
0
7
1
46
0
54
United Kingdom
-
-
-
-
24
24
Total
6
18
2
167
26
219
In 2012, 219 terrorist attacks occurred in seven EU Member States. The majority took place in France, Spain and the UK. After a 
decrease in 2011 (174), the number of terrorist attacks in the EU rose to a similar level as in 2010. As a result of terrorist attacks, 
17 people died and 46 were injured in the EU in 2012.
•  As in previous years, the majority of the attacks (167) were claimed or attributed to separatist terrorism and took place 
in France (121) and Spain (46). After a decrease in 2011, the total number of separatist attacks in 2012 has attained the 
same level as in 2010.
•  Italy, Spain and Greece reported together 18 terrorist attacks by left-wing and anarchist groups. The number of attacks by 
anarchist or left-wing groups continues its decrease to less than 10% of the total number of attacks in 2010. Greece 
has seen a significant decrease: from 20 (2010) to 6 (2011) to 1 (2012).
•  Religiously inspired terrorists carried out six attacks on EU territory in 2012, compared to no attacks defined as terrorism in 
2011.15 Eight people lost their lives as a result of attacks related to religiously inspired terrorism.
•  An attack in Bulgaria claimed the lives of seven people in July 2012. At the time of writing the responsibility for this 
attack was not determined, although indications suggest possible links to Hezbollah.
•  Bulgaria and Spain each reported one right-wing attack.
•  No attacks related to single-issue terrorism were reported in 2012.
•  More than 40% of attacks in 2012 targeted private properties. Business targets have remained stable at 25%. The 
proportion of attacks against government facilities slightly decreased compared with 2011.
14 
In 2012, Northern Ireland experienced 24 involved attacks on national security targets. There were no other attacks on national security 
targets in the UK in 2012. Attacks on national security include  those targeting principally (but not exclusively) the security forces, those 
who support them and premises and institutions associated with policing, justice and security.
15 
The attack at Frankfurt Airport in March 2011, which killed two US military personnel, was not defined as terrorism according to 
German legislation.

ANNEX 2 43
AnnEx
ARRESTS In 2012 PER  
Eu mEmbER STATE AnD  
PER AFFILIATIon
2
Arrests in 2012 per EU Member State and per affiliation16
Religiously 
Member State
inspired
Left-wing
Right-wing
Separatist
Not specified
Total 2012
Austria
1
1
0
0
0
2
Belgium
8
0
0
0
0
8
Bulgaria
1
0
4
5
0
10
Cyprus
1
0
0
0
0
1
Denmark
2
0
0
0
3
5
Finland
2
0
0
0
0
2
France
91
0
0
95
0
186
Germany
6
0
0
2
0
8
Greece
0
1
0
2
0
3
Ireland (Republic of)
0
0
0
66
0
66
Italy
16
17
4
6
0
43
Netherlands
7
0
0
55
0
62
Poland
1
0
1
0
0
2
Romania
15
0
0
1
0
16
Slovakia
0
0
1
0
0
1
Spain
8
5
0
25
0
38
United Kingdom
-
-
-
-
84
84
Total
159
24
10
257
87
537
In 2012, 537 individuals were arrested for terrorism-related offences in 17 EU Member States. This is an increase compared 
to 2011, when 484 arrests were reported. The majority of the arrests occurred in France (186), the Republic of Ireland (66) 
and the Netherlands (62). This increase can be attributed to a higher number of arrests for religiously inspired terror-
ism. 
Compared to 2011, the number of arrests increased in Belgium, Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and especially the Netherlands.
•  Arrests related to separatist terrorism continue to represent the greatest share of arrests in the EU and remain relatively 
stable at 257, or 48%. The greatest increase was recorded in the Netherlands as a result of one raid, during which 55 per-
sons with links to the PKK were arrested. A continuous decrease is seen in Spain: from 104 (2010) to 41 (2011) to 25 (2012).
•  Arrests related to religiously inspired terrorism increased in 2012 from 122 to 159 and represent almost one third of the total 
number of arrests in the EU. The vast majority of arrested suspects were under the age of 30. Contrary to 2011, more 
than half of the arrested individuals were EU nationals. A majority were arrested for membership of a terrorist organisation. 
Other offences included, but were not limited to, recruitment (21), sending fighters (17), financing of terrorist activities (15), 
facilitation of terrorist offences (13), possession of arms and explosives (7) or a combination of these and other offences.
•  A total of 24 individuals were arrested in 2012 for left-wing and anarchist terrorism in four EU Member States: Italy, Spain, 
Greece and Austria. In Italy the number of arrests increased compared to 2011. A significant decrease was noted in Greece, 
where the number dropped from 18 arrests (2010) to 15 (2011), to 1 (2012).
•  The number of arrests related to right-wing terrorism remains low. In 2012, a total of 10 people were arrested in four EU 
Member States.
•  No arrests were reported in relation to single-issue terrorism.
•  The rise in arrests for membership of a terrorist organisation, already reported in 2011, continued in 2012.
16 
For the UK the figures represent the number of charges for 2012, to provide a more accurate comparison with the number of judicial 
arrests in the other  Member States. However, at this stage in the criminal justice process, it is not possible for the UK to assign an 
affiliation to individual cases.

44
ANNEX 3
AnnEx
conVIcTIonS AnD PEnALTIES 
(EuRojuST)
3
Number of individuals in concluded court proceedings per EU Member State in 2010, 2011 and 2012 as reported to Eurojust17
Member State
2010
2011
2012
Austria
0
0
2
Belgium
10
8
24
Czech Republic
0
0
1
Denmark
1
4
9
France
39
45
98
Germany
12
17
16
Greece
11
3
8
Ireland (Republic of)
18
11
0
Italy
22
4
14
Lithuania
0
1
0
Netherlands
8
5
1
Portugal
0
0
1
Spain
173
203
198
Sweden
4
2
3
United Kingdom
19
13
25
Total
317
316
400
•  In 2012, 149 concluded court proceedings on terrorism-related charges were reported to Eurojust by 13 EU Member 
States. This constitutes a slight decrease compared to 2011, when 153 relevant concluded court proceedings were 
reported to Eurojust.
•  In 2012, a total of 400 individuals were tried in the reported concluded court proceedings. Eighteen individuals stood trial 
in more than one proceeding, indicted for different offences.18 Furthermore, in Denmark, two legal entities faced trials on 
terrorism-related charges and were found guilty. Also in France, two legal entities were convicted of terrorist offences. As 
a result, the total number of verdicts pronounced in 2012 — towards individuals and entities — amounts to 437.
•  Out of the 400 individuals, 50 were female, which represents a slight increase in comparison with 2010 (26) and 2011 
(40). A majority of female defendants (42) were tried for separatist terrorism acts, which continues a tendency observed in 
recent years. The remaining female defendants were brought to court for left-wing (7) and religiously inspired (1) terrorist 
offences.
•  As in previous years, Spain is the Member State with the highest number of individuals in concluded court proceedings for 
terrorist offences in 2012. Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy and the UK saw an increase compared to 2011, while the 
Netherlands noted a decrease. In 2012, for the first time, the Czech Republic reported a terrorism-related court decision.
17 
The data for Belgium includes three court proceedings in which three individuals were convicted of violation of the anti-racism and/or 
anti-discrimination legislation. One of those individuals was prosecuted in two of the proceedings. The data provided by the UK covers 
England, Scotland and Wales and does not include data for Northern Ireland. The data for the UK in 2012 refers solely to convictions. At 
the time of writing, Eurojust had not received a contribution on terrorism-related court decisions in 2012 from the Republic of Ireland. 
The data for the previous years corresponds to the data reported in the respective TE-SAT reports.
18 
One of these individuals was tried in Belgium, another one in France and the remainder in Spain. The verdicts pronounced in the 
different proceedings were counted separately when analysing the number of verdicts in the figures that follow.

ANNEX  3   45
Number of reported convictions and acquittals in 2012 per EU Member State and per type of terrorism19
Religiously 
Member State
inspired
Separatist
Left-wing
Not specified
Total
Austria
2
0
0
0
2
Belgium
25
0
0
0
25
Czech Republic
1
0
0
0
1
Denmark
4
2
5
0
11
France
12
63
22
4
101
Germany
11
1
4
0
16
Greece
0
0
8
0
8
Italy
2
0
12
0
14
Netherlands
1
0
0
0
1
Portugal
0
1
0
0
1
Spain
13
208
8
0
229
Sweden
3
0
0
0
3
United Kingdom
21
3
0
1
25
Total
95
278
59
5
437
•  Similar to previous years, the majority of the reported verdicts in 2012 relates to separatist terrorism. As in the past, 
Spanish courts pronounced the highest number of verdicts in separatist terrorism cases in 2012, followed by France.
•  All court decisions reported by Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Sweden concern religiously 
inspired terrorism.
•  The majority of verdicts in relation to left-wing terrorism were rendered in France.
•  No concluded court proceedings on right-wing terrorism were reported to Eurojust in 2012.
•  Verdicts for separatist terrorist offences in 2012 carried average sentences of nine years and those for left-wing terrorism 
eight years. The average sentence for religiously inspired terrorist offences was six years. Those sentences are lower than 
the average reported in 2011 for the respective type of terrorism.
19 
The two legal entities convicted in Denmark, as well as the two convicted in France are also included in the numbers. Please see 
footnotes 17 and 18 for details.

46
ANNEX 3
Number of verdicts, convictions and acquittals per EU Member State in 2012 as reported to Eurojust20
Member State
Convicted
Acquitted
Total
Acquitted %
Austria
1
1
2
50%
Belgium
11
14
25
56%
Czech Republic
1
0
1
0%
Denmark
6
5
11
45%
France
94
7
101
7%
Germany
16
0
16
0%
Greece
8
0
8
0%
Italy
0
14
14
100%
Netherlands
1
0
1
0%
Portugal
1
0
1
0%
Spain
141
88
229
38%
Sweden
0
3
3
100%
United Kingdom20
25
0
25
0%
Total
305
132
437
30%
•  In 2012 acquittals constituted 30% of all verdicts pronounced for terrorist offences. The percentage of acquittals was 
similar to that in 2011.
•  Six of the thirteen EU Member States with reported court decisions on terrorism cases in 2012 have a full conviction rate. 
These Member States are the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal and the UK. Germany and 
the Netherlands reported no acquittals in 2010, 2011 and 2012. As in previous years, France also had mostly successful 
prosecutions.
•  The reported verdicts in relation to religiously inspired terrorism have the highest acquittal rate (35%), which differs from 
previous years, when the highest acquittal rate was registered for verdicts related to separatist terrorism verdicts. In 2012, 
32% of left-wing terrorism verdicts were acquittals, followed by separatist terrorism, with an acquittal rate of 29%.
•  The majority of the penalties imposed (52%) are of up to five years’ imprisonment. However, longer prison sentences were 
handed down in a number of cases. Penalties of ten and more years constitute 24% of all penalties rendered.
•  Of the 50 female defendants in the reported concluded court proceedings in 2012, 14 were completely acquitted and one 
was acquitted in one proceeding and convicted in another.
20 
The data for the United Kingdom in 2012 refers solely to convictions.

ANNEX  3   47
Number of final verdicts and verdicts pending judicial remedy per EU Member State in 2012 as reported to Eurojust
Member State
Final
Pending judicial remedy
Total
Austria
2
0
2
Belgium
4
21
25
Czech Republic
1
0
1
Denmark
3
8
11
France
70
31
101
Germany
10
6
16
Greece
0
8
8
Italy
12
2
14
Netherlands
0
1
1
Portugal
1
0
1
Spain
167
62
229
Sweden
3
0
3
United Kingdom
25
0
25
Total
298
139
437
•  Some verdicts pronounced in 2012 are pending judicial remedy.21 
•  Cases where no confirmation was received by Eurojust on the finality of the verdict, were considered as pending judicial 
remedy.
•  If a verdict was handed down in previous years but it became final in 2012, it was included as final in the numbers for 2012.
•  In the cases when a verdict pronounced in 2012 was appealed and the appeal was concluded before the end of the year, 
the proceeding was counted as one.
•  Verdicts from 2012, on which an appeal is pending, are included in the reporting as pending judicial remedy.
21 
According to Council Decision 2005/671/JHA, the information to be submitted to Eurojust is in relation to final convictions. Due to the 
specifics of reporting, Member States submit information on both final and not final decisions. Therefore, reference is also made to 
those decisions pending judicial remedy and they were included in the reported numbers.

48
ANNEX 4
AnnEx
mEThoDoLogy
4
The EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report  Included as ‘arrests’ are those judicial arrests warranted by a 
(TE-SAT) was established in the aftermath of the 
prosecutor or investigating judge, whereby a person is de-
11 September 2001 attacks in the United States 
tained for questioning on suspicion of committing a crimi-
of America (USA), as a reporting mechanism from the Terror-
nal offence for which detention is permitted by national law. 
ism Working Party (TWP) of the Council of the EU to the Eu-
The fact that the person may subsequently be provisionally 
ropean Parliament. The content of the TE-SAT is based on in-
released or placed under house arrest does not impact on 
formation supplied by EU Member States, some third states 
the calculation of the number of arrests.
(Colombia, Croatia, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, 
The definition of the term ‘terrorist offences’ is indicated in 
Switzerland, Turkey and the USA) and partner organisation 
Article 1 of the Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 
Eurojust, as well as information gained from open sources.
on combating terrorism (2002/475/JHA),22 which all EU 
In accordance with ENFOPOL 65 (8196/2/06), the TE-SAT is 
Member States have implemented in their national legisla-
produced annually to provide an overview of the terrorism 
tion. This Framework Decision specifies that terrorist offenc-
phenomenon in the EU, from a law enforcement perspec-
es are intentional acts which, given their nature or context, 
tive. It seeks to record basic facts and assemble figures re-
may seriously damage a country or an international organi-
garding terrorist attacks and arrests in the European Union. 
sation when committed with the aim of:
The report also aims to present trends and new develop-
•  seriously intimidating a population, or
ments from the information available to Europol.
•  unduly compelling a government or international organi-
The TE-SAT is a situation report which describes and analy-
sation to perform or abstain from performing an act, or
ses the outward manifestations of terrorism, i.e. terrorist 
attacks and activities. It does not seek to analyse the root 
•  seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental po-
causes of terrorism, neither does it attempt to assess the 
litical, constitutional, economic or social structures of a 
impact or effectiveness of counter-terrorism policies and 
country or an international organisation.
law enforcement measures taken, although it can serve to 
In cases in which the wording of Article 1 of the Framework 
illustrate some of these. The methodology for producing 
Decision leaves room for interpretation, the TE-SAT 2013 
this annual report was developed by Europol and endorsed 
respects Member States’ definitions of terrorist offences on 
by the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Council on 1 and 2 
their territories. At times, it can be difficult to assess whether 
June 2006.
a criminal event should be regarded as an act of ‘terrorism’ 
This edition of the TE-SAT has been produced by Europol 
or as an act of ‘extremism’. Contrary to terrorism, not all forms 
in consultation with the 2013 TE-SAT Advisory Board, com-
of extremism sanction the use of violence. Nevertheless, ex-
posed of representatives of the past, present, and future EU 
tremism as a phenomenon may be related to terrorism and 
Presidencies, i.e. Cyprus, Republic of Ireland and Lithuania 
exhibit similar behavioural patterns. Therefore, the TE-SAT 
(the EU ‘Troika’), along with permanent members, represent-
2013 mentions criminal acts with the potential to seriously 
atives from France and Spain, the EU Intelligence Analysis 
destabilise or destroy the fundamental political, constitu-
Centre (INTCEN), Eurojust, the office of the EU Counter Ter-
tional, economic or social structures of a country, when they 
rorism Coordinator and Europol staff.
were reported by the Member States as extremism, in an 
effort to provide a clearer picture of the phenomenon and 
For the preparation of this report, Europol collected quali-
its relation to terrorism. However, these cases were not con-
tative and quantitative data on terrorist offences in the EU 
sidered in the statistical data of this report, which exclusively 
and data on arrests of people on suspicion of involvement 
reflect incidents reported as terrorism by EU Member States.
in those offences, provided or confirmed by Member States. 
Similar data were collected, when available, of offences in 
which EU interests were affected outside of the EU. Eurojust 
contributed data on convictions and penalties for terrorist 
offences in EU Member States.
22 
Amended by the Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA 
of 28 November 2008.

ANNEX 4 49
Types of terrorism
Data collection
The TE-SAT categorises terrorist organisations by their  The EU Council Decision of 20 September 2005 (2005/671/
source of motivation. However, many groups have a mix-
JHA), on the exchange of information and cooperation con-
ture of motivating ideologies, although usually one ideol-
cerning terrorist offences, obliges Member States to col-
ogy or motivation dominates. The choice of categories used 
lect all relevant information concerning and resulting from 
in the TE-SAT reflects the current situation in the EU, as re-
criminal investigations conducted by their law enforcement 
ported by Member States. The categories are not necessar-
authorities with respect to terrorist offences, and sets out 
ily mutually exclusive.
the conditions under which this information should be sent 
to Europol. Europol processed the data and the results were 
Religiously inspired terrorism is perpetrated by individuals, 
cross-checked with the Member States. In cases of diver-
groups, networks or organisations that evoke religion to 
gences or gaps, the results were corrected, complemented, 
justify their actions. Groups inspired by or affiliated with al-
and then validated by the Member States.
Qaeda belong to this category.
Eurojust also collected data on prosecutions and convic-
Ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorist groups are moti-
tions for terrorist offences on the basis of the aforemen-
vated by nationalism, ethnicity and/or religion.
tioned EU Council Decision. The data used in this report 
Left-wing terrorist groups seek to change the entire po-
concerns relevant court decisions and legislation amend-
litical, social and economic system of a state according to 
ments in 2012. Due to the specifics of reporting, Member 
an extremist leftist model. Their ideology is often Marxist-
States submit information on both final and not final deci-
Leninist. The agenda of anarchist terrorist groups is usually 
sions. Therefore, reference is also made to those decisions 
revolutionary, anti-capitalist and anti-authoritarian. Not all 
pending judicial remedy. In case a verdict pronounced in 
Member States distinguish between activities of left-wing 
2012 was appealed and the appeal was concluded before 
and anarchist terrorist groups in their contributions. For this 
the end of the year, Eurojust counted the proceeding as 
reason, both categories are discussed in the same chapter 
one. Verdicts from 2012 on which an appeal is pending are 
of this report.
included in the reporting as pending judicial remedy. In 
case no confirmation was received by Eurojust on the final-
Right-wing terrorist groups seek to change the entire po-
ity of the verdict, it has been considered as pending judicial 
litical, social and economic system on an extremist right-
remedy. If a verdict was handed down in previous years but 
wing model. The ideological roots of European right-wing 
it became final in 2012, it has been included in the numbers 
extremism and terrorism can usually be traced back to Na-
for 2012 as final. Eurojust’s contribution was verified with 
tional Socialism.
the Member States that provided relevant data.
Single-issue terrorism is violence committed with the desire 
to change a specific policy or practice within a target soci-
ety. The term is generally used to describe animal rights and 
environmental terrorist groups.

50
ANNEX 5
AnnEx
AcRonymS  
AnD TRAnSLATIonS
5
ADC 
Anti-Dierproeven Coalitie 
MUJAO 
Mouvement pour l’Unicité et le Jihad en 
Anti-Animal Testing Coalition
Afrique de l’Ouest 
Jama’at al-tawhid wal-jihad fi gharb Ifriqiya 
ALF 
Animal Liberation Front
Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West 
AQAP 
al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula 
Africa
Tanzim qa’idat al-jihad fi jazirat al-‘arab
NSU 
Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund 
AQIM 
al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb 
National Socialist Underground
Tanzim al-qa’ida bi-bilad al-Maghrib al-Islami
ONH 
Óglaigh na h’Éireann 
ARE 
Animal rights extremism
Warriors of Ireland
CEO 
Chief Executive Officer
PKK 
Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan 
Kurdistan Workers’ Party
CIRA  
Continuity Irish Republican Army
RAAD 
Republican Action Against Drugs
DR 
Dissident Republican
RG 
Resistência Galega 
EDL 
English Defence League
Galician Resistance
ETA 
Euskadi ta Askatasuna 
RIRA 
Real Irish Republican Army
Basque Fatherland and Liberty
SHAC 
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty
EU 
European Union
SIOE 
Stop Islamisation of Europe
FAI 
Federazione Anarchica Informale 
Informal Anarchist Federation
TE-SAT 
European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend 
Report
FLNC 
Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse 
National Liberation Front of Corsica
UK 
United Kingdom
GRAPO 
Grupos Antifascistas Primero de Octubre 
Antifascist Groups First of October
HME 
Home-made explosive
HSM 
Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahidin 
Young Mujahidin Movement
IED 
Improvised explosive device
IID 
Improvised incendiary device
IMU 
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
IRA 
Irish Republican Army
KCK 
Koma Civakên Kurdistan 
Kurdistan Communities Union
LTTE 
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
MENA 
Middle East and North Africa
MNLA 
Mouvement National de Libération de l’Azawad 
National Liberation Movement of Azawad

ANNEX 6 51
AmEnDmEnTS In nATIonAL 
AnnEx
LEgISLATIon on TERRoRISm 
In 2012
6
Austria
Italy
On 1 January 2012, Articles 278f and 282a of the Austrian 
In Italy, the Law of 7 August 2012, n.133, introduced amend-
Criminal Code came into force. The articles were included 
ments in the provisions establishing the competences of 
in the Austrian Criminal Code in implementation of Council 
the General Prosecutor of the Court of Appeal of Rome 
Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 
with regard to all requests for telephone interception with 
amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combat-
a preventive purpose originating from the Information and 
ing terrorism. According to Article 278f, it is punishable to 
Security Service.
offer or provide a media publication or Internet information, 
the content of which is meant to instruct to commit ter-
rorism-related crimes, in order to provoke to commit such 
a crime. Public provocation to commit a terrorism-related 
crime, spread in a print work, via radio broadcast or any 
other media or in a public way that enables many people to 
receive it, as well as the endorsement of such crimes have 
been criminalised in Article 282a.

e u r o p o l   m a k i n g   e u r o p e   s a f e r
52
eu terrorism situation and trend report
PhOTO CREDITS
Cover
 © Shutterstock | Page 2 © Alain Christy/Europol | Page 4 © Europol | Page 5 © Anette Brolenius/
Europol | Page 6 © iStockphoto | Page 8-9 © Shutterstock | Page 10 © Shutterstock | Page 11 
© Cuerpo Nacional de Policía | Page 16-17 © Shutterstock | Page 20 © Louise Larsson/Europol | 
Page 22 © Shutterstock | Page 23 © Nicola Vigilanti/Europol | Page 24-25 © iStockphoto | Page 26 
© Garda Bomb Data Centre, Republic of Ireland | Page 28 © Europol | Page 28 © Alexey Klementiev/
Fotolia.com | Page 29 © Peter Phillips | Page 30-31 © iStockphoto | Page 33 © Roberto Ruiz, Spain | 
Page 34-35 © Shutterstock | Page 36 © Rein Pärtel/Europol | Page 37 © Shutterstock | Page 38-39 
© Shutterstock  | Page 41 © Shutterstock 
Europol would like to thank the law enforcement photographers whose photographs  
feature in this publication.
Drukkerij van Deventer
’s-Gravenzande, the Netherlands
2013 — 52 pp. — 21 × 29.7 cm
QL-AJ-13-001-EN-C
ISBN: 978-92-95078-76-5
ISSN: 1830-9712
DOI: 10.2813/11445



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