Esta es la versión HTML de un fichero adjunto a una solicitud de acceso a la información 'No Border-, Animal Rights- and Environmental Protest'.


2009
TE-SAT
EU TERRORISM SITUATION 
AND TREND REPORT






2009
TE-SAT
EU TERRORISM SITUATION 
AND TREND REPORT

TE-SAT
2009
2
TE-SAT 2009
EU TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT 
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced 
or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, taping or information storage 
and retrieval systems – without the permission of Europol.
Photos on the cover: Kristian Berlin, Sweden; Jean-François Guiot, France;
Peter Pobeska, Slovakia. Europol would like to thank the photographers 
for their consent to use the photographs in Europol publications.
Europol
Corporate Communications
Postbox 90850
2509 LW The Hague
Netherlands
Internet: www.europol.europa.eu
©  European Police Office, 2009


TE-SAT
2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3
1. Foreword by the Director 
5
2. Executive summary 
6
3. TE-SAT 2009: introduction and methodology 
8
3.1.
Types of terrorism 
9
3.2.
Data collection 
9
3.3.
TE-SAT data analysis 
10
4. General overview of the situation in the EU 2008 
11
4.1.
Terrorist attacks 
11
4.2.
Arrested suspects 
12
4.3.
Terrorist activities 
13
4.4.
Convictions and penalties 
14
5. Islamist terrorism 
17
5.1.
Terrorist attacks 
18
5.2.
Arrested suspects 
18
5.3.
Terrorist activities 
19
5.4.
Situation outside the EU 
21
6. Ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism 
25
6.1.
Terrorist attacks 
25
6.2.
Arrested suspects 
28
6.3.
Terrorist activities 
29
7. Left-wing and anarchist terrorism 
31
7.1.
Terrorist attacks 
31
7.2.
Arrested suspects and terrorist activities 
32
7.3.
Extremism 33
8. Right-wing terrorism 
35
8.1.
Extremism 35
9. Single issue terrorism 
37
9.1.
Terrorist attacks and arrested suspects 
37
9.2.
Extremism 37
10. Trends 
39
Annexes 
41


TE-SAT
2009
TABLE OF FIGURES
4
Figure 1:
Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks and number 
of arrested suspects 2006-2008
11
Figure 2:
Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks in 2008 per member state 
and per affiliation
12
Figure 3:
Number of arrested suspects in 2008 per member state and per affiliation
13
Figure 4:
Number of individuals tried in 2008  for terrorism charges per member state
14
Figure 5:
Number of verdicts for terrorism charges in 2008 per member state 
and per affiliation
15
Figure 6:
Number of verdicts, convictions and acquittals in 2008 per member state
16
Figure 7:
Average penalty per individual convicted in 2008
16
Figure 8:
Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks and number of arrested 
suspects for Islamist terrorism in member states in 2008
18
Figure 9:
Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks and number of arrested 
suspects for separatist terrorism in member states in 2008
25
Figure 10: Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks and number of arrested 
suspects for separatist terrorism in member states 2006-2008
26
Figure 11: Number of Taldes Y / SEGI attacks and ETA in Spain 2006-2008
27
Figure 12: Type of targets in attacks by Corsican and Basque separatist terrorists 
in France and Basque separatist terrorists in Spain 2006-2008
28
Figure 13: Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks and number of arrested 
suspects for left-wing and anarchist terrorism in member states in 2008
31
Figure 14: Left-wing and anarchist terrorist attacks by target 2006-2008
32


TE-SAT
2009
1. FOREWORD BY THE DIRECTOR
5
The European Union Terrorism Situation and
In the EU, groups of people of very different
Trend Report, better known as the TE-SAT, aims
orientation continue to rely on terrorism as a
to provide law enforcement officials, policymak-
tactic. But terrorist acts and activities on the ter-
ers and the general public with a fact-based
ritory of the EU can also be triggered by devel-
understanding with regard to terrorism in the
opments in other parts of the world.
European Union (EU). In addition to the presen-
tation of facts, it seeks to identify trends in the
Terrorism continues to impact on the lives of EU
development of this phenomenon.
citizens, both inside and outside of the EU. In
2008, four people, including a law enforcement
The TE-SAT is a public report produced annual-
officer, died in the EU as a result of terrorist
ly by Europol on the basis of information pro-
attacks that were carried out by ETA in Spain.
vided and verified by the competent law-
enforcement authorities in the member states
I wish to extend special thanks to the member
of the EU. In this respect, it is an awareness and
states and Eurojust for their continuing contri-
reference document for anyone interested in
butions of both quantitative and qualitative
the development of terrorism and related phe-
data, which are essential to the annual produc-
nomena in the EU. The TE-SAT reports are avail-
tion of the TE-SAT.
able on the Internet at Europol’s website
(http://www.europol.europa.eu).
Finally, I would like to thank all members of
the Advisory Board, consisting of the ‘Troika’
Terrorists aim at intimidating the people, com-
(EU Council Presidencies of France, the Czech
pelling states to comply with their demands,
Republic and Sweden), Head of Europol National
or destabilising or destroying the fundamental
Units, Eurojust and the EU Joint Situation
political, constitutional, economic or social
Centre (SitCen), who have demonstrated,
structures of a country or an organisation.
throughout the year, their support and valuable
Terrorism is the attempt to achieve political
contributions to the 2009 version of the TE-SAT
goals with the use or the threat of violence.
project.
Director of Europol


TE-SAT
2009
2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
6
The European Union Terrorism Situation and
cion of financing of Islamist terrorism were
Trend Report ( TE-SAT ) seeks to establish basic
involved in fraud. Regarding separatist and left-
facts and figures regarding terrorist attacks,
wing terrorism, the majority of individuals ar-
arrests and activities in the European Union
rested on suspicion of financing of terrorism
(EU). The TE-SAT is based mainly on information
were accused of extortion. The existence of
contributed by the EU member states resulting
alternative remittance systems greatly faci-
from criminal investigations into terrorist
litates avoiding detection when transferring
offences. It summarises the nature and volume
terrorism funds.
of terrorism and related phenomena in the EU
by presenting facts and figures on terrorist
The use of the Internet has become pivotal in all
attacks and arrests, and describing trends iden-
types of terrorism. It offers anonymity in the
tified over the period between 2006 and 2008.
exchange of information, making it easy for
these organisations to communicate and spread
To some member states the threat from Islamist
propaganda.
as well as ethno-nationalist and separatist terror-
ism remains high. However, the overall number
The number of women arrested for terrorism-
of terrorist attacks in all member states in 2008,
related offences remains low. Nevertheless,
excluding the UK,1 decreased by 24 percent in
women play an important role as associates in
comparison to 2007. For 2008 seven member
supporting terrorist organisations. The tasks
states reported a total of 515 failed, foiled or suc-
assigned to women in terrorist organisations dif-
cessfully perpetrated terrorist attacks. Thirteen
fer from those of men. Women are more involved
member states arrested a total of 1009 individu-
in propaganda, facilitation, support and financial
als for terrorism. The majority of arrests were car-
activities, whereas men are more involved in
ried out on suspicion of membership of a terror-
attack-related activities. The percentage of wo-
ist organisation. Other reasons for arrest were
men among the arrested is lowest with Islamist
attack-related offences, propaganda, financing
terrorism and highest with left-wing terrorism.
of terrorism, facilitation and training.
During 2008, 359 individuals were tried on ter-
Illegal sources for the funding of terrorism
rorism charges in the member states in a total of
appear to cover a wide range of criminal activ-
187 proceedings. Of 384 verdicts which were
ities, spanning from fraud and counterfeit to
pronounced in 2008, 50 percent were related to
burglary, kidnapping and extortion. Islamist
Islamist terrorism, and 39 percent to separatist
and non-Islamist terrorist groups use different
terrorism. The defendants were acquitted in 29
methods of financing. Islamist groups generate
percent of the verdicts. Most, if not all, convic-
more money than non-Islamist terrorist groups.
tions were related to terrorist offences that
The majority of the persons arrested on suspi-
occurred before 2008.
1
The UK data for 2006 and 2007 is not comparable to that of 2008, due to the fact that the UK could not provide
Europol with comprehensive quantitative data for the TE-SAT 2009.


TE-SAT
2009
Islamist terrorism is still perceived as being the
parable to 2006. The vast majority of these ter-
biggest threat worldwide, despite the fact that
rorist attacks were executed in France and Spain.
the EU only faced one Islamist terrorist attack in
Past contacts between ETA and the FARC illus-
2008. This bomb attack took place in the UK. The
trate the fact that also separatist terrorist organ-
number of arrests relating to Islamist terrorism
isations seek cooperation partners outside the
gives an indication of the amount of law
EU on the basis of common interests. In the UK,
enforcement activities. The number of persons
dissident Irish republican groups, principally the
associated with ‘home-grown’ Islamist terrorist
RIRA and the CIRA, and other paramilitary groups
groups is rising in the EU. The threat emanating
may continue to engage in crime and violence.
from Islamist terrorism inside the EU is linked, to
a certain extent, to the developments in conflict
The total number of left-wing terrorist attacks in
zones and politically instable countries, such as
the EU has risen in 2008. Left-wing and anarchist
7
North Africa, the Sahel region, Iraq, Somalia,
groups were responsible for 28 attacks; 58 indi-
Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, but also India.
viduals were arrested during 2008. In Greece, the
Afghanistan and Pakistan seem to have replaced
use of violence by the Epanastatikos Agonas or
Iraq as preferred destinations for volunteers
Revolutionary Struggle has escalated and has the
wishing to engage in armed conflict. EU–based
potential for further escalation.
suspects continue providing logistical support
to Islamist terrorist groups and networks based
Right-wing terrorist attacks were not reported
outside the EU.
in 2008. The majority of member states con-
2.
sider these activities as right-wing extremism.
Separatist terrorism remains the terrorism area
Several arrested right-wing extremists were
EXECUTIVE SUMMAR
which affects the EU most. This includes Basque
acting individually and were not linked to an
separatist terrorism in Spain and France, and
organisation.
Corsican separatist terrorism in France. The num-
ber of separatist terrorist attacks decreased from
Animal rights extremists dominated the illegal
532 in 2007 to 397 in 2008, a figure that is com-
activities of single issue extremism.
Y


TE-SAT
2009
3. TE-SAT 2009: INTRODUCTION 
AND METHODOLOGY
8
The EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report
Finnish and German Presidencies of the EU
(TE-SAT) was established in the aftermath of the
Council. It was endorsed by the Justice and
11 September 2001 attacks in the United States
Home Affairs Council on 1 and 2 June 2006. This
of America as a reporting mechanism from the
edition of TE-SAT has been produced by Europol
Terrorism Working Party (TWP) of the Council of
in accordance with the 2009 Advisory Board,
the EU to the European Parliament. The contents
composed of representatives of the present,
of the TE-SAT reports are based on information
past and future EU Presidencies, i.e. the Czech
supplied by the member states of the EU and
Republic, France and Sweden (the ‘Troika’), along
information drawn from open sources.
with SitCen (the EU Joint Situation Centre),2
Europol and Eurojust.
In accordance with ENFOPOL 65 (8196/2/06),
the TE-SAT is produced annually to provide an
The TE-SAT is an unclassified document and
overview of the phenomenon of terrorism in the
does not contain confidential information or
EU from a law enforcement perspective. It seeks
information that could jeopardise ongoing
to establish basic facts and figures regarding
investigations.
terrorist attacks and arrests in the EU. The report
also aims at presenting trends that can be
For the preparation of this report, Europol col-
deduced from the information available.
lected qualitative and quantitative data on ter-
rorist offences in the EU and data on arrests of
The TE-SAT is a situation report which describes
people on suspicion of involvement in those
and analyses the outward manifestations of
offences, provided or confirmed by member
terrorism, i.e. terrorist attacks and activities. It
states. Similar data were collected, when avail-
neither attempts to analyse the root causes of
able, of offences in which EU interests were
terrorism nor to assess the threat posed by ter-
affected outside of the EU. Eurojust has con-
rorism.
tributed data on convictions and penalties for
terrorist offences in EU member states.
Furthermore, the TE-SAT does not assess the
impact or effectiveness of counter-terrorism
Included as ‘arrests’ are those judicial arrests
policies and law enforcement measures taken,
warranted by a prosecutor or investigating
despite the fact that they form an important
judge, whereby a person is detained for ques-
part of the phenomenon.
tioning on suspicion of committing a criminal
offence for which detention is permitted by
The current methodology for producing the
national law. That the person may subsequently
report has been developed by Europol in 2006
be provisionally released or placed under house
in consultation with the Advisory Board, which
arrest does not impact on the calculation of the
at the time included representatives of the
number of arrests.
2
SitCen monitors and assesses events and situations worldwide with a focus on potential crisis regions, terrorism
and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.


TE-SAT
2009
What the term ‘terrorist offences’ include is indi-
although usually one ideology or motivation
cated in Article 1 of the Council Framework
dominates. The choice of categories used in the
Decision of 13 June 2002 on combating terror-
TE-SAT reflects the current situation in the EU, as
ism (2002/475/JHA), which all member states
reported by the member states. The categories
have implemented in their national legislation.3
are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
This Framework Decision specifies that terrorist
offences are intentional acts which, given their
Islamist terrorism is perpetrated by individuals,
nature or context, may seriously damage a coun-
groups, networks or organisations which evoke
try or an international organisation when com-
Islam to justify their actions.
mitted with the aim of 
Ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorist groups,

seriously intimidating a population, or
such as Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) or Basque
9
Fatherland and Liberty, seek international re-

unduly compelling a government or interna-
cognition and political self-determination. They
tional organisation to perform or abstain
are motivated by nationalism, ethnicity and/or
from performing an act, or
religion.

seriously destabilising or destroying the fun-
Left-wing terrorist groups, such as the Devrimci
damental political, constitutional, economic
Halk Kurtulus¸ Partisi / Cephesi (DHKP-C) or Revo-
or social structures of a country or an inter-
lutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front, seek to
3.
national organisation.4
change the entire political, social and economic
system of a state according to an extremist left-
INTRODUCTION AND METHODOL
In cases in which the wording of Article 1 of the
ist model. Their ideology is often Marxist-
Framework Decision leaves room for interpreta-
Leninist. The agenda of anarchist terrorist
tion, the TE-SAT 2009 respects the member
groups is usually revolutionary, anti-capitalist
states’ definitions of terrorist offences on their
and anti-authoritarian. Not all member states
territories. At times, it can be difficult to assess
distinguish between activities of left-wing and
whether a criminal event is to be regarded as an
anarchist terrorist groups in their contributions.
act of ‘terrorism’ or as an act of ‘extremism’.
For this reason, both categories are discussed in
Contrary to terrorism, not all forms of extremism
the same chapter of this report.
sanction the use of violence. Nevertheless,
extremism as a phenomenon may be related to
Right-wing terrorist groups seek to change the
terrorism and exhibit similar behavioural pat-
entire political, social and economic system on
terns. Therefore, the TE-SAT 2009 mentions
an extremist right-wing model. The ideological
criminal acts with the potential to seriously
roots of European right-wing extremism and
destabilise or destroy the fundamental political,
terrorism can usually be traced back to National
constitutional, economic or social structures of a
Socialism.
country, when they were reported by the mem-
ber states as extremism, in an effort to provide a
Single issue terrorism is violence committed
clearer picture of the phenomenon and its rela-
with the desire to change a specific policy or
tion to terrorism. However, these cases were not
practice within a target society. The term is
considered in the statistical data of this report,
generally used to describe animal rights and
which exclusively reflect incidents reported as
environmentalist terrorist groups.
terrorism by the member states.
3.2. Data collection
3.1. Types of terrorism
For the TE-SAT 2009, terrorist activities are not
The TE-SAT categorises terrorist organisations
longer part of the quantitative data collection
OGY
by their source of motivation. However, many
but have moved to the qualitative data collec-
groups have a mixture of motivating ideologies,
tion. This amendment of the methodology has
3
See annex 3.
4
See annex 2.


TE-SAT
2009
been made in consultation with the Advisory
data was also corrected and complemented
Board of the TE-SAT 2009.
and then validated. If convictions that took
place in 2008 were appealed but came to a con-
As was the case for the 2007 and 2008 editions
clusion before the end of the year, Eurojust
of the TE-SAT, the UK was not able to provide
counted the proceedings as one. The arrests
Europol with comprehensive quantitative data
and convictions may be related to terrorist
for the TE-SAT 2009. Nevertheless, as for the TE-
offences that took place before 2008 and, conse-
SAT 2007 and 2008, the total number of attacks
quently, may not be related to activities and
and arrests under the UK Terrorism Act 2000
attacks referred to in the TE-SAT 2009.
without specification of the type of terrorism
were contributed. For the TE-SAT 2009, the
Ten member states reported information on
10
arrests and attacks in Northern Ireland were
concluded trials to Eurojust: Belgium, Denmark,
contributed for the first time, which resulted in a
France, Germany, the Republic of Ireland, Italy,
higher total number of arrests and attacks in the
the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
UK than in previous years.
3.3. TE-SAT data analysis
The EU Council Decision on the exchange of infor-
mation and cooperation concerning terrorist
The TE-SAT is both a situation and a trend re-
offences of 20 September 2005 (2005/671/JHA)
port. A trend can be defined as ‘a general ten-
obliges the member states to collect all relevant
dency in the way a situation is changing or
information concerning and resulting from crimi-
developing’. The TE-SAT 2009 presents a trend
nal investigations conducted by their law enforce-
analysis regarding the period 2006 to 2008.
ment authorities with respect to terrorist offences
and sets out the conditions under which this
Although the member states continue to report
information should be sent to Europol. Europol
on terrorist attacks and arrests in a varying
processed the data and the result was cross-
degree of elaboration, it can generally be stated
checked with the member states and, in case of
that the data contributed by the member states
divergences or gaps, corrected and comple-
for 2008 was of high quality. The analysis of the
mented and then validated by the member
quantitative data, however, was impaired by
states.
the fact that the UK was not in the position to
produce statistics in similar detail as other mem-
Eurojust also collected data on the basis of the
ber states have done.
aforementioned EU Council Decision, according
to which the member states are equally obliged
Gaps in the data collected by Europol may be
to collect all relevant information concerning
due to the fact that the investigations into the
prosecutions and convictions for terrorist
terrorist attacks or activities concerned are still
offences and send it to Eurojust. Eurojust cross-
ongoing. In addition, it is a well-known fact that
checked the collected data with the member
terrorist activities are not always prosecuted as
states and, in case of divergences or gaps, this
terrorist offences.


TE-SAT
2009
4. GENERAL OVERVIEW 
OF THE SITUATION IN THE EU 2008
11
Key findings
of terrorist attacks reported by the UK included,
for the first time, terrorist attacks committed in

During 2008, 515 terrorist attacks were 
Northern Ireland. Therefore, this figure cannot be
carried out in the member states; 1009
compared to the previous years. For the rest of
individuals were arrested for terrorism-
the member states, the total number of attacks
related offences.
decreased by 24 percent from 2007 to 2008.5 The
large majority of the attacks, i.e. 90 percent or

The majority of the suspects were arrested
441 attacks, were carried out successfully. The
for membership of a terrorist organisation.
attacks were mostly arsons and bombings. Only
10 percent of the attacks were claimed, while two

Islamist and non-Islamist terrorist groups
thirds were attributed to a terrorist organisation.
use different methods of financing. Islamist
terrorist groups generate more money than
With regard to Islamist terrorism, one attack was
non-Islamist terrorist groups.
reported by the UK.

The number of women arrested for 
1200
terrorism-related offences remains low
within the EU. Nevertheless, women play an
1044
1009
1000
important role as associates in supporting
terrorist organisations.
800
706

Modern communication techniques are 
583
a facilitating factor for all types of terrorist
600
Number
515
and extremist organisations. Several 
472
terrorist and extremist organisations run
400
their own websites in different languages.
200

During 2008, 359 individuals were tried 
on terrorism charges in the member states
0
in a total of 187 proceedings. Twenty-nine 
Attacks
Arrests
percent of the verdicts were acquittals.
 2006    
 2007    
 2008
4.1. Terrorist attacks
In 2008 seven member states reported a total of
Figure 1:
Number of failed, foiled or successful
515 failed, foiled or successfully perpetrated
attacks and number of arrested suspects
attacks. For this edition of the TE-SAT, the number
2006-2008
5
If the UK data is included, the total number of terrorist attacks in the EU still decreased by 12 percent from 2007
to 2008.


TE-SAT
2009
The number of separatist terrorist attacks
4.2. Arrested suspects
decreased from 532 in 2007 to 397 in 2008, a fig-
ure that is comparable to 2006. The vast majori-
In 2008, 1009 individuals were arrested in the
ty of these terrorist attacks were committed in
member states for terrorism-related offences.
France and Spain. The overall number of report-
The number of arrests reported by the UK for
ed casualties and fatalities is limited. However,
2008 included the arrests related to terrorism in
four persons were killed in attacks by ETA in
Northern Ireland, which were not included in
2008.
previous years. For this reason, no comparison
can be made. For the rest of the member states,
Left-wing and anarchist groups were responsi-
however, the total number of arrests decreased
ble for 28 attacks; 58 individuals were arrested
by 11 percent from 2007 to 2008.7
12
during 2008. In line with their national law, a
number of member states reported activities by
An overview of all contributed attacks and
left-wing and anarchist groups as extremism
arrests for 2006, 2007 and 2008 can be found in
and not as terrorism.
annexes 4 and 5.
No attacks classified as right-wing terrorism and
The TE-SAT provides a separate overview for
no arrests for right-wing terrorist offences were
each of the different types of terrorism. In this
recorded during 2008. All activities were report-
general overview, differences or similarities of
ed as right-wing extremism.
these different types are pointed out.
France reported five single issue terrorist
The average age of the arrested suspects is 35
attacks for 2008 and three arrests related to
years.8 As in previous years, suspects arrested
these attacks. Some member states reported
for Islamist terrorism are older than those
also on single issue activities. The majority of
arrested for separatist and left-wing terrorism.
these activities were linked to animal rights
The member states reported that individuals
extremism and environmental issues.
involved in right-wing extremism are often
younger than 30.
Left 
Right 
Single 
Not 
Member State
Islamist
Separatist
Total 2008
Wing
Wing
Issue
Specified
Austria
0
5
0
0
0
1
6
France
0
137
0
0
5
5
147
Greece
0
0
13
0
0
1
14
Ireland (Republic of)
0
2
0
0
0
0
2
Italy
0
0
5
0
0
4
9
Spain
0
253
10
0
0
0
263
UK






74
Total 2008
0
397
28
0
5
11
515
Figure 2:
Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks in 2008 per member state and per affiliation6
6
The UK provided Europol with information on a total number of 74 attacks in 2008, without specification of the
type of terrorism. Unlike previous editions of the TE-SAT, this number also includes attacks carried out in Northern
Ireland.
7
If the UK arrests are included, the total number of arrests in 2008 is still 4 percent lower than in 2007.
8
This calculation is based on data of 753 arrests in the member states, with the exception of the UK data.


TE-SAT
2009
Left 
Right 
Single 
Not 
Member State
Islamist
Separatist
Total 2008
Wing
Wing
Issue
Specified
Belgium
17
1
4
0
0
0
22
Cyprus
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
Denmark
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
France
78
283
37
0
3
1
402
Germany
8
1
3
0
0
0
12
Ireland (Republic of)
3
49
0
0
0
0
52
Italy
9
35
7
0
0
2
53
Lithuania
0
2
0
0
0
0
2
13
Slovakia
1
1
0
0
0
0
2
Spain
61
129
6
0
0
1
197
Sweden
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
the Netherlands
4
0
0
0
0
0
4
UK
-
-
-
-
-
-
256
Total 2008
187
501
58
0
3
4
1009
Figure 3:
Number of arrested suspects in 2008 per member state and per affiliation9
4.
GENERAL OVER
The majority of arrests were carried out on sus-
Regarding separatist and left-wing terrorism, the
picion of membership of a terrorist organisa-
majority of individuals arrested on suspicion of
tion. The activities of which the remainder of the
financing of terrorism were accused of extortion.
suspects were accused include attack-related
offences, propaganda, financing of terrorism,
Alongside criminal activities for funding, funds
facilitation and training.
are also derived from legitimate sources. Some
charitable organisations have proven to be vul-
4.3. Terrorist activities
nerable to being misused by individuals who mis-
appropriate voluntary contributions destined for
Financing of terrorism
genuine purposes for terrorist purposes. The exis-
tence of alternative remittance systems helps
No terrorist activities can take place without the
to avoid compliance with national and interna-
VIE
availability of funds. All terrorist organisations
tional identification and notification regulations,
need to raise funds, regardless how small the
thereby allowing funds that have been generated
proceeds. Recent research at Europol, based on
to be transferred from one country, in or outside

contributions by several member states and on
the EU, to another country and from one terrorist
data contributed for previous editions of the TE-
cell to another without detection. These methods
SAT, showed that Islamist and non-Islamist ter-
are used frequently by Islamist terrorists.
rorist groups use different methods of financing
and that Islamist groups generate more money
Internet
than non-Islamist groups.
Modern communication techniques are a facili-
Illegal sources for the funding of terrorism
tating factor for all types of terrorist and extrem-
appear to cover a wide range of criminal activi-
ist organisations. High-speed Internet access,
ties, spanning from fraud and counterfeit to bur-
new and low-cost communication tools, anony-
glary, kidnapping and extortion. The majority of
mity and a low level of regulation make it easy
the persons arrested on suspicion of financing of
for these organisations to communicate and
Islamist terrorism were involved in fraud.
spread propaganda and, thus, are instrumental
9
The UK provided Europol with information on a total of 256 arrests in 2008, without specifying the affiliation
of those arrested. Unlike previous editions of the TE-SAT, this number also includes arrests carried out in Northern
Ireland.


TE-SAT
2009
for attracting sympathisers and recruiting new
pects have constituted, in average, 7 percent of
members.
Islamist terrorists arrested; 15 percent in case of
separatist terrorists; and 23 percent for left-wing
Several terrorist and extremist organisations run
terrorists.
their own websites in different languages. In
2008 the number of Islamist extremist websites
Nevertheless, women play an important role as
in western languages increased, in particular
associates in supporting terrorist organisations
websites and weblogs on which translations of
(translating texts on websites, providing their
statements by Islamist terrorist organisations
names for subscriber registration, acting as
are published. Other terrorist groups prefer to
couriers, spreading propaganda, arranging mar-
spread their statements, videos and publica-
riages of convenience, etc.). Their contribution
14
tions via password-protected or open Internet
should not be underestimated.
forums. There are indications that some terrorist
organisations, in particular Islamist terrorist
Outside the EU, with regard to Islamist terrorism,
groups, have started expanding their propagan-
the number of female suicide bombers increa-
da efforts to specific audiences, defined by lan-
sed again during 2008. Female suicide bombers
guage or ethnic affiliation, in addition to trying
are continuing to carry out attacks in Iraq and
to reach the wider general public.
increasingly in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Websites and Internet forums are often used to
4.4. Convictions and 
claim attacks. Reports and commentaries, in
written form or as audio or video speeches, are
penalties
posted on websites in a bid to counter the pre-
vailing opinions of the media coverage on
In the course of 2008, 359 individuals were
events related to terrorism.
tried on terrorism charges in the member
states in a total of 187 proceedings. Most, if not
Left-wing, anarchist, right-wing and single issue
all, convictions were related to terrorist
extremist organisations use their websites not
offences that occurred before 2008. Of the 359
only to spread their ideology and make propa-
individuals, 39 were women. The majority of
ganda but also to announce their activities
these women were tried for offences related to
(demonstrations, concerts, etc.). This information
separatist terrorism.
is generally available via a secure access for
members only.
Member State
2006
2007
2008
Several websites are hosted on servers located
Belgium
24
5
12
outside the EU. Their owners and webmasters
Denmark
0
11
16
cannot be identified easily.
France
21
54
75
Germany
16
7
10
Role of women
Greece
0
17
0
The number of women arrested for terrorism-
Ireland (Republic of)
0
6
9
related offences remains low within the EU. The
Italy
0
47
25
tasks assigned to women in terrorist organisa-
Spain
154
231
141
tions appear to differ from those of men. Women
are more involved in propaganda, facilitation,
Sweden
3
0
1
support and financial activities, whereas men
the Netherlands
20
8
12
are more involved in attack-related activities.
UK
3
33
59
Total
241
419
360
The percentage of women among the arrested
depends to a noticeable extent on the type of
Figure 4:
Number of individuals tried in 2008 
terrorism. Between 2006 and 2008, female sus-
for terrorism charges per member state10
10
One individual was tried both in Spain and Italy and has thus been counted twice in Figure 4, thereby bringing
the total for 2008 to 360.


TE-SAT
2009
In 2008 the number of individuals tried for ter-
were found guilty of having been involved in an
rorism charges increased, as compared to 2007,
Islamist terrorist recruitment ring linked to this
in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the
Belgian cell. They were sentenced to prison
Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands and in the
terms of three to six years.
Left 
Right 
Not 
Member State
Islamist
Separatist
Total 
Wing
Wing
Specified
Belgium
5
7
0
0
0
12
Denmark
10
0
0
0
7
17
France
31
44
0
0
0
75
Germany
8
2
0
0
0
10
15
Ireland (Republic of)
0
9
0
0
0
9
Italy
20
3
2
0
0
25
Spain
49
85
25
0
3
162
Sweden
1
0
0
0
0
1
the Netherlands
13
0
0
0
0
13
UK
53
5
0
2
0
60
Total
190
155
27
2
10
384
4.
Figure 5:
Number of verdicts for terrorism charges in 2008 per member state and per affiliation
GENERAL OVER
UK. Spain saw a large decrease in individuals
being prosecuted and tried.
The court proceedings resulted in 384 verdicts,
of which 50 percent were related to Islamist ter-
The data concerning 2006 were incomplete as a
rorism and 39 percent were related to separatist
result of underreporting of some member
terrorism. The number of verdicts does not cor-
states.11 Therefore, a comparison can only be
relate directly to the number of suspects tried
made between 2007 and 2008.
on terrorism charges as some suspects were
tried for more than one offence in separate
As in 2007, trials involving large groups of
court proceedings (e.g. in Denmark, the
defendants took place. This was the case in
Netherlands, Spain and the UK).
France, where in one case of separatist terrorism
VIE
18 individuals were tried. In Belgium, five mem-
In the UK, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands,
bers of a group related to the first European
the vast majority of verdicts were linked to
female suicide bomber were tried. The five men
Islamist terrorism. For France and Spain, the

were found guilty of being part of a Brussels-
majority of the verdicts were linked to separatist
based terrorist cell that provided assistance to
terrorism. The verdict in Sweden was in relation
the Belgian woman who on 9 November 2005
to a sentence imposed in 1989 for a series of
drove a vehicle-borne improvised explosive
bombings in Copenhagen and Amsterdam in
device (VBIED) into an American convoy in Iraq.
1985, transforming a life sentence into 30 years’
Their assistance had consisted in organising
imprisonment.
logistics for her travel to Iraq and bringing her
and her husband into contact with an Islamist
Of the 384 verdicts, 272 were convictions; 112 or
terrorist group connected to al-Qaeda in
29 percent were acquittals. Of the 39 women
Mesopotamia. The court sentenced the five
tried for terrorism charges, 13 or 33 percent
individuals to up to ten years’ imprisonment. On
were acquitted.
27 June 2008, the court of appeal reduced the
sentences of three of them and acquitted the
Court proceedings in relation to Islamist terror-
other two. In a related trial at the Paris magis-
ism had, as in 2007, the highest acquittal rate (34
trate’s court on 11 December 2008, four men
percent).
11
TE-SAT 2008, page 13.


TE-SAT
2009
Member State
Convicted
Acquitted
Total Verdicts
Acquitted %
Belgium
7
5
12
42
Denmark
11
6
17
35
France
74
1
75
1
Germany
10
0
10
0
Ireland (Republic of)
7
2
9
22
Italy
23
2
25
8
Spain
87
75
162
47
Sweden
1
0
1
0
16
the Netherlands
7
6
13
46
UK
45
15
60
25
Total 
272
112
384
23
Figure 6:
Number of verdicts, convictions and acquittals in 2008 per member state12
In Belgium, a trial linked to the DHKP-C is cur-
The highest sentence in France was 30 years,
rently under appeal, after the court of cassation
imposed on a separatist terrorist who attempt-
referred the case back to trial.
ed to kill a French gendarme in Lucq de Bearn
(France) on 28 November 2001.
National security authorities try to prevent and
disrupt acts of terrorism from occurring. This
Please note that aside from imprisonment,
explains the relatively high number of arrests
France often imposes a penalty of banishment
and the smaller number of persons tried for ter-
from its national territory. Also, in some cases a
rorism charges. Judicial authorities, though, have
financial penalty was imposed.
to find evidentiary support to the charges of
planning, intent or promotion of terrorism, which
Member State
2008 Average Years 
is less tangible than evidence of a successfully
Belgium
3
perpetrated terrorist attack and explains the
substantial numbers of acquittals. Often, sus-
Denmark 
5
pects arrested for terrorism-related offences are
France
7
later tried for offences other than terrorism.
Germany
9
Ireland (Republic of)
11
In the Republic of Ireland and the UK, life sen-
tences were imposed. In the UK, there was an
Italy
6
indication of a minimum term to be served,
Spain
12
amounting to 32 years in one case and ten years
Sweden
30
in another.
the Netherlands
6
The average length of sentences in Spain
UK
10
dropped to less than twelve years in 2008, com-
Figure 7:
Average penalty per individual convicted 
pared to fourteen years in 2007.
in 200813
12
Some individuals received more than one verdict in different court proceedings. In the Netherlands, one indi-
vidual was acquitted in one and convicted in another trial on different charges in 2008. In Denmark, a verdict
was issued against an organisation. For these reasons, the total number of verdicts differs from the number of
individuals in the previous figures. In Italy, the Supreme Court confirmed the conviction of one individual for his
connection to international Islamist terrorism to eight years’ imprisonment, while in Spain the Supreme Court
confirmed, in July 2008, the acquittal of the same individual for charges of involvement in the Madrid bombing.
13
For the purpose of this overview, sentences exceeding 40 years have been counted as 40 years. In one conclud-
ed trial in the UK, the pronouncement of the sentence for three convicted individuals has been postponed to
2009 and could thus not be included in the calculation.


TE-SAT
2009
5. ISLAMIST TERRORISM
17
Key findings
mosques and other public places into
private spaces. Prisons and the Internet

In 2008 one bomb attack with Islamist 
continue to be locations of concern 
terrorist background took place in the UK.
regarding this phenomenon.

Arrests made in Spain, Belgium, France 

Afghanistan and Pakistan seem to have
and other countries were related to attack 
replaced Iraq as preferred destinations 
planning activities. These plans indicate
for volunteers wishing to engage in armed
that Islamist terrorists aim at causing 
conflict.
indiscriminate mass casualties.

A number of member states judge that
In 2008 the EU was confronted with one attack
they continue to face a high-level threat
related to Islamist terrorism. A UK national deto-
from Islamist terrorism for reasons that
nated a bomb in a restaurant in the South-West
include military presence in Iraq or
of England.
Afghanistan or accusations of anti-Muslim
attitudes.
There were no further Islamist terrorist attacks
within the EU during 2008. However, there are

In 2008, 187 people were arrested on 
clear indications that a range of activities relat-
suspicion of Islamist terrorism. The majority
ed to Islamist terrorism took place during 2008.
of arrests took place in France and Spain.
This was demonstrated by several arrests relat-
Arrested suspects had a variety of 
ed to attack planning activities by law enforce-
backgrounds, including North African,
ment authorities in Spain, Belgium, France and
South Asian, Turkish and also European.
other countries.

‘Home-grown’ terrorism is a cause of 
Although the majority of EU member states
concern. A majority of the arrested 
have not been targeted by Islamist terrorists,
individuals belonged to small autonomous
some report that the perceived threat remains
cells rather than to known terrorist 
high or even estimate that the risk of an attack
organisations.
has increased for reasons that include military
presence in Afghanistan or Iraq,14 as illustrated

Islamist recruitment activities have largely
for example in Germany by threat videos explic-
been driven underground. Radicalisation
itly naming the country.15 France also considers
activities are noted to have moved from
itself a potential target of Islamist terrorist
14
Member states with a military presence in Iraq during the whole year or part of 2008 were Bulgaria, the Czech
Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and the UK. Apart from Cyprus and Malta, all EU member
states participated, with more or less troops, in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan
in 2008.
15
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Germany.



TE-SAT
2009
attacks in the light of statements by terrorist
soda, drain cleaner, kerosene and nails, went off
groups referring to the country’s military pres-
prematurely. In the event, only the attacker him-
ence in Afghanistan, but also its history as a
self was injured.18
colonial power; its support of the present
Algerian government; and its alleged hostility
The suspect was an apparently vulnerable 22-
towards Muslims following the law banning the
year-old UK national who had converted to
wearing of Muslim headscarf in schools.16
Islam. Acting alone, he was apparently ‘self-radi-
calised’ and ‘encouraged’ by literature and other
The Netherlands believe that a conceivable
material on the Internet.
threat from Islamist terrorism continues to exist
following the release of the film ‘Fitna’.17 The film,
In October 2008, the suspect pleaded guilty to
18
produced and disseminated by a Dutch politi-
attempted murder and preparing an act of ter-
cian, has been interpreted, in the context of the
rorism. In January 2009, he was jailed for life with
single narrative, as proof that the Netherlands
a recommendation that he should serve a mini-
are an active player in an unjustified global war
mum of 18 years.
on Islam. Denmark has found itself in a compara-
ble situation ever since the publication of car-
5.2. Arrested suspects
toons in a Danish newspaper depicting the
prophet Muhammad in early 2006.
Of the 1009 persons that, according to informa-
tion from the member states, were arrested in
the EU in 2008 on suspicion of involvement in
terrorism, 187 were arrested in relation to
Islamist terrorism. This is a decrease of 7 percent
as compared to 2007, following an earlier
decrease of 21 percent from 2006 (257) to 2007
(201).19 The majority of the arrests took place
again in France and Spain, with 78 and 61
arrests, respectively.
The number of member states which reported
arrests related to Islamist terrorism decreased
from 14 in 2007 to ten in 2008. These were
Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the
Republic of Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands,
Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.
As in 2006 and 2007, the majority of the arrested
suspects came from North African countries,
Figure 8:
Number of failed, foiled or successful
attacks and number of arrested suspects
most notably Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia,
for Islamist terrorism in member states 
although the share of Moroccan and Tunisian
in 2008
citizens in the numbers of arrests halved as com-
pared to 2007. Like for 2007, France reported a
5.1. Terrorist attacks
high number of arrests of French nationals in
2008. Other suspects apprehended in France in
Bomb attack in the UK
2008 originated from various EU member states
(55 percent), including Belgium, Germany, Spain
In May 2008, a bomb exploded in a restaurant
and the Netherlands, and outside the EU (37
located in a shopping mall in Exeter, South-West
percent), such as Pakistan, Afghanistan and
England. The device, which consisted of caustic
Turkey.
16
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: France.
17
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: the Netherlands.
18
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
19 
TE-SAT 2008, page 18.


TE-SAT
2009
Suspected membership of a terrorist organisa-
and 40 years of age at the time of their arrest.
tion was by far the most common reason for
People of this age group were engaged fre-
arrest in relation to Islamist terrorism. In a num-
quently in training activities and relatively often
ber of cases, it could be established or inferred
in financing of terrorism. Most of those arrested
that the suspects were members of terrorist
in relation to recruitment and propaganda were
organisations including al-Qaeda in the Islamic
of younger age.
Maghreb (AQIM) and the Islamic Movement of
Uzbekistan 
(IMU).
5.3. Terrorist activities
However, two thirds of the individuals arrested
Radicalisation and recruitment
on suspicion of involvement in Islamist terror-
ism could not be linked to terrorist organisa-
Among the large population of second gener-
19
tions known to the authorities. This could be
ation Muslim immigrants in the European
seen as an indication of the existence of individ-
Union, some individuals and groups of individ-
uals or groups unaffiliated to a terrorist organi-
uals have proven vulnerable to recruitment
sation but adhering to a common ideology of
and radicalisation. For some time, there have
global  jihad, as promoted by al-Qaeda. It also
been indications of connections between UK-
underlines the fact that al-Qaeda is evolving
based supporters of violent jihad and their
into a sort of franchise organisation, which acts
counterparts in Pakistan.23
as a point of reference for independent terrorist
5.
groups or individuals.20
Information from member states and open
sources indicates that the role of mosques in
ISLAMIST TERRORISM
Individuals were also arrested for financing of
the radicalisation and recruitment of Islamist
terrorism; the preparation of a terrorist attack or
terrorists is declining. This is due, to a large
related activities; terrorist training; recruitment
part, to the fact that Muslim communities have
and propaganda.
become more vigilant and willing to confront
extremism.24 Although some mosques contin-
Between 2005 and 2008, a number of individuals
ue to be used for radicalisation,25 Islamist ter-
arrested in France were members of networks
rorist recruitment efforts have largely been
dispatching volunteers to Iraq. Recent develop-
driven underground, with little overt propaga-
ments, however, indicate that Afghanistan is
tion and recruitment now occurring at mos-
replacing Iraq as a destination for those who
ques. The main players in Islamist terrorist
want to participate in armed conflict.21
recruitment are no longer ‘radical imams’, but
‘activists’, i.e. members of terrorist cells acting
In Spain, police arrested 14 individuals of
outside the organisational framework of
Pakistani and Indian citizenship in January 2008
mosques. Prisons and other places in which
for allegedly planning to carry out suicide bomb
individuals are likely to be vulnerable, lack ori-
attacks in Barcelona and other European cities.22
entation or experience personal crises (‘places
of vulnerability’) continue to be a cause of con-
Nearly half of the individuals arrested in 2008 for
cern.26 Sources in member states point out the
links with Islamist terrorism were between 31
risk of radicalisation in prisons.27
20
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Italy.
21
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: France.
22
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.
23
TE-SAT 2008, page 21.
24
P.R. Neumann and B. Rogers,‘Recruitment and Mobilisation for the Islamist Militant Movement in Europe’, a study
carried out by King’s College, London, for the European Commission (Directorate General Justice, Freedom and
Security), London, December 2007.
25
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.
26
Neumann and Rogers,‘Recruitment and Mobilisation’.
27
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.


TE-SAT
2009
There are marked regional differences within
ty, which still perceives them as foreigners. For
the EU with regard to radicalisation and recruit-
this group, the idea of becoming ‘citizens’ of the
ment linked to Islamist terrorism. To a number of
virtual worldwide Islamic community, removed
member states, the topic of radicalisation is of
from territory and national culture, may be
very small concern or is not an issue on their ter-
more attractive than for first generation immi-
ritories at all.28
grants.30
The Internet plays a pivotal role in recruitment
In its single narrative, al-Qaeda’s ideology links
and indoctrination. It offers the possibility to
the perceived exclusion of Muslims from society
disseminate tailor-made propaganda to restrict-
in Europe to regional conflicts worldwide, such
ed target audiences. (See also above, page 13.)
as in the Middle East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq,
20
Nevertheless, the Internet cannot fully replace
Algeria, and Somalia. Ideologues of the al-Qaeda
the personal interaction between potential
leadership and affiliated terrorist groups, such
recruits and recruiters.
as AQIM, are quick to respond to any political
and military crisis in these regions, with special
attention to the developments in the Israeli-
Propaganda
Palestinian conflict.
Terrorists can promote their agenda through
the media and, in particular, the Internet with
The UK reports that loose-knit terrorist networks
great ease. Events in areas such as the Middle
linked to al-Qaeda take their lead from the radi-
East, Pakistan and Afghanistan are exploited by
cal propaganda readily available on the Internet.
propagandists of the ideology of global jihad to
The extent to which such material may cause a
promote the single narrative of an alleged glob-
person to contemplate carrying out acts of vio-
al war on Islam. These and other factors con-
lence is rarely clear cut but has undoubtedly
tribute to the fact that an increasing number of
been a factor in some of the investigations in
people are attracted to the global message
the UK during 2008. Perhaps most notable was
articulated by actors such as the al-Qaeda lead-
the bomb attack in a restaurant in Exeter in May
ership and subsequently recruited by terrorist
(See above, page 18).31
groups. Besides this, the greater number of peo-
ple known to adhere to extremist ideas is also a
In Austria, two individuals stood trial in Vienna
result of the continuing efforts made by the
in March 2008 on charges of spreading propa-
authorities involved to better understand the
ganda messages on the Internet under the
nature of the threat in order to take effective
name of the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF).32
counter-action, thereby exposing the scale of
They were convicted, in the trial of first instance,
the problem.29
of translating into German and disseminating
propaganda of Islamist terrorist organisations,
One of the reasons for the attraction of the ide-
and publishing a video message in an attempt
ology of global jihad may be that it gives mean-
to coerce the governments of Austria and
ing to the feeling of exclusion, prevalent in par-
Germany to withdraw from Afghanistan. The
ticular among second or third generation immi-
two defendants were sentenced to imprison-
grants who no longer identify with the country
ment of four years and 22 months, respectively.
and the culture of their parents or grandpar-
At the time of writing, their appeals were still
ents, yet feel also excluded from western socie-
pending.33
28
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden.
29
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
30
Neumann and Rogers,‘Recruitment and Mobilisation’, page 28.
31
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
32
See also TE-SAT 2008, page 22.
33
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria. In the absence of final decisions, this case was not included in the
overall number of convictions (see paragraph 4.4).


TE-SAT
2009
Training
In Sweden, most resident Islamist individuals
In 2008, 15 persons were arrested in the EU for
and networks that promote violence are found
paramilitary training activities linked to Islamist
not to primarily intend to carry out attacks
terrorism. All of these arrests took place in
against the country and its interests, but rather
France in the region of Carcassonne. Three of the
to use Sweden as a base for providing logistical
arrested persons were women.
support for activities in other countries. The
same applies to individuals and groups in
The Internet is also an important tool for train-
Slovenia. Slovenia reports also that it could be
ing. Nevertheless, like in recruitment, it cannot
used as a transit area to allow terrorists to reach
replace real-life training and personal interac-
target countries. In the UK, there are — in addi-
tion with experienced fighters and activists
tion to individuals who may seek to carry out
abroad. The Internet is best viewed as a resource
attacks, whether in the UK or abroad — others
21
bank for self-radicalised and ‘home-grown’ auto-
who remain prepared to provide support to ter-
nomous cells, or in situations where real life
rorists through the provision of funds, logistical
training is considered to be problematic, rather
support and training. The kinds of training
than as a substitute for classical training in mili-
offered range from the practical skills required
tary training camps.34 As a result, recruits still
to carry out terrorist acts to the promotion of
travel to training camps as part of their radicali-
extremist material.38
sation process.35
5.4. Situation outside the EU
5.
Logistical support
In 2008 several EU nationals were killed in ter-
ISLAMIST TERRORISM
Although some member states consider the
rorist attacks or became victims of acts of
threat from Islamist terrorism as moderate to
Islamist terrorists outside the EU. Developments
low, many report on activities related to logisti-
and events in relation to terrorism in certain
cal support of Islamist terrorist groups on their
regions or countries which have impacted mem-
territory.36 Terrorist cells in Spain, e.g., facilitated
ber states or could become of relevance to the
the entry into the country of Islamist terrorists,
EU are briefly described.
either by providing them with false documents
(passports, residence permits, proof of resi-
North Africa and Sahel
dence, employment contracts) or by providing
money and safe accommodation.
After its alignment with the al-Qaeda leader-
ship, AQIM, formerly known as the Salafist Group
In Austria, several investigations were conducted
for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), perpetrated
on suspicion of financing of Islamist terrorism in
large-scale coordinated suicide attacks on
2008. Most of the cases were initiated in
Algerian and international targets in the
response to notifications from financial institutes.
Algerian capital Algiers on 11 April and 11
The investigations focused on both natural and
December 2007. In 2008 the number of suicide
legal persons. Suspects included individuals of
attacks in Algeria was even higher than in 2007.
North African origin who allegedly raised funds
The capital Algiers was spared major terrorist
for terrorist organisations via property-related
attacks.39 Some of the suicide attacks caused lar-
crime. There were indications that these people
ge numbers of casualties, such as on 19 August
were active participants in a European network.37
2008, when a suicide attacker killed 43 people
34 
Anne Stenersen, ‘The Internet: A Virtual Training Camp?’, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 20, Issue 2 (April
2008), pages 215 to 233.
35
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium, Germany.
36
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Latvia, Slovenia,
Sweden, Spain.
37
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.
38
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Slovenia, Sweden, UK.
39
However, the Algerian security forces stated that they thwarted a plot to perpetrate suicide attacks in Algiers
on the first anniversary of the 11 April 2007 attacks.‘Algeria forces kill 10 rebel bomb plotters-source’, Reuters,
16 April 2008.


TE-SAT
2009
and injured 38 in front of a paramilitary police
the country. Individuals affiliated with al-Qaeda
training school.40 The vast majority of incidents
have begun to leave for other conflict zones,
linked to AQIM in 2008 took place in the Kabylie
including Afghanistan and Pakistan.44
region east of Algiers, one of its traditional
strongholds, where the group’s central com-
Reliable figures on the total number of foreign
mand is said to be located.41
fighters who have travelled to Iraq since the US-
led invasion are unavailable. Some reports esti-
As in past years,42 AQIM continued to consider
mate that they constituted around 10 percent of
the Algerian government and all western
the forces of al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia in Iraq
nations as potential targets and threatened to
and that these 10 percent were responsible for
perpetrate more attacks on western interests. It
90 percent of the suicide bomb attacks in the
22
claimed to have expanded its activities to neigh-
country.45
bouring states in the Maghreb and the Sahel
and to have recruited members from as far
Yemen
south as Nigeria.43 In online statements and
videos, AQIM’s leader commented on the situa-
It is difficult to assess the situation and the
tion in Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia.
degree of organisation of the Yemeni branch of
Special interest was placed on Mauritania: AQIM
al-Qaeda, the establishment of which had been
claimed responsibility for a gunfire attack on the
publicised in 2007 on various Islamist websites.
Israeli Embassy in Nouakchott on 1 February
However, one of its branches, the Kata’ib Jund al-
2008 and an attack on a Mauritanian army con-
Yemen or Yemen Soldiers Brigades, has commit-
voy on 14 September 2008. In an online state-
ted a number of terrorist attacks, including sui-
ment, AQIM accused the USA, France and Israel
cide bombings, targeting foreigners and foreign
of connivance in the coup d’état in Mauritania
interests in Yemen in 2008.
and called for a jihad against the new military
government.
Among the attacks against EU interests claimed
by this group in 2008 was an attack which led to
Two Austrian tourists were kidnapped in south-
the killing of two Belgian tourists on 18 January
ern Tunisia on 22 February 2008. They were final-
2008, and one against the Italian embassy in
ly released in Mali on 31 October 2008. The kid-
Sana’a on 30 April 2008.
napping was claimed in online statements
signed in the name of AQIM. The statements
Somalia
demanded, among other things, the withdrawal
of Austrian soldiers from Afghanistan and the
A number of Islamist militant groups in Somalia
release of two alleged members of the GIMF
continued to fight the Somali transitional gov-
sentenced in Austria for publishing threat
ernment and Ethiopian troops in Somalia,
videos against Germany and Austria.
before the latter withdrew from the country in
January 2009.
Iraq
Terrorist attacks, carried out by means of
There are indications that the influence of al-
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and sui-
Qaeda in Mesopotamia, now forming part of the
cide attacks, have been committed in the coun-
Islamic State of Iraq, has diminished in Iraq and
try. Some attacks targeted African Union
that some of the foreign fighters have now left
peacekeepers. A roadside bomb killed three aid
40
‘Bombing kills dozens in Algeria’, BBC News, 19 August 2008.
41
Hanna Rogan,‘Violent Trends in Algeria Since 9/11’, CTC Sentinel, Vol. 1, No. 12 (November 2008), pages 16 to 19.
42
TE-SAT 2008, page 24.
43
‘An Interview With Abdelmalek Droukdal’, New York Times, 1 July 2008.
44
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: France.
45
‘Foreign fighters leaving Iraq, military says’, USA Today, 31 March 2008.


TE-SAT
2009
workers including a French member of
to deter foreign aid and deteriorate the situation
Médecins sans frontières in January 2008.46
of the Afghan people in a bid to further under-
Several aid workers and journalists have also
mine the position of the Afghan government.
been kidnapped in Somalia.
Pakistan
The fighting in Somalia has seen the emergence
of a group called Harakat al-Shabab al-
Together with Afghanistan, Pakistan remains the
Mujahidin or Mujahideen Youth Movement, which
central front in the fight against the al-Qaeda
promotes martyrdom operations and, further-
leadership and movements affiliated to its ideol-
more, publicises its activities in a manner com-
ogy such as the TalibanLashkar-e-Taiba or the
parable to al-Qaeda and its affiliates.
Islamic Jihad Union (IJU). There is strong suspi-
cion that at least part of the al-Qaeda leadership
23
In 2007 credible evidence indicated that non-
is located in the Pakistan tribal areas and
Somali fighters were active in the country
attracts new contingents of foreign volunteers,
alongside the Somali Islamist groups and also
including some from the EU member states, to
providing training in tactics and propaganda.47
the region.
Reports indicate that the Pakistani Terhik-e-
Afghanistan
Taliban movement is in full control of the tribal
In 2008 the Taliban were responsible for a num-
areas and has gained ground in the North-West
5.
ber of attacks in Afghanistan, including attacks
Frontier Province. A Polish engineer was kid-
on high-profile targets such as the Serena hotel
napped in a tribal area in September 2008.48
ISLAMIST TERRORISM
on 14 January and a suicide attack on the Indian
Most of the suicide attacks reported in Pakistan
embassy in Kabul, as well as an attempt on the
in 2008 took place in the North-West Frontier
life of President Karzai at a ceremony taking
Province.
place outside Kabul.
The suicide attack against the Marriott hotel in
No reliable statistics regarding the number of
Islamabad on 20 September 2008 could be seen
suicide attacks in Afghanistan are available for
as a major blow for the Pakistani authorities. This
2008. However, the number of suicide attacks
hotel had previously been targeted by a suicide
committed in 2006 an 2007 appears to range
attack and no specific additional security meas-
between 135 and 145. This modus operandi is
ures appear to have been put into place by the
still employed by terrorists in Afghanistan and
time of the second attack, which killed 60 peo-
leads to large numbers of civilian casualties.
ple including five foreigners, among them the
Czech ambassador to Pakistan.
A number of these attacks appear to have been
committed by foreign fighters including at least
Other attacks directly targeted western citizens:
one by a German citizen.
on 15 March a bomb detonated at a popular
restaurant in Islamabad and, on 2 June, the
Furthermore, during 2008, the Taliban were
Danish embassy became the target of a VBIED.
responsible for the deliberate killing of a num-
The latter was claimed by the ‘central command’
ber of aid workers, including a British Christian
of al-Qaeda.
woman, who was accused by the Taliban of pros-
elytising, and three female International Rescue
India
Committee (IRC) employees, who were labelled
as spies.
Between May and October 2008, India experi-
enced a number of terrorist attacks, such as the
The killing of at least 19 aid workers in 2008
series of bombs detonated in Jaipur, Bangalore,
appears to be a deliberate policy of the Taliban
Ahmadabad, Delhi, Gujarat, Agarta Imphal and
46
‘Aid staff withdrawn from Somalia’, BBC News, 1 February 2008.
47
See also TE-SAT 2008, pages 25 to 26.
48
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Poland.


TE-SAT
2009
Assam. Not all of these attacks were committed
result of a great number of victims, including cit-
by Islamist terrorist groups.
izens of western states.
A series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai from
The attack against these two hotels follows on
26 to 29 November killed 174 people.49 The tar-
from the assault on the Serena hotel in Kabul on
gets included two iconic hotels of the Indian
14 January 2008 and from the two suicide
financial capital, namely the Taj Mahal and the
attacks against the Marriott hotel in Islamabad
Oberoi Trident. The attacks, which were attrib-
on 26 January 2007 and 20 September 2008. The
uted to the Pakistani terrorist group Lashkar-e-
apparently thorough planning of the Mumbai
Taiba, aimed at causing a maximum of casualties
attacks indicates that the attackers could rely on
in the ‘soft targets’ chosen. Part of the plan was
experiences of previous attacks and adapted
24
apparently to attract large media coverage as a
their operation accordingly.50
49
‘Death toll in Mumbai attacks revised down to 174’, The Guardian (UK), 30 November 2008.
50
Europol research shows that, outside the EU, four, ten and eleven terrorist attacks against hotels were carried out
in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively, with total numbers of fatalities of five, 36 and 109. These figures exclude the
Mumbai attacks in November 2008. Both in 2006 and 2008, one attack per year against hotels was carried out in
the EU without causing fatalities. No terrorist attacks against hotels were carried out in the EU in 2007.



TE-SAT
2009
6. ETHNO-NATIONALIST 
AND SEPARATIST TERRORISM
25
Key findings
6.1. Terrorist attacks

Separatist terrorism remains the area of
In 2008, 397 terrorist attacks were claimed or
terrorism which affects the EU most. Four
attributed to separatist terrorist organisations.
persons died in attacks committed by ETA
Of these attacks, 98 percent took place in France
in 2008.
and Spain.

A total of 397 separatist terrorist attacks
The number of separatist terrorist attacks in
were perpetrated; 501 suspects were
2008 is comparable to that of 2006, but
arrested. The number of attacks decreased
decreased by 25 percent in comparison to 2007.
in 2008 by 25 percent in comparison to
This is mainly due to the fact that, in 2008,
2007, thereby reaching the level of 2006.
France experienced 46 percent less attacks than
in 2007. Also in Spain the number of separatist

The majority of arrests related to separatist
terrorist attacks decreased by 4 percent in com-
terrorism occurred in France and Spain.
parison to 2007. Of the total number of attacks,
Significant arrests in these countries led to
91 percent were carried out successfully.
the dismantling of several ETA cells when
some top leaders were arrested.

Youth organisations linked to ETA continue
to be responsible for the vast majority of
the Basque separatist terrorist attacks in
Spain.

Target selection remains dependent on 
the political goals of the groups concerned.
As in previous years, Corsican separatist
terrorist groups mainly targeted private
property or individuals, while Basque 
separatist terrorist groups mainly carried
out attacks against business and govern-
mental targets.

The activities of separatist movements 
outside the EU have an impact on the 
Figure 9:
Number of failed, foiled or successful 
security situation inside the EU.
attacks and number of arrested suspects
for separatist terrorism in member states 
in 2008


TE-SAT
2009
Country and Navarre as well as the French
600
Basque Country.
548
532
501
ETA had declared a ceasefire which lasted from
500
March 2006 to June 2007. After the ending of
420
397
the ceasefire, ETA has resumed its attacks. In
400
2008 ETA carried out 35 attacks, spread almost
evenly over the period of February to December
300
2008. The majority of the attacks by ETA cells
Number
226
took place either in the autonomous region of
200
the Basque Country or in neighbouring Spanish
26
provinces.
100
The  modus operandi used by ETA to commit
0
attacks involved the use of explosives: IEDs,
Attacks
Arrests
followed by VBIEDs. The decreasing trend in the
use of commercial explosives in ETA attacks that
 2006    
 2007    
 2008
started in 2007 continued in 2008: more IEDs
containing home-made explosives were used.
This may indicate that ETA is encountering
increasing difficulties in the acquisition of com-
Figure 10: Number of failed, foiled or successful
attacks and number of arrested suspects
mercial explosives.52
for separatist terrorism in member states
2006-2008
The majority of terrorist acts perpetrated by
Basque separatist terrorists in Spain are so-
As in previous years, the number of casualties
called Taldes Y attacks, which are committed by
and fatalities caused by separatist terrorist
a network of individuals with links to ETA’s
attacks remained limited. However, Spanish law
youth organisation SEGI.53 In 2008, 211 Taldes Y
enforcement officials and some groups of busi-
attacks were committed. ETA encourages its
nesspeople remained an explicit target of
supporters to engage in street fights against
Basque separatist terrorism. In 2008 four per-
anyone voicing criticism of ETA. These fights
sons died in four separate attacks carried out by
took the form of attacks against buildings of
Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque for ‘Basque
government agencies, law enforcement and
Homeland and Freedom’): a Guardia Civil agent,
political parties, bank offices, public transport
a warrant officer of the army, a politician and a
systems, or businesses related to the high-
businessman.
speed train under construction.
The businessman assassinated by ETA was the
Of the Taldes Y attacks in 2008, 43 percent were
owner of a company working on a high-speed
committed in the first two months of the year.
train route between the autonomous region of
The high frequency of attacks in this period of
the Basque Country and Madrid. ETA has threat-
time seems to be a response to the banning of
ened many companies and their workers
the political party Acción Nacionalista Vasca
involved in this train project, which it considers
(ANV), the successor organisation of the previ-
has been imposed on the Basque Country by
ously declared illegal Batasuna.
the Spanish and French governments.51 ETA’s
goals are centred on the sovereignty and self-
The modus operandi of Taldes Y attacks remained
determination of Euskal Herria, which comprises
unchanged in 2008. Mainly incendiary devices
the Spanish autonomous regions of the Basque
or flammable liquids were used.
51
‘ETA asesina a tiros en Azpeitia a un empresario vinculado con la “Y vasca”’, El Mundo, 3 December 2008.
52
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.
53
TE-SAT 2008, page 28.


TE-SAT
2009
60
47
50
45
40
36
35
31
Ceasefire
End of Ceasefire
24/03/2006
06/06/2007
30
30
28
28
20
23
27
25
24
18
Number
22
21
17
20
19
16
18
15
16
10
15
13
15
14
11
12
13
11
8
10
10
7
3
8
7
7
1
5
6.
5
5
5
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
AND SEP
ETHNO-NA
0
Jan
Mar
May
July
Sept
Nov
Jan
Mar
May
July
Sept
Nov
Jan
Mar
May
July
Sept
Nov
Month Year
2006
2007
2008
 Taldes Y / SEGI
 ETA
ARA
Figure 11: Number of Taldes Y / SEGI attacks and ETA in Spain 2006-2008
TIONALIST 
TIST 
The terrorist group Resistência Galega, which
decrease in the attacks against private property
operates in the Spanish autonomous region of
and individuals in France,55 these continue to be
Galicia, carried out seven attacks. These had lim-
the main targets of Corsican separatist terrorist
ited effects and caused only small-scale proper-
groups. Basque separatist terrorist groups in
TERRORISM
ty damage.54
Spain and France focused mainly on attacks
against business and governmental targets in
In France, 123 attacks were carried out by
2008.56
Corsican separatist groups, one third of which
were claimed under the umbrella of the Front de
Corsican separatist terrorist groups mainly
Libération Nationale de la Corse (FLNC). Basque
attack property of people considered non-
separatist groups carried out 14 attacks.
Corsicans. A high number of targets of Corsican
separatist terrorist groups are holiday apart-
As in the previous years, Basque and Corsican
ments and houses. In addition, cars of non-
separatist groups carried out attacks against dif-
Corsican residents and real estate agencies
ferent types of targets. Although there is a
renting holiday houses were attacked.
54
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.
55
Private property includes holiday apartments and cars.
56
Governmental targets in Spain include government offices, court houses, and political parties. Business targets in
Spain include ATMs, bank branches, real estate agencies. Business targets in France include real estate agencies
and the tourist sector. Critical infrastructure in Spain includes highways and railways.


TE-SAT
2009
100
4
6
13
14
17
4
90
12
4
7
2
5
80
48
55
70
60
33
43
62
48
35
35
Corsican separatist terrorism
Basque separatist terrorism
Basque separatist terrorism
60
France
France
Spain
ntage
50
r
c
e
13
28
e
P
23
40
16
30
20
26
46
44
41
20
36
38
29
29
10
20
12
0
2006
2007
2008
2006
2007
2008
2006
2007
2008
Year
 
 Not Specified
 
 Critical Infrastructure
 
 Private Property/Individuals
 
 Government
 
 Business
Figure 12: Type of targets in attacks by Corsican and Basque separatist terrorists in France and Basque separatist
terrorists in Spain 2006-2008
Although the Irish National Liberation Army
6.2. Arrested suspects
(INLA) has declared a cease-fire in 1998, two sep-
aratist terrorist attacks targeting private proper-
In 2008 a total of 501 persons were arrested in
ty took place in the Republic of Ireland and were
eight member states for offences related to sep-
attributed to the INLA in 2008. The increase in
aratist terrorism. The majority of the individuals
terrorist activities in the Republic of Ireland is
were arrested in France and Spain. During the
reflected in the number of persons arrested and
last months of 2008, several ETA cells were dis-
charged with unlawful membership of the
mantled and some top leaders were arrested in
organisation and other related offences during
France and Spain. This will probably impact on
2008.57
ETA’s capabilities in 2009.
In Austria, three failed and two successful arson
In Spain, 40 percent of the arrested were
attacks were reported for 2008. All of the attacks
accused of attack-related offences, 22 percent
were attributed to PKK/KONGRA-GEL.58 At least
for facilitation.59 During 2008, several operations
two of the attacks targeted directly Turkish
against Taldes Y / SEGI resulted in the arrest of 67
interests.
suspects in the autonomous regions of the
57
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Republic of Ireland.
58
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.
59
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.


TE-SAT
2009
Basque Country and Navarre. In addition, a num-
6.3. Terrorist activities
ber of other suspects were arrested in the
ETA
process of committing the attacks.60
Inside the EU, France remains ETA’s main fallback
In France, 64 percent of the suspects were
base, from which the group continually impro-
arrested for Corsican and 34 percent for Basque
ves its logistical means and where its reserve
separatist terrorist offences. Of the individuals
activists are hosted and trained militarily.67
arrested for Corsican separatist terrorism, 62
percent were suspected of attack-related
Overall, the influence of Spanish Basque sepa-
offences. Almost half of the Basque separatist
ratist terrorism outside the EU is marginal.
terrorist suspects in France were arrested for
However, past contacts between ETA and the
financing of terrorism.
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Colombianas
29
(FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of
In 2008 German authorities arrested a number
Colombia came to light during 2008.68 The FARC
of presumed PKK/KONGRA-GEL members,
may have entertained these contacts for strate-
including several leaders, such as area chiefs.
gic reasons, aiming at benefitting from ETA’s
Only one person was arrested for terrorism-
experience and expertise in urban terrorism to
related offences. In October 2008, a 40-year-old
increase their own capabilities in this field.
Turk of Kurdish background was arrested. The
individual arrested was accused of having led
The UK extradited three ETA members to Spain.
6.
what was then the PKK/KONGRA-GEL region
Canadian authorities extradited one ETA mem-
South in Germany during the period of January
ber to Spain and deported another.
AND SEP
ETHNO-NA
1993 until at least 1994.61
Corsica
In March 2008, Italian authorities arrested a cash
courier of the PKK/KONGRA-GEL.62 In Slovakia,
In France, the death of four activists of the clan-
one individual was arrested on suspicion of sup-
destine scene in 2006 and 2007 and a number of
porting the PKK/KONGRA-GEL.63
arrests led to the emergence of a group calling
itself ‘FLNC 1976’. It called upon the ‘combatants’
ARA
In the Republic of Ireland, 49 persons were arres-
of the two main terrorist separatist groups, the
TIONALIST 
ted for offences related to separatist terrorism.
Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse – Union
The majority of them, 28, were members of the
des Combattants (FLNC-UDC) and the Front de
TIST 
INLA, while nine were members of the Real Irish
Libération Nationale de la Corse du 22 Octobre
Republican Army (RIRA) and four were linked to
(FLNC-22 Octobre), to unite on the basis of the
the  Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA).64
programme of the original FLNC.
TERRORISM
As in previous years, a number of suspected
Northern Ireland
members of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) were arrested in the EU for offences
Although the terrorist threat related to Northern
linked to financing of terrorism. In Italy, 34 LTTE
Ireland has diminished in recent years, with the
members were arrested. Of these, 33 were sus-
Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) and the
pected of extortion and transferring money to
main loyalist groups ceasing their terrorist cam-
Sri Lanka.65 In France, two individuals were
paigns and engaging in peaceful political
arrested for similar offences.66
process, dissident Irish republican groups,
60
Crónica: Boletín de documentación y actualidad, no 1404 (Bilbao: Vasco Press, 12 January 2009).
61
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Germany.
62
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Italy.
63
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Slovakia.
64
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Republic of Ireland.
65
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Italy.
66
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: France.
67
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain, France.
68
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Colombia.


TE-SAT
2009
principally the RIRA and the CIRA, and other
Against this background, demonstrations with
paramilitary groups continue to engage in
Kurdish participants were held in several mem-
crime and violence, including shootings and the
ber states. During the demonstrations, pre-
use of IEDs. Incidents have included the placing
sumed PKK/KONGRA-GEL members or sympa-
of incendiary devices in commercial premises,
thisers committed sporadic criminal or terrorist
attempted attacks against infrastructure, such
offences, such as incendiary attacks, arson, and
as roads and railways, and attacks targeting the
assault and property damage. These actions
police, including an IED attack against an off-
mainly targeted Turkish organisations.72 Consi-
duty police officer, which resulted in serious
dering the timing of the demonstrations, it can
injury.69 It can be expected that these terrorist
be assumed that these were centrally organised
activities may continue in the future.
by the PKK/KONGRA-GEL.
30
PKK/KONGRA-GEL
LTTE
In Turkey, the armed wing of the PKK/KONGRA-
The LTTE aims to create an independent state
GEL, named the People's Defence Forces, has
for the Tamils, referred to as Tamil Eelam, in the
been fighting for an independent Kurdistan or,
northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. The
at the very least, for cultural and political auton-
fight between the Singhalese-dominated gov-
omy of the Kurdish people in south-eastern
ernment and the resistance movement of the
Turkey. Developments in this region have a di-
Tamil minority in Sri Lanka has been raging
rect impact on the level of security in Europe.70
since 1983. A cease-fire was observed between
February 2002 and January 2008,73 when the Sri
With relatively large communities of Kurds in
Lankan government started to advance into the
some member states, the PKK/KONGRA-GEL is
areas controlled by the LTTE.74
able to organise propaganda activities, such as
demonstrations, marches, culture festivals and
The LTTE controls a global network of Tamils and
various campaigns, in an attempt to attract new
associations with structures dedicated to
supporters in Europe.
fundraising, procurement and propaganda firm-
ly established in Europe. The LTTE has built effi-
In mid-October 2008, the lawyers of the
cient mechanisms to exercise strong control
PKK/KONGRA-GEL founder imprisoned in Turkey
over Tamil communities in the EU and other
declared that their client had been physically mis-
parts of the world.75 One of the core activities of
treated by the prison personnel. Subsequent to
the LTTE in the EU is the collection of funds from
publications by Kurdish media on the torture ac-
Tamil communities on a monthly basis to
cusations, the political-propagandistic wing of the
finance military procurement.76 The LTTE has
PKK/KONGRA-GEL appealed to the Kurds in Eu-
been on the EU list of terrorist organisations
rope to organise ‘democratic’ protest meetings.71
since 2006.77
69
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
70
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.
71
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Germany, Finland, Austria.
72
For the time being, the attacks committed by PKK/KONGRA-GEL in Germany are of minor significance.
Therefore, they are not counted as terrorist attacks, although they are considered as politically motivated.
Austria reported five attacks by PKK/KONGRA-GEL as terrorist offences. TE-SAT data is based on the member
states’ definitions of terrorism.
73
The Sri Lankan government called off the cease-fire on 16 January 2008. On 2 January 2009, the Sri Lankan army
entered the LTTE’s ‘capital’ Killinochchi.
74
‘Sri Lanka navy claims last rebel ship sunk’, www.channelnewsasia.com, 7 October 2007.
75
Human Rights Watch, ‘Funding the “Final War”: LTTE Intimidation and Extortion in the Tamil Diaspora’, Vol. 18,
No. 1(C), 14 March 2006.
76
‘Feeding the Tiger: how Sri Lankan insurgents fund their war’, Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 August 2007.
77
EU Council Common Position 2006/380/CFSP of 29 May 2006.



TE-SAT
2009
7. LEFT-WING AND 
ANARCHIST TERRORISM
31
Key findings

Three member states reported a total
number of 28 left-wing terrorist attacks
for 2008. These took place in Greece,
Spain and Italy.

The majority of left-wing and anarchist 
terrorist attacks targeted business and 
governmental targets.

Most attacks were carried out by IEDs.
Arson accounted for one third of the
reported incidents.

In 2008, 58 individuals were arrested for
left-wing terrorism. Nearly half were 
members of the DHKP-C, arrested in France,
Figure 13: Number of failed, foiled or successful
Germany and Cyprus.
attacks and number of arrested suspects
for left-wing and anarchist terrorism in

GRAPO is assessed to be no longer 
member states in 2008
operational.

Left-wing and anarchist groups have 
out successfully but caused only property dam-
established links across Europe. Most of
age. No injuries or fatalities were reported.
their actions reflect a common agenda.
The majority of left-wing and anarchist terrorist
attacks in 2008 were carried out using an IED.
Arson attacks represented 32 percent of the
7.1. Terrorist attacks
total number of attacks as compared to 55 per-
In 2008 Greece, Spain and Italy reported a total
cent in 2007. In Greece and Italy most of the
of 28 attacks carried out by left-wing and anar-
attacks were bombings. The majority of the
chist groups. This constitutes an increase of 25
arson attacks took place in Spain. The choice of
percent as compared to 2007. In 2006, however,
targets remains unchanged: business and gov-
the number of attacks had reached a similar
ernment interests were the main targets in both
level. The majority of these attacks were carried
2007 and 2008.78
78
Governmental targets include government offices, police offices, and buildings of international institu-
tions. Business targets include ATMs, bank branches, private and commercial companies (oil companies, car
dealers, etc.).


TE-SAT
2009
100
90
80
70
60
57
53
50
ntage
50
32
r
c
e
e
45
P
43
40
39
30
20
10
5
4
4
0
Private property/ Individuals
Government
Business
Target
 2006    
 2007    
 2008
Figure 14: Left-wing and anarchist terrorist attacks by target 2006-2008
Greece reported a total of 13 left-wing and anar-
reported as ‘not specified’ and is categorised as
chist attacks in 2008.
such in the general overview. However, the
attack is now attributed to the left-wing organi-
The terrorist group Epanastatikos Agonas or
sation Laiki Thelisi or People’s Will. 79
Revolutionary Struggle remained active in 2008
and claimed three attacks targeting a police sta-
In Spain all ten attacks in 2008 are attributed to
tion in April, an international oil company in
anarchist groups. The majority took place in
October and a police bus carrying 19 officers in
Barcelona and targeted business interests. Six
December. The use of firearms during attacks
attacks were successfully carried out, albeit with
against police targets raises concern that violent
limited repercussions.
acts by the Epanastatikos Agonas could further
escalate.
Italy reported five successful attacks in 2008.
Four attacks were directed against banks and
The group Synomosia Pyrinon Fotias Athina-
car dealerships; one targeted a police station.
Thessaloniki or  Cells of Fire Conspiracy of
Thessalonica and Athens 
claimed seven attacks
7.2. Arrested suspects and
in 2008. Main targets were police and the mili-
terrorist activities
tary but also a vehicle of the Italian embassy in
Athens. One attack on 25 June 2008 in Greece
A total of 58 persons were arrested in 2008 for
targeting a building housing the offices of sev-
left-wing and anarchist terrorism in six member
eral international companies was originally
states: France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Germany and
79
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Greece.


TE-SAT
2009
Cyprus. With 48 arrests in 2007, this is an
In 2008 suspected members of the DHKP-C were
increase of 21 percent.
arrested in France, Germany and Cyprus. In
October, the French wing of the organisation
The majority of the arrested were suspected of
was dismantled with the arrest of six persons
membership of a terrorist organisation. Another
accused of financing terrorist activities in
20 people were arrested, in France and Italy,
Turkey. The DHKP-C continues to maintain
for attack-related offences. Furthermore, eight
organisational structures in Germany, which it
arrests for financing of terrorism — all linked to
uses mainly for purposes of logistics and propa-
the Turkish left-wing party Devrimci Halk
ganda. During 2008, three presumed leaders of
Kurtulus¸ Partisi / Cephesi (DHKP-C) or Revolutio-
the DHKP-C in Europe were arrested in Germany.
nary People’s Liberation Party/Front — were
No violent acts which could be attributed to the
reported by France and Germany. Spain repor-
group have been noticed in Germany since
33
ted five arrests for, among other charges, pro-
1999.83
paganda.
One Turkish citizen linked to the DHKP-C was
As a result of an Italian investigation into the
found in possession of false documents and
activities of the terrorist organisation Partito
arrested at Larnaca airport in Cyprus.
Comunista Politico-Militare (PCP-M), four mem-
bers of the Belgian branch of Secours Rouge
In November 2008, after a lengthy investiga-
International
(Secours Rouge/APAPC) were
tion, French authorities arrested ten persons
7.
arrested in Belgium. Amongst those four per-
suspected of a series of attacks on the high-
sons was a former member of the Cellules
speed rail network. They were suspected of
ANARCHIST TERRORISM
LEFT-WING AND 
Communistes Combattantes (CCC), a left-wing
being involved in sabotaging the overhead
terrorist group active in Belgium in the mid-
power cables and the ensuing disruption of rail
1980s.80
traffic in France.
In Spain, the decrease from 17 arrests for left-
7.3. Extremism
wing and anarchist terrorism in 2007 to six in
2008 can be attributed to the dismantling, in
Belgium reported an increase in actions by anar-
recent years, of the Spanish terrorist organisa-
chist groups, mainly in the cities of Brussels and
tion  Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero
Ghent. Furthermore, it appears that actions by
de Octubre (GRAPO). In January 2008, five
these groups became more radical in 2008.
GRAPO members were arrested on suspicion of
Anarchists are reported to have made increas-
propaganda, financing, recruitment and train-
ing use of Molotov cocktails. There are estab-
ing activities for the group. No activities by
lished links with French, Greek and Italian anar-
GRAPO have come to notice in 2008. It is
chists, as demonstrated by a case in which a
assessed that currently only a few militants are
Greek citizen, driving a car registered in France
still at large.81
with Belgian, Greek and Italian persons on
board, was caught when he painted graffiti on
Italian authorities see a continued threat posed
the walls of the Brussels courthouse.84
by left-wing terrorist groups after the disman-
tling of the PCP-M in 2007. Although no attacks
Activities of particular groups within the anar-
were attributed to the Federazione Anarchica
chist movement are inspired by particular
Informale (FAI) in 2008, a number of investiga-
themes, such as anti-militarism, support for
tions confirmed the vitality of the anarchist
‘political prisoners’, immigration and environ-
insurrectionist movement in Italy.82
mentalism, which are part of the traditional
80
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium.
81
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Spain.
82
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Italy.
83
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Germany.
84
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium.


TE-SAT
2009
campaign topics of the international anarchist
was shot and killed during a police intervention.
scene.85
Initially, anarchists mixed with the protesters
with the aim of causing riots targeting police
The UK reported a noticeable increase in protest
stations, public buildings and shops. A number
and street activity by extreme right-wing
of solidarity demonstrations, some resulting in
groups. This was accompanied by an increase in
violent public disorder, took place in Italy and
counter-protests on these occasions by greater
Spain.
numbers of violent ANTIFA or anti-fascist ele-
ments. (See also right-wing terrorism.)
Austria reports a noticeable decrease in the
level of activities by left-wing groups as a result
In December 2008, a series of demonstrations
of reduced public interest in the Iraq crisis in
34
took place in Greece after a 15-year-old student
2008.86
85
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium, Czech Republic, Italy, UK.
86
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.


TE-SAT
2009
8. RIGHT-WING TERRORISM
35
EU countries. The member states which report-
Key findings
ed on right-wing extremists notice that these

The member states did not report any
groups and individuals maintain contacts with
right-wing terrorist attacks or arrests 
like-minded people in other countries.87
related to right-wing terrorism for 2008.
All right-wing activities were reported as
In the UK, several individuals were arrested for
extremism.
right-wing extremism. All of these were acting
alone without direction from any known

Extreme right-wing activities became 
extreme right-wing group. The extreme right-
evident in concerts, demonstrations and
wing movement in the UK tends to make its
marches.
presence felt less by their own public manifesta-
tions than by counter-protests: most right-wing

Several member states reported on clashes
street events attracted counter-demonstrations
between left-wing and right-wing 
from anti-fascist groups. Numbers of ANTIFA
extremist groups. Extreme right-wing
protesters have increased in 2008. Extreme
events attract counter-protest activity 
right-wing events are expected to attract similar
from anti-fascist (ANTIFA) groups 
counter-protests in 2009.88 (See also chapter on
and vice versa.
left-wing terrorism.)

A number of extreme right-wing 
Italy arrested eleven individuals on charges of
organisations maintain close international
right-wing extremism.89
contacts. However, several arrested 
right-wing extremists were acting alone
The WPM scene on one side and the auto-
without links to an extremist organisation.
nomous movement on the other constitute the
two poles of political extremism. Whereas polit-

Individual members of the WPM scene
ical extremism is not a tangible threat in
have exhibited their readiness to use 
Sweden, certain groups and individuals pose a
violence, threats or coercion to reach their
threat to individuals and private property, and
political goals.
to public order and safety. The WPM scene is
composed of groups and networks with right-
wing extremist and racist views whose mem-
8.1. Extremism
bers are prepared to use politically motivated
violence. The autonomous movement consists
In 2008 right-wing extremists organised street
of loosely connected networks using a variety of
protests, marches, demonstrations or so-called
names to characterise their organisations and
White Power Music (WPM) concerts in several
actions. The autonomous movement is split in
87
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Slovenia, UK.
88
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
89
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Italy.


TE-SAT
2009
a great number of ideological currents, but anar-
In Austria, right-wing extremist groups were dis-
chism, i.e. the elimination of all forms of compul-
mantled by the authorities in the 1990s, but
sory government, is one of the more widespread
leading members of these groups remain active
elements. In both the WPM scene and the
at present, mainly in the background. Individual
autonomous movement, individual members
activists of the revisionist movement make their
have exhibited their readiness to use violence,
presence felt mostly through publications. Right-
threats or coercion to reach their political
wing extremists manifest themselves through
goals.90
provocative and violent actions. Most of them
are linked to each other in loose networks. Since
In Belgium, the WPM network Blood & Honour
2007, however, Austrian right-wing extremists in
organised several concerts in 2008. As in previ-
some federal states have clearly tried to build up
36
ous years, each of these concerts attracted hun-
structures in an attempt to establish a nation-
dreds of people from all over Europe. Following
wide network. In addition, structured and coordi-
a concert in October 2008, the Belgian authori-
nated public manifestations took place in 2008,
ties conducted several searches. Several extrem-
in particular in places in which an older genera-
ists were detained during the searches but all
tion of right-wing extremists have had a direct
were released afterwards.91
influence for a prolonged space of time.92
90
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Sweden.
91
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium.
92
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.


TE-SAT
2009
9. SINGLE ISSUE TERRORISM
37
Key findings
The fifth attack was attributed to the Comité
d’Action Viticole 
(CAV). This organisation is active

France reported five single issue terrorist
in the south of France and campaigns against
attacks for 2008. The majority of member
the import of foreign wines.
states reported single issue activities as
extremism.
9.2. Extremism

The majority of animal rights extremism
Activism for animal rights and environmental
organisations in the EU are supportive of,
issues usually does not take the form of terrorist
and inspired, by the ideology of Stop
offences. Animal rights extremists are more like-
Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC).
ly to carry out acts of criminal damage, vandal-
ism, intimidation and arson targeting individu-

The focus of animal rights extremism 
als linked to companies and academic research.
seems to have shifted from the UK to 
Belgium, France, Portugal, the Netherlands and
the European mainland in 2008.
the UK have been affected by arson, while vic-
Cooperation between animal rights
tims of animal rights extremism (ARE) in Austria,
extremists in Europe has led to 
Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden
European-wide extremist activities.
have mostly been affected by systematic harass-
ment; vandalism of fur shops and companies

Environmental issues are increasingly 
associated with the contract animal-testing
in the focus of single issue extremists.
company Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS); and
the ‘release’ of caged animals such as minks.
9.1. Terrorist attacks and
The majority of ARE organisations in the EU are
arrested suspects
inspired by and support the ideology of the
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC).93 SHAC
France reported five single issue terrorism
targets suppliers, customers and financial insti-
bomb attacks. Two attacks against speed radars
tutions linked to HLS. During the second half of
were claimed by the Fraction Nationaliste Armée
2008, several British SHAC leaders were found
Révolutionnaire (FNAR), while two others were
guilty, among other charges, of having orches-
attributed to them. The FNAR was nothing more
trated, in 2007, blackmail of companies which
than a one-person organisation. This individual
are suppliers of HLS. These trials and convictions
was arrested on 28 May 2008, after he injured
appear to have caused a decrease in ARE activi-
himself while priming an IED containing home-
ties in the UK. A number of arrests in January
made explosives.
2008 were also linked to criminal activities by
93
For SHAC's foundation and aims, see TE-SAT 2008, page 40.


TE-SAT
2009
individuals associated with the 2007 SHAC cam-
on different animal rights topics and took part in
paign against HLS. The individuals arrested
European-wide actions.97
were experienced animal rights extremists
who are believed to have been responsible for
In the Netherlands, animal rights extremists
coordinating the campaign. At the time of writ-
further intensified their activities in the second
ing, it is difficult to assess how other extremists
half of 2008. Not only the number of criminal
will react to the convictions of the SHAC leaders.
acts increased, but also the intensity and gravi-
In 2008, however, it has become evident that the
ty of the offences seem to have grown. Two
SHAC campaign in the UK is fragmenting.
arson attacks on personal property of employ-
Moreover, there are indications that the UK
ees of the pan-European stock exchange
authorities’ firm approach to ARE forces these
Euronext in the last weeks of 2008 illustrate
38
groups to move to the European mainland in a
this development. It is possible that Dutch ani-
view to continue their actions there.94 The Anti-
mal rights extremists are gradually applying
Dierproeven Coalitie (ADC) is considered to be a
methods that have proven successful in other
branch of SHAC in Belgium.95
countries.98
Besides SHAC, the second main animal rights
In the UK, environmentalist protests against the
campaign in the UK in 2008 was Stop Primate
power sector and airport expansion increased in
Experiments at Cambridge (SPEAC or SPEAK). It is
2008. Extremists have demonstrated a determi-
protesting against a medical research centre at
nation to take direct action, and there have
Oxford University. SPEAC’s campaigns received a
been numerous arrests during this period relat-
major blow in November 2008, when one of its
ed to these causes.
targets, the Oxford University Laboratory, was
officially opened. Although some acts of crimi-
In Sweden, a newly built private house burnt
nal damage were reported in early 2008, these
down in Älmhult in Småland in late July 2008.
diminished as the year progressed, and there
Earlier in the same year, the electric wiring of a
was little criminal activity in the final quarter of
building crane near the house and a 3G pylon in
2008.96
the area were sabotaged. In statements pub-
lished on the Internet the organisation Jordens
In Austria, animal rights extremists carried out
befrielsefront (JBF) claimed responsibility for two
actions, causing mainly material damages, under
of these events. It was the first time that this
the name of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). A
name had been used in Sweden, while its inter-
smaller number of criminal offences occurred
national counterpart, the Earth Liberation Front
under the acronym SHAC. Austrian animal rights
(ELF), is well-known. These attacks were intend-
extremists cooperated with foreign extremists
ed to draw attention to environmental issues.99
94
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
95
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Belgium.
96
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: UK.
97
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Austria.
98
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: the Netherlands.
99
Contribution to the TE-SAT 2009: Sweden.


TE-SAT
2009
10. TRENDS
39
Due to large fluctuations, a clear trend in the
military presence in conflict zones. Member
numbers of failed, foiled and successful terror-
states with a military presence in conflict zo-
ist attacks cannot be established. The increase
nes, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, have been
in numbers that was reported in 2007, compared
threatened several times during the last years.
to 2006, has not continued. During 2008, 515
Several video statements were released during
terrorist attacks were committed in the EU. One
the past years.
Islamist terrorist attack with the aim to cause
mass casualties caused little damage in the UK.
The threat of terrorism to EU member states
Separatist terrorist attacks dominate the num-
will remain diverse. The EU member states
bers of terrorist incidents in the EU. A total of
continue to be confronted with international
397 separatist terrorist attacks were perpetrat-
organised groups, locally inspired groups and
ed, and 501 suspects were arrested. The vast
‘lone wolves’. The Islamist terrorist attack in the
majority of attacks and arrests relating to sepa-
UK in 2008 was carried out by a single offender
ratist terrorism were, as in previous years, report-
– a ‘lone wolf’ – inspired by local extremists.
ed by France and Spain. Youth organisations
Other terrorist acts conducted by individuals are
continue to be responsible for the majority of
related to single issue terrorism. Although the
the attacks in Spain.
arrests of some ETA top leaders may probably
have an impact on ETA’s capabilities in 2009, the
The numbers of arrested suspects are rela-
threat from ETA remains serious. In the UK, dissi-
tively independent of the occurrence of ter-
dent Irish republican groups, principally the
rorist activities. This indicates the existence
RIRA and the CIRA, and other paramilitary
of a continuous threat. The majority of the
groups may continue to engage in crime and
arrests were carried out on suspicion of mem-
violence. In France, a single trial for separatist
bership of a terrorist organisation. Women con-
terrorism involved 18 defendants. In Belgium,
tinue to play a minor role in terrorism. The num-
five members of a group related to the first
ber of women arrested in relation to separatist,
European female suicide bomber were tried
left-wing and anarchist terrorism is higher than
jointly. Both cases are illustrative of terrorists
for Islamist terrorism. The numbers of arrests for
acting in groups. Extremist groups of both left-
Islamist terrorism, although lower than in the
wing and right-wing orientation are known to
two previous years, give evidence of the fact
entertain international contacts.
that the threat emanating from individuals and
groups adhering to the ideology of global jihad
The number of persons associated with
remains substantial in some member states.
‘home-grown’ Islamist terrorist groups is
Successful pro-active activities of law enforce-
rising in the EU. Reasons for this include that
ment agencies and intelligence services are usu-
members of terrorist cells acting outside the
ally not made public.
organisational framework of mosques have
largely replaced ‘radical imams’ in Islamist ter-
Islamist terrorists continue to legitimise
rorist recruitment. Prisons and other places
their actions with references to western
where people are vulnerable are being used for
policies towards Muslims, including the
recruitment and radicalisation.


TE-SAT
2009
EU–based suspects will continue providing
Activities by left-wing and anarchist terror-
logistical support to Islamist terrorist groups
ists and extremists are increasing in quantity
and networks based outside the EU. Member
and geographical spread in the EU. In Greece,
states continue to report that their country may
the use of violence by the Epanastatikos Agonas
be used as a logistical base for terrorist groups
or  Revolutionary Struggle has escalated and has
active outside the EU. Some member states on
the potential for further escalation. Left-wing
the eastern border of the EU are still at risk of
and anarchist groups are increasingly establish-
being used as transit countries for terrorists in
ing links across the EU. Most of their actions
order to reach other parts of the EU.
reflect a common agenda.
Target selection remains dependant on the
Right-wing and single issue terrorism is a rel-
40
political or ideological goals of the groups or
atively minor factor in the EU. There were no
individuals concerned. Islamist terrorists aim
right-wing and only five instances of single issue
at causing indiscriminate mass casualties.
terrorist activities in the EU in 2008. The inci-
Corsican separatist terrorist groups continue to
dents were almost exclusively regarded as the
target mainly private property or individuals,
acts of extremists rather than terrorists. Animal
while Basque separatist terrorist groups mainly
rights extremism (ARE) predominated the illegal
execute attacks against business and govern-
activities of single issue terrorism. Animal rights
mental targets. Left-wing and anarchist terror-
extremists are shifting their focus from the UK to
ists mainly focus on exponents of capitalist soci-
the European mainland. The most stringent ARE
ety and on traditional institutions such as busi-
campaigns in the EU are inspired by and sup-
ness and (inter)governmental targets.
port the ideology of the Europe-wide Stop
Huntingdon Animal Cruelty 
(SHAC).
Activities related to financing of terrorism,
carried out inside or outside the EU, continue

Home-made explosives remain the type most
to be dependent on the procurement of
used to carry out attacks. As in the previous
funds by supporting groups in the member
years, home-made explosives remain the type of
states. All terrorist organisations need to raise
explosive most frequently used to carry out
funds, regardless how small the proceeds. Illegal
attacks. The bomb prepared for the attack in the
sources for the funding of terrorism appear to
UK contained home-made explosives. The
cover a wide range of criminal activities, span-
decreasing trend that started in 2007 in the use
ning from fraud and counterfeit to burglary, kid-
of commercial explosives in ETA attacks contin-
napping and extortion. Funds are also derived
ued in 2008. In their place, home-made explosives
from legitimate sources. Islamist and non-
were used. Also the majority of left-wing and
Islamist terrorist groups use different methods
anarchist attacks involve the use of home-made
of financing. Islamist groups generate more
explosives.
money than non-Islamist groups.
The security situation outside the EU contin-
The Internet continues to be a factor which
ues to have an impact on member states.
greatly facilitates the activities of terrorist
Afghanistan and Pakistan seem to have replaced
groups. Websites, weblogs and forums are used
Iraq as preferred destinations for volunteers
by terrorist groups of all affiliations for tailor-
wishing to engage in armed conflict. Since 2007,
made propaganda and communication. The
Somalia has also become an important destina-
year 2008 has witnessed an increase in Islamist
tion for foreign fighters. The number of fighters
extremist websites in western languages as part
returning from these regions is likely to in-
of a strategy to reach western audiences. Groups
crease. In Turkey, the PKK/KONGRA-GEL is
associated with separatist terrorism use the
involved in a struggle for political and cultural
Internet for claiming attacks. Left-wing, right-
autonomy for the Kurdish population. This is
wing and single issue terrorist groups use the
reflected in non-violent activities and propa-
Internet as a medium to announce manifesta-
ganda work in Germany and other European
tions, such as demonstrations and concerts.
countries.


TE-SAT
2009
ANNEXES
41
Annex 1: Acronyms
ADC
Anti-Dierproeven Coalitie 
Anti-Animal Testing Coalition
ALF
Animal Liberation Front
ANTIFA
Anti-fascist groups
ANV
Acción Nacionalista Vasca 
Basque Nationalist Action
APAPC
Association des Parents et Amis des Prisonniers Communistes – Secours Rouge
Association of Parents and Friends of Communist Prisoners – Red Aid
AQIM
al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb 
Tanzim al-qa’ida bi-bilad al-Maghrib al-Islami
ARE
Animal Rights Extremism
CAV Comité 
d’Action 
Viticole 
Committee for Viticultural Action
CCC
Cellules Communistes Combattantes 
Communist Combatant Cells
CIRA 
Continuity Irish Republican Army
DHKP-C 
Devrimci Halk Kurtulus¸ Partisi/Cephesi 
Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front
ELF
Earth Liberation Front
ETA
Euskadi ta Askatasuna 
Basque Fatherland and Liberty 
EU
European Union
FAI
Federazione Anarchia Informale 
Informal Anarchist Federation


TE-SAT
2009
FARC
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Colombianas 
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
FLNC-22 Octobre Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse du 22 Octobre 
National Front for the Liberation of Corsica of 22 October
FLNC-UDC 
Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse - Union des Combattants 
National Front for the Liberation of Corsica - Union of Combatants
FNAR
Fraction Nationaliste Armée Revolutionnaire 
Armed Nationalist Revolutionary Faction
42
GIMF
Global Islamic Media Front 
al-Jabha al-i‘lamiyya al-Islamiyya al-‘alamiyya
GRAPO
Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre  
Anti-fascist Resistance Groups October First
GSPC
Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat 
al-Jama’a al-salafiyya lil-da’wa wal-qital 
Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat
IED
Improvised explosive device
IJU
Islamic Jihad Union
IMU
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
INLA
Irish National Liberation Army 
IRC
International Rescue Committee
ISAF
International Security Assistance Force
JBF
Jordens befrielsefront 
Earth Liberation Front
KONGRA-GEL
Kongra Gelê Kurdistan 
People's Congress of Kurdistan
LTTE
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
PCP-M
Partito Comunista Politico-Militare
PIRA
Provisional Irish Republican Army
PKK
Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan 
Kurdistan Workers' Party
RIRA
Real Irish Republican Army
SHAC
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty
SitCen
European Union Joint Situation Centre


TE-SAT
2009
SPEAC/SPEAK
Stop Primate Experiments at Cambridge
TE-SAT
European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report
TWP
Terrorism Working Party of the EU Council
VBIED
Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device
WPM
White power music
43
ANNEXES


TE-SAT
2009
Annex 2: Excerpt from the
5. seizure of aircraft, ships or other means of
Council Framework Decision
public or goods transport;
on combating terrorism
6. manufacture, possession, acquisition, trans-
According to Article 1 of the Council Framework
port, supply or use of weapons, explosives or
Decision of 13 June 2002 on combating terror-
of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons,
ism (2002/475/JHA), terrorist offences are inten-
as well as research into and development of
tional acts which, given their nature or context,
biological and chemical weapons;
may seriously damage a country or an interna-
tional organisation where committed.
7. release of dangerous substances, or causing
fires, floods or explosions the effect of which
44
Terrorist offences are committed with the aim of 
is to endanger human life;

seriously intimidating a population, or
8. interfering with or disrupting the supply of
water, power or any other fundamental natu-

unduly compelling a government or interna-
ral resource the effect of which is to endan-
tional organisation to perform or abstain
ger human life;
from performing an act, or 
9. threatening to commit any of the acts listed

seriously destabilising or destroying the fun-
above.
damental political, constitutional, economic
or social structures of a country or an inter-
Article 2, paragraph 2, obliges the member
national organisation.
states to take the necessary measures to ensure
that directing a terrorist group and participating
Terrorist offences include 
in its activities, including by supplying informa-
tion or material resources or by funding its activ-
1. attacks upon a person’s life which may cause
ities, are punishable.
death;
Article 3 obliges the member states to take the
2. attacks upon the physical integrity of a person;
necessary measures to ensure that terrorist-
linked offences include aggravated theft, extor-
3. kidnapping or hostage taking;
tion and drawing up false administrative docu-
ments with a view to commit certain terrorist
4. causing extensive destruction to a govern-
offences.
ment or a public facility, a transport system,
an infrastructure facility, including an infor-
According to Article 4, inciting or aiding or abet-
mation system, a fixed platform located on
ting offences referred to in the Framework
the continental shelf, a public place or pri-
Decision should also be made punishable.
vate property likely to endanger human life
or result in major economic loss;


TE-SAT
2009
Annex 3: Implementation of
1. public incitement to terrorist offences;
the EU Framework Decision
on combating terrorism 
2. providing training for a terrorist group;
in the member states which 
3. promoting the activity of a terrorist group;
provided Eurojust with 
information on convictions
4. recruiting persons for terrorist offences.
Belgium
France
At the start of 2007, a Royal Decree entered into
Since 9 September 1986, the French law has pro-
force making it easier for the financial adminis-
vided for the possibility that the prosecution,
45
trative authorities to freeze the assets of individ-
investigation and judgement of terrorist
uals involved in terrorist offences, as described
offences take place in Paris. In practice, all ter-
in the 19 December 2003 Act on Terrorism. A
rorist cases are centralised in Paris. Since then,
second new bill was published on 15 May 2007
the French legislation concerning incrimination
on the insurance against damage caused by
of terrorist acts (including financing of terror-
terrorist acts. This new law supports the victim
ism) as well as rules governing the criminal pro-
of a terrorist act in receiving compensation.
ceeding have been regularly amended, most
Also, a Royal Decree of October 2006 entered
recently in January 2006. Terrorist acts are
ANNEXES
into force on 15 June 2007, allowing a check of
defined by Articles 421-1 to 422-7 of the Penal
financial transactions, in order to fight money
Code. French law refers in particular to existing
laundering and financing of terrorism.
offences that are qualified as terrorist acts
“where they are committed intentionally in con-
Denmark
nection with an individual or collective under-
After the introduction of the first anti-terrorism
taking the purpose of which is seriously to dis-
package on 31 May 2002, the Danish Parlia-
turb public order through intimidation or ter-
ment passed an updated package on 2 June
ror”. The law also provides for the participation
2006. In the Criminal Code, the definition of the
in a group or association in order to prepare any
concept of terrorism has been laid down in
act of terrorism. Concerning the criminal pro-
Section 114. Recruitment for terrorism, as well
ceedings, it should be noted that, since 2004,
as training, instruction and teaching have been
specific provisions have applied to terrorist
criminalised in Sections 114c and 114d. Aiding
offences. They mainly concern surveillance, infil-
and abetting to terrorism is punishable with up
tration, custody, searches, interception of
to six years in prison according to Section
telecommunications, audio and video recording
114d. Through amendments to the Administra-
in specified vehicles and places, and measures
tion of Justice Act, investigative powers have
to freeze property.
now been strengthened for both the police
and the intelligence service. The amendment in
Germany
2006 also allowed a less restricted access to ex-
change of information between the Security
At the end of 2003, the Criminal Code was
Intelligence Service and the Defence Intelli-
updated to implement the 2002 Council
gence Service. In September 2007, a new provi-
Framework Decision. In September 2007, new
sion of the Administration of Justice Act
provisions in criminal law were proposed to
entered into force, allowing for the storage of
extend the criminalisation of preparatory terror-
Internet and telecommunications data for an
ist acts (falling under Sections 129 a and b of the
one-year period.
Criminal Code), and punish with up to ten years
in prison instead of six months. With these pro-
posals, training and receiving of training will be
Finland
criminalised. Also, the manufacturing or posses-
Four new significant amendments related to ter-
sion of weapons or fluids and gasses which can
rorist crimes came into force on 1 May 2008 in
be used for preparing to commit terrorist acts
Finland concerning
will be criminalised. A further provision will be
introduced criminalising incitement to terrorism


TE-SAT
2009
on the Internet and penalising this crime with
(such as recruitment and training) were intro-
up to three years in prison.
duced reflecting elements of the Council
Framework Decision of 2002. New measures to
prevent and combat financing of terrorism were
Greece
introduced in 2007, according to Directive
Article 187a of the Greek Criminal Code contains
2005/60/CE. On 29 December, new measures
some of the provisions implementing the
concerning expulsion in case of terrorism were
Council Framework Decision. In this section,
adopted.
threats to commit terrorist acts are criminalised,
when they are serious enough and cause terror.
Luxembourg
Also, the setting up and membership of a struc-
46
tured organisation of more than three persons,
On 29 July 2008, Luxembourg has ratified the
acting together and planning to commit terror-
International Convention for the repression of
ist acts is made punishable with up to ten years’
Nuclear Terrorism of 14 September 2005 and has
imprisonment. Article 187 provides that perpe-
introduced specific criminal sanctions in case of
tration of the acts mentioned in article 187a
violation.
may carry up to a life sentence. After serving 25
years, the convicted person can be released
Slovenia
from prison on the basis of article 105 of the
Criminal Procedure Code. Special investigation
In 2008 the new Slovenian Penal Code was
techniques are allowed under article 253a of the
adopted, coming into force on 1 November
Criminal Procedure Code. Prosecutions on the
2008. The new Penal Code amends the provi-
basis of article 187a are brought before the
sions regarding terrorism in the previous Penal
Council of the Court of Appeal.
Code and adds some new provisions taking into
account the content of the Framework Decision
on combating terrorism and its recent amend-
Republic of Ireland
ments. Articles 108, 109, 110 and 111 contain
Terrorist acts are prosecuted under the Offences
provisions with regard to terrorism, financing of
Against the State Acts 1939 to 1998, in combina-
terrorist activities, incitement and public glorifi-
tion with the Criminal Justice ( Terrorist
cation of terrorist activities, conscripting and
Offences) Act 2005. The Criminal Justice Act
training for terrorist activities, respectively.
2005 provides for Ireland’s compliance with the
Council Framework Decision of 2002. The
Spain
Offences Against the State Acts provide,
amongst others, for the offences of membership
In October 2007, the government of Spain
of, providing assistance to, and directing an
passed a law in accordance with the Directive
unlawful organisation. The Criminal Justice Act
2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of
strengthens the possibilities to deal with inter-
the Council of 15 March 2006: Law 25/2007 on
national terrorism and regulates that groups
Electronic Communications. The object of the
that engage in, promote or encourage the com-
law is the regulation of the providers of public
mission of a terrorist activity are unlawful organ-
electronic communications services (fixed net-
isations under the Offences Against the State
work telephony, mobile telephony and Internet)
Acts. Terrorist offences are tried at the Special
concerning their obligations with respect to the
Criminal Court which was established under the
retention of data while providing a service, as
Offences Against the State Acts.
well as the possibility to make that data avail-
able to the persons in charge of an investigation
(with the permission of a judicial authority). The
Italy
law will apply to the traffic and localisation of
Terrorism is defined under Article 270 of the
both legal entities and natural persons and to
Criminal Code; the definition dates back to 1980.
the related data necessary to identify the sub-
An amendment in 2001 extended the definition
scriber and registered user. It will not apply to
of terrorism to include violence against interna-
the content of the electronic communications
tional organisations and foreign states. On 31
or to the information consulted using an elec-
July 2005, a new definition and new offences
tronic communications network. The provider


TE-SAT
2009
will have to keep the data for a year, with a pos-
Finally, at the end of 2006, a new bill was intro-
sibility to extend the period to two years or to
duced allowing witnesses protected by the
reduce it to six months. The companies had six
intelligence services to testify in court, thus
months after this law has entered into force (7
facilitating the use of intelligence materials in
November 2007) to prepare the equipment
terrorism proceedings.
required to comply with the law.
United Kingdom
Sweden
The UK is one of the countries where anti-ter-
The Swedish government has, during 2008, put
rorism legislation has been in place for many
forward a proposal to the Swedish Parliament
years. The Terrorism Act of 30 March 2006 put
that Sweden would approve the changes in the
in place a number of new offences, including
47
European Council Framework Decision of 13
preparatory acts, training, encouragement to
June 2002 on combating terrorism. This means
terrorism and dissemination of terrorist publi-
that Sweden in the future has to criminalise
cations. In 2007 new proposals were put for-
public exhortation of terrorism, recruiting for
ward to change the counter-terrorism legisla-
the purpose of terrorism and training for the
tion. The main elements proposed in the new
purpose of terrorism.
bill are: a possible extension of pre-charge
detention for terrorist suspects beyond the
current limit of 28 days; a requirement for con-
ANNEXES
The Netherlands
victed terrorists to provide the police with per-
A bill allowing increased possibilities for inves-
sonal information on their release from prison
tigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes
and to notify any changes to this information;
came into force on 1 February 2007. The new
introduction of a foreign travel order that will
law penalises the establishment of a terrorist
enable convicted terrorists to be banned from
organisation, as well as participation to or lead-
travelling overseas; changes to enable post-
ership of a terrorist organisation. Conspiracy to
charge questioning of terrorist suspects and
commit terrorist crimes and recruitment for the
the drawing of adverse inferences from a re-
jihad is also specifically criminalised. Further
fusal to say something that is later relied on in
preventive measures have been introduced in
court; enhanced sentences for those convicted
the criminal procedure law. On the basis of a
of terrorism-related offences; putting the police
Decision on investigation of terrorist offences,
counter-terrorist DNA database on a sound
of the same date, further executive measures
statutory footing and making other changes to
may be proscribed by special legislation.
enable the full use of DNA in terrorist cases.


TE-SAT
2009
Annex 4: Number of failed, foiled or successful attacks in
2006, 2007 and 2008 per member state and per affiliation100
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
2
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
74
2008
147
263
515
otal
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
20
2
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
T
2007
267
279
583
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
13

0
1
11
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
5
2006
294
145
472
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
1
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

11
2008
48
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0

24
2007
Not Specified 
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
11
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
16
2006
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5
2008
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
Single Issue
2007
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2008
ing
t W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
2007
igh
R

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2006
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0

28
2008
ing
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
2
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0

21
f
t
 W

2007
e
L

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
10

0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
8
0
0
0
30
2006
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2008
137
253
397
tist
a

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2007
253
264
532
epar
S

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
4
2006
283
136
424
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2008
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
2007
Islamist 
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2006
)
t

g
y
y
e
e
ia
ak

enia
eec
tvia
eden
ustria
v
yprus 
r
anc

rman
v
I
taly

oland
r
tugal

UK
otal 
T

A
elgium
inland
e
La
embour
Malta
o
Spain
w
B
Bulgaria
C
Estonia
F
F
Gr
x
P
S
ech Republic
Denmark
G
Hungar
Lithuania
Slo
u
P
Romania
Slo
Member Sta
z
L
C
eland (Republic of
the Netherlands
Ir
100
The UK provided Europol with information on a total number of 74 attacks in 2008, without specification of the
type of terrorism. Unlike previous editions of the TE-SAT, this number also includes attacks carried out in Northern
Ireland.


TE-SAT
2009
Annex 5: Number of arrested suspects in 2006, 2007 and 2008
per member state and per affiliation101
0
22
0
0
1
3
0
0
12
0
0
52
53
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
3
4
2008
402
197
256
1009
otal 
8
10
4
0
2
9
0
0
15
0
0
24
44
0
0
0
0
0
32
3
2
0
2
16
T
2007
409
261
203
1044
1
14

0
0
9
0
0
20
0
0
4
59
0
0
1
0
3
0

3
0
85
3
6
2006
342
156
706
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

4
49
Not
2008
Specified
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
2008
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
Single Issue
2007
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2008
ing
ANNEXES
t W
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
31
0
0
0
0
0
10

44
2007
igh
R

0
12

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0

0
0
0
0
0

15
2006
0
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
37
3
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0

58
2008
ing
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
4
0
0
0
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
0
1

48
f
t
 W

2007
e
L

0
1

0
0
0
0
0
15
5
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
6
0
0

52
2006
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
49
35
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

2008
283
129
501
tist
a

0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
24
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
1

2007
315
196
548
epar
S

1
0

0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
28
0
0

2006
188
226
0
17
0
0
0
3
0
0
78
8
0
0
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
61
3
4

2008
187
5
9
4
0
2
9
0
0
91
3
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
48
2
4

2007
201
Islamist 
0
1

0
0
9
0
0
11
0
0
0
34
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
0
51
3
6

2006
139
257
)
t

g
y
y
e
e
ia
ak

enia
eec
tvia
eden
ustria
v
yprus 
r
anc

rman
v
I
taly

oland
r
tugal

UK
otal 
T

A
elgium
inland
e
La
embour
Malta
o
Spain
w
B
Bulgaria
C
Estonia
F
F
Gr
x
P
S
ech Republic
Denmark
G
Hungar
Lithuania
Slo
u
P
Romania
Slo
Member Sta
z
L
C
eland (Republic of
the Netherlands
Ir
101
The UK provided Europol with information on a total of 256 arrests in 2008, without specifying the affiliation of
those arrested. Unlike previous editions of the TE-SAT, this number also includes arrests carried out in Northern
Ireland.

TE-SAT
2009
50

TE-SAT
2009
NOTES
51

TE-SAT
2009
52


European Police Office 
TE-SAT 2009 - EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 
2009 - 52 pp. - 297 x 210 mm 
ISBN 978-92-95018-74-7
ISSN 1830-9712


QL-AJ-09-001-EN-C
ISBN 978-92-95018-74-7
ISSN 1830-9712