This is an HTML version of an attachment to the Freedom of Information request 'Identiry of emissions test cars'.

In-Use Emissions Testing Developments in the New and 
Future European Motor Vehicle Emissions Regulations
Dr. Alessio Provenza
Dr. Pierre Bonnel, Dr. Martin Weiss, Dr. Adolfo Perujo
European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Energy and 
Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit
Via Enrico Fermi, 2749 - 21027 Ispra (VA) - Italy


Contents
1. Introduction
2. History
3. Background
4. Principles
5. On-going developments


History
ƒ
Emissions regulations are and should remain a core policy 
instrument to check and limit the environmental and health impact 
of vehicles.
ƒ
Regulations moves towards the control of GHG emissions limit 
global warming.
ƒ
The EU regulates energy consumptions and emission of road 
transport with a comprehensive legislative framework developed in 
the last 35 years.
ƒ
Move from laboratory environment with specified conditions 
(engine/vehicle test cycles) towards emissions as they occur during 
vehicle operations.
ƒ
Using portable instruments (PEMS) has made this shift possible.
ƒ
First introduced to verify the conformity of HD engines with 
emission limits during normal life. (EURO VI heavy-duty engines 
(Commission Regulation 582/2011, Protocols for ISC in Annex II))
ƒ
Using portable instruments (PEMS) to check the emissions avoids 
the extraction of the engines from machines, check functionality of 
the emissions control technologies and an implicit protection 
against defeat strategies.


History
ƒ
End 90s until 2003: US-EPA first rules and preliminary 
instrumentation developments
In Europe:
ƒ
2004-2005: Feasibility of PEMS to check the conformity of heavy-
duty engines
ƒ
2007 to 2008: Heavy-Duty PEMS Pilot program
ƒ
2011: PEMS based In-Service Conformity provisions for the HD 
EURO VI standards (Regulation 582/2011 also applicable for EURO 
V engines, amended by Regulation 64/2012*)
ƒ
2010(-2012): Non-Road Mobile Machinery PEMS Pilot program
ƒ
2012: Working group on Real Driving Emissions of Light Duty 
Vehicles
* Includes PEMS demonstration tests on prototype vehicles


History
Emission Standards
ƒ
Main elements:
ƒ type approval
ƒ conformity of production
ƒ in-service tests
ƒ
Type approval: regulated pollutant emissions meet the applicable 
limits
ƒ
Conformity of production: ensures that all products of a type are in 
compliance with type approval specifications.
ƒ
In-service tests: ensure that the real products are compliant while 
they are in use during their normal life. 


Assessing the in-use emissions performance:
• In the laboratory, using conventional facilities (chassis dynamometer or 
engine test cell): spots checks can be conducted on cycles addressing 
specific situations or random cycles. 
• During the real-world operation with PEMS (in-use), provided that:
1. The experiments provide accurate data (Instrumentation)
2. The evaluation method has the ability to properly assess the 
emissions performance.


Principles for In-Use (PEMS) Data Evaluation
ƒ Exclusion of data outside the applicable ambient and 
engine/vehicle conditions
ƒ Averaging process (on sub-sets or ‘windows’)
ƒ Operation areas (thresholds) on the averaged data set
ƒ Not To Exceed principle (Within a given area, a percentage 
of the averaging window emissions cannot exceed a defined 
value)



HD ISC Engines Data Evaluation (1)



HD Engines Data Evaluation (2)


Principles for In-Use (PEMS) Data Evaluation
Power/ Speed Threshold
Maximum allowed in area above 
threshold for a given percentage of 
the average emissions
(windows)
In-use average emissions under 
applicable conditions (defined by 
environmental and vehicle/engine 
conditionning)
Average emissions 
Average engine power / vehicle speed



EU Heavy-Duty PEMS Pilot Program


Heavy-Duty Engines In-Service Conformity (ISC) evaluation:
ƒ
Exclusion of data outside the applicable conditions 
ƒ
Cold engine (based on coolant temperature)
ƒ
Altitude (based on barometric pressure)
ƒ
Ambient temperature
ƒ
Moving Averaging Window 
ƒ
Reference quantity: Engine Work or CO2 mass emissions transient 
certification cycle
ƒ
EURO V : European Transient Cycle (ETC)
ƒ
EURO VI: World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC)
ƒ
Exclusions of windows below the power threshold
ƒ
20% of the maximum engine power
ƒ
If less than 50% of the windows are valid, the threshold is decreased 
by steps of 1%
ƒ
90% the windows must have a conformity factor lower than or 
equal to 1.5


On-going developments: Heavy-Duty
• Review of  EURO VI ISC-PEMS procedures to be 
completed by end 2013
• Pilot program: Development of PM provisions, including 
the instrumentation requirements and the development 
of on-vehicle test protocol (organization phase, 
tentative launch summer/fall 2012)
• Adaptation of methods/rules to hybrids


On-going developments: Non-Road
• Pilot Program until end 2012
• Implementation under discussion - Preparation of 
procedures for the Stage IV (entry in force 2014) and V 
standards


Potential developments
ƒ Control of LDV Real-Driving Emissions (EURO 6-2014)
ƒ Validation of HDV CO2 emissions for type approval
ƒ Validation of HDV hybrid certification results 
(Hardware in the loop simulation, UN-ECE HILS )
ƒ Standards harmonization (e.g. EU & US  PEMS data 
evaluation rules)



The JRC in its role of technical 
support to the policies of the EU 
has  published several reports on 
the use of PEMS as ISC and RDE 
tool for HDV, NRMM and LDV 







Thank you for your attention
Joint Research Centre (JRC)
IET - Institute for Energy and Transport
Ispra – Italy
Adolfo Perujo (xxxxxx.xxxxxx@xx.xxxxxx.xx)
Pierre Bonnel (xxxxxx.xxxxxx@xxx.xx.xxxxxx.xx)
Martin Weiss (xxxxxx.xxxxx@xxx.xx.xxxxxx.xx)
Alessio Provenza (xxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx@xxx.xx.xxxxxx.xx)
http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/