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Establishing 
a Trusted Cloud 
Europe
A policy vision document  
by the Steering Board  
of the European Cloud Partnership
FINAL REPORT 
Prepared for the European Commission
DG Communications Networks, Content & Technology
Digital Agenda 
for Europe


Internal identification
Contract number: 30-CE-0578903/00-87
LEGAL NOTICE
By the Commission of the European Union, Communications Networks, Content & Technology Directorate-General,  
Software & Services, Cloud Computing Unit
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible for the use which might be made  
of the information contained in the present publication.
The European Commission is not responsible for the external web sites referred to in the present publication. 
The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official European 
Commission view on the subject.
ISBN 978-92-79-36734-2
doi:10.2759/44445
© European Union, 2014 – All rights reserved. Certain parts are licensed under conditions to the EU.
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

This report was prepared for the European Commission by 
The European Cloud Partnership Steering Board 
In accordance with the European Commission’s communication on "Unleashing the Potential 
of Cloud Computing in Europe", Brussels, 27.9.2012, COM(2012) 529 final 
Drafted by Hans Graux, Rapporteur/Facilitator to the Steering Board, and adopted 
by the following Members of the Steering Board: 
Organisation 
Representative 
Organisation 
Representative 
President of Estonia 
Toomas Hendrik Ilves 
Accenture 
Pierre Nanterme 
and Chair of the 
Steering Board 
Amazon 
Werner Vogels 
ATOS 
Thierry Breton 
Austria 
Reinhard  Posch 
The German Federal 
Michael Hange 
Office for Information 
Security (BSI) 
Dassault 
Bernard Charlès 
Ericsson 
Hans Vestberg 
EuroCIO and Daimler 
Michael Gorriz 
F-Secure Corporation 
Christian Fredrikson 
France 
Cécile Dubarry 
Memset 
Kate Craig-Wood 
The Netherlands 
Dion Kotteman 
Norway 
Katarina de Brisis 
Poland 
Andrzej Ręgowski 
SAP 
Jim Hagemann-Snabe 
Software AG 
Karl-Heinz Streibich 
Spain 
Aitor Cubo Contreras 
Telefonica Digital 
Stephen Shurrock 
 
Léo Apotheker 



 
 
 
 
Preface 
 
The European Union, like most of the world, faces economically challenging times. 
In such times, it becomes all the more important to recognise and seize new and 
unique opportunities to drive growth, stimulate innovation, and to provide 
benefits to citizens, businesses and public administrations.  
One of these opportunities is cloud computing. Its direct economic value to the 
European Union is already substantial, but the impact on innovation and social 
developments is even bigger, as it enables a transformation to a more connected 
and more efficient on-line society.  
The European Cloud Computing Strategy1 aims to ensure that this potential is 
captured in Europe. Gaining and maintaining a leadership position in this market 
requires quick, coordinated and effective action, so that trust in the cloud would 
increase.  
This document represents an important step in the execution of the Cloud Computing Strategy. It is the result of a 
collaborative process in which participants of public administrations, cloud businesses, and data protection 
advocates have joined forces through the European Cloud Partnership, and have worked together to establish a 
roadmap for European leadership in the cloud. 
The adoption of this document, however, does not signal a conclusion of our work. A sense of urgency remains: 
cloud computing is not a technology of the future, it is the technology of today. This document hopes to set the 
stage for rapid follow-up action. European businesses and administrations need to become cloud leaders in the 
global market. This is how we can maintain a strong and competitive position in a challenging environment. 
Ultimately, that is the goal of the European Cloud Partnership and of this document. 
 
Toomas Hendrik Ilves 
President of Estonia 
Chair of the Steering Board  
of the European Cloud Partnership  
                                                            
1 See the European Commission’s communication on "Unleashing the Potential of Cloud Computing in Europe", Brussels, 27.9.2012, 
COM(2012) 529 final; http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/european-cloud-computing-strategy 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5

 
 
 
 
Executive summary 
 
Cloud computing has the potential to bring significant advantages to European citizens, businesses and public 
administrations, in terms of cost savings, efficiency boosts, user-friendliness, better security, and accelerated 
innovation. However, access to cloud services in Europe is currently hampered by a number of uncertainties and 
challenges, which vary from use case to use case. Depending on the type of data, type of service, and need for 
enforcement, adoption of the cloud may be impeded by legal, technical, operational or economic barriers, as 
shown through the examples in this document.  
The Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership recognises the need to address these uncertainties and 
challenges through specific and targeted actions, so that Europe can reap the benefits from the shift to cloud 
computing. Industry, public administrations and cloud users should work on the basis of common templates for 
similar use cases, which can be adopted step by step in order to improve the functioning of the digital single 
market for cloud services, and to avoid needless duplication of effort and market fragmentation. 
This paper presents two groups of actions in order to reach this objective: 
•  Firstly, a flexible common framework of best practices needs to be created, at the legal, technical and 
operational level. This common framework, consisting of legal and operational guidelines as well as 
technical standards, can be voluntarily adopted by cloud providers to show that their offering is in 
compliance with the common framework, and can be used by buyers of cloud services (in the public or 
private sector) in order to determine more easily whether a cloud service complies with the requirements 
of their use case.  
•  Secondly, systematic consensus building is required, through public consultations, workshops, 
coordination groups etc., targeting al  stakeholders, including citizens, public administrations, the cloud 
industry and cloud users. This would result in a common understanding on issues such as risk 
management, security requirements, privacy needs, enforcement methods, procurement practices, and 
any need for legislative reform, all of which can differ from use case to use case. 
Jointly, these actions will ensure that similar use cases for cloud computing – both in the public and private sector 
– can be accommodated by a wide range of cloud service providers, offering equivalent and appropriate 
assurances to their customers. Similarly, this approach will allow cloud providers to provide services offering 
baseline common and rationally justified expectations, while also facilitating differentiation and innovation.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Executive summary 
The challenge is then to achieve a common understanding of these best practices and their role in enabling cloud 
use cases. The European Cloud Partnership has drafted this paper, containing its own analysis of the current state 
of play, and its signposts for a strategy that would maximise the benefits offered by cloud computing in Europe. 
 
The Steering Board of the ECP expresses its desire to set up a broader consultation around its observations, 
Cloud computing has the potential to bring significant advantages to European citizens, businesses and public 
involving cloud users and cloud providers, in order to seek a broader consensus on the correct actions for the 
administrations, in terms of cost savings, efficiency boosts, user-friendliness, better security, and accelerated 
future as set out in this document. 
innovation. However, access to cloud services in Europe is currently hampered by a number of uncertainties and 
To address this, this paper proposes the concept of the Trusted Cloud Europe: a framework to support the 
challenges, which vary from use case to use case. Depending on the type of data, type of service, and need for 
definition of common cloud best practices, linking them to use cases, and applying them in practice. 
enforcement, adoption of the cloud may be impeded by legal, technical, operational or economic barriers, as 
shown through the examples in this document.  
Trusted Cloud Europe framework 
The Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership recognises the need to address these uncertainties and 
  
challenges through specific and targeted actions, so that Europe can reap the benefits from the shift to cloud 
computing. Industry, public administrations and cloud users should work on the basis of common templates for 
 
similar use cases, which can be adopted step by step in order to improve the functioning of the digital single 
market for cloud services, and to avoid needless duplication of effort and market fragmentation. 
 
This paper presents two groups of actions in order to reach this objective: 
 
•  Firstly, a flexible common framework of best practices needs to be created, at the legal, technical and 
 
operational level. This common framework, consisting of legal and operational guidelines as well as 
 
technical standards, can be voluntarily adopted by cloud providers to show that their offering is in 
compliance with the common framework, and can be used by buyers of cloud services (in the public or 
 
private sector) in order to determine more easily whether a cloud service complies with the requirements 
of their use case.  
 
•  Secondly, systematic consensus building is required, through public consultations, workshops, 
 
coordination groups etc., targeting al  stakeholders, including citizens, public administrations, the cloud 
 
industry and cloud users. This would result in a common understanding on issues such as risk 
management, security requirements, privacy needs, enforcement methods, procurement practices, and 
 
any need for legislative reform, all of which can differ from use case to use case. 
 
Jointly, these actions will ensure that similar use cases for cloud computing – both in the public and private sector 
– can be accommodated by a wide range of cloud service providers, offering equivalent and appropriate 
 
assurances to their customers. Similarly, this approach will allow cloud providers to provide services offering 
 
baseline common and rationally justified expectations, while also facilitating differentiation and innovation.  
With the support of the Trusted Cloud Europe framework, the European single cloud market can be stimulated, 
creating new prosperity and a position of digital leadership for citizens, businesses and public administrations. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7

 
 
 
 
The potential of the cloud in Europe 
 
Cloud computing is a key enabler for growth, productivity and job creation, capable of generating benefits for 
citizens, businesses and public administrations. Allowing easy on-demand access to information technology 
services, cloud computing can significantly reduce capital expenditure, as cloud users only pay for what they 
actually use. Cloud computing fosters innovative business models and services across all industries, generating 
new advantages for customers and companies alike. European businesses and public administrations can obtain 
significant efficiency gains from wide-scale adoption of cloud computing. Small businesses (SMEs) in particular 
can benefit from the cloud, as they can get access to high-performance IT solutions, which will help them to adapt 
quickly to new market developments and to innovate and grow their businesses faster.  
The expected cumulative economic effects of cloud computing between 2010 and 2015 in the five largest 
European economies alone is around € 763 Bn.2 The cloud economy is growing by more than 20%3 and could 
generate nearly € 1 trillion in GDP and 4 million jobs by 2020 in Europe4, with the support of the right policy 
framework. 
Europe is, however, lagging behind other regions in the take-up of cloud computing.5 Recent revelations about 
intelligence services surveillance of data have the potential to harm trust in cloud-based solutions. Moreover, due 
to a lack of regulatory consistency and due to policies which are technologically conservative, cloud computing in 
Europe remains fragmented, at times making it difficult for European citizens and businesses to reap the full 
benefits that the cloud undeniably offers.  
Without ambitious and decisive actions to counter these trends, the competitiveness of the European economy 
will be adversely impacted, as the scale and network effects, which are characteristic of cloud computing, will not 
be widely available to support European growth.  
                                                            
2 Centre for economics and business research (2010): The cloud dividend report 
3 IDC Worldwide Cloud Black Book, 4Q 2012 update, April 2013 
4 IDC (2012): Quantitative estimates on the demand for cloud computing in Europe and the likely barriers to take up. 
5 Europe trails North America by a factor of 2.4 in the public cloud market. Sources: IDC Worldwide Cloud Black Book, 4Q 2012 update, 
April 2013; Gartner: Public Cloud Services, worldwide, 2011-2017, 1Q 2013, March 2013.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The potential of the cloud in Europe 
Therefore, the Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership has developed this joint statement which 
proposes a set of coordinated measures by political leaders and industry to enable Europe to rapidly assume a 
 
leading role in Cloud Computing. The guiding principle of this statement is the need to support an efficient EU 
wide single market for cloud services, based on best practices, a common understanding of regulatory 
Cloud computing is a key enabler for growth, productivity and job creation, capable of generating benefits for 
requirements and the most effective way of meeting the needs of specific cloud use cases.  
citizens, businesses and public administrations. Allowing easy on-demand access to information technology 
services, cloud computing can significantly reduce capital expenditure, as cloud users only pay for what they 
Achieving this goal requires actions from a variety of stakeholders, including the elimination of regulatory and 
actually use. Cloud computing fosters innovative business models and services across all industries, generating 
market access barriers at both national and EU level, but also the identification and promotion of best practices 
new advantages for customers and companies alike. European businesses and public administrations can obtain 
by industry in respect of applicable laws, technical standardization and operational assurances. In this way, a 
significant efficiency gains from wide-scale adoption of cloud computing. Small businesses (SMEs) in particular 
single market for cloud services will be supported, generating benefits for all European stakeholders: 
can benefit from the cloud, as they can get access to high-performance IT solutions, which will help them to adapt 
quickly to new market developments and to innovate and grow their businesses faster.  
•  On the demand side, European cloud users (citizens, businesses – including SMEs – and public 
administrations) will be able to choose and use cloud services with confidence, knowing that they adhere 
The expected cumulative economic effects of cloud computing between 2010 and 2015 in the five largest 
to European legal norms and international standards, and that data in such clouds is secure;  
European economies alone is around € 763 Bn.2 The cloud economy is growing by more than 20%3 and could 
generate nearly € 1 trillion in GDP and 4 million jobs by 2020 in Europe4, with the support of the right policy 
•  On the supply side, cloud providers will be able provide their cloud services to European customers, 
framework. 
without hindrance from national regulatory barriers. 
Europe is, however, lagging behind other regions in the take-up of cloud computing.5 Recent revelations about 
This vision document sets out how this goal can be achieved, by establishing a shared understanding of regulatory 
intelligence services surveillance of data have the potential to harm trust in cloud-based solutions. Moreover, due 
and legal norms, and  security and trust, common to cloud users and to cloud service providers, and how these 
to a lack of regulatory consistency and due to policies which are technologically conservative, cloud computing in 
can be tied to specific use cases. These solutions should be based on best practices, favouring internationally 
Europe remains fragmented, at times making it difficult for European citizens and businesses to reap the full 
recognized norms and standards wherever possible to ensure a global perspective that cloud computing 
benefits that the cloud undeniably offers.  
inherently requires.  
Without ambitious and decisive actions to counter these trends, the competitiveness of the European economy 
 
will be adversely impacted, as the scale and network effects, which are characteristic of cloud computing, will not 
be widely available to support European growth.  
                                                            
2 Centre for economics and business research (2010): The cloud dividend report 
3 IDC Worldwide Cloud Black Book, 4Q 2012 update, April 2013 
4 IDC (2012): Quantitative estimates on the demand for cloud computing in Europe and the likely barriers to take up. 
5 Europe trails North America by a factor of 2.4 in the public cloud market. Sources: IDC Worldwide Cloud Black Book, 4Q 2012 update, 
April 2013; Gartner: Public Cloud Services, worldwide, 2011-2017, 1Q 2013, March 2013.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9

 
 
 
 
Cloud chal enges in Europe and the need for quick action 
 
The European cloud market is currently confronted with a significant number of regulatory and market access 
barriers that impede both development and commercial exploitation by cloud providers and adoption by cloud 
users, especially for cross border use cases. Some of these regulatory and market access barriers are linked to 
legal issues, whereas others are principally tied to trust concerns, technical control, or operational requirements.  
In order to understand some of these barriers, the European Cloud Partnership has studied several cross border 
use cases from both the public and private sector6, to better understand some of these challenges.  
 
Use case: health care in the cloud 
 
The exchange of health information between hospitals or doctors can be done more cost 
 
efficiently and securely through the cloud. However, data protection and privacy concerns 
impede such projects. User rights (access-edit-delete health data) must be carefully 
 
managed across authorized users. End-to-end encryption and anonymisation can provide 
workarounds, but also severely restrict use cases.  
 
Privileged information can be protected by legal frameworks that stop cloud adoption or 
 
limit use cases. Significant benefits could be realised through trusted cloud solutions. 
 
 
Use case: personal data in cross border clouds 
Storing personal data in public clouds is problematic when data is legally considered as 
 
sensitive. In such cases, clouds usage is difficult due to varying national legal requirements 
 
(e.g. supervision of the infrastructure by health care practitioners for health data). 
Similarly, national laws can differ on information security requirements, such as the need 
 
to have a data protection officer or to audit all data centres, which are legal requirements 
 
in some Member States, but not in others.  
The lack of full EU harmonisation of data protection rules is a recurring legal barrier. 
 
 
                                                            
6 See the more detailed information in sections 1 and 2 of the working document prepared by the working groups of the ECP. Note that the 
inputs in this working document represent the positions of individual contributing members of the working groups, and do not 
indicate any consensus from the ECP as a whole. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10

 
 
 
 
 
 
Use case: financial services in the cloud 
 
 
Banks and financial institutions process vast amounts of personal data in the operation of 
Cloud chal enges in Europe and the need for quick action 
 
their business. Their activities are subject to national supervisory bodies, which can define 
rules and requirements for the IT systems that process this data. In some Member States 
 
 
(such as Luxembourg), these guidelines require infrastructure to be established within 
national borders to facilitate direct inspection by the supervisory bodies.   
The European cloud market is currently confronted with a significant number of regulatory and market access 
 
Even outside of formal laws, norms may exist (issued by supervisors, regulators, sector 
barriers that impede both development and commercial exploitation by cloud providers and adoption by cloud 
 
organisations etc.) which stop or discourage the use of cloud services outside national 
users, especially for cross border use cases. Some of these regulatory and market access barriers are linked to 
borders.   
legal issues, whereas others are principally tied to trust concerns, technical control, or operational requirements.  
 
In order to understand some of these barriers, the European Cloud Partnership has studied several cross border 
 
use cases from both the public and private sector6, to better understand some of these challenges.  
 
 
Use case: IP-intensive sectors and cloud services 
Use case: health care in the cloud 
 
Entrusting information protected by intellectual property (IP) rights can be challenging, 
 
The exchange of health information between hospitals or doctors can be done more cost 
due to the legal and business need to control data. In the media business, cloud based 
 
media dissemination may conflict with legacy rules that focus on obtaining 
 
efficiently and securely through the cloud. However, data protection and privacy concerns 
impede such projects. User rights (access-edit-delete health data) must be carefully 
 
national/regional licenses or authorisations. Other IP intensive industries (such as e.g. the 
 
managed across authorized users. End-to-end encryption and anonymisation can provide 
automotive industry or the chemical/pharmaceutical sectors) prefer private clouds over 
 
workarounds, but also severely restrict use cases.  
public clouds in order to keep full control over their infrastructure. 
 
Privileged information can be protected by legal frameworks that stop cloud adoption or 
Cloud adoption barriers can vary from sector to sector. Legacy legal frameworks that are 
 
not adapted to the global market can cause legal challenges, and operational/business 
 
limit use cases. Significant benefits could be realised through trusted cloud solutions. 
 
concerns may lead to a strong preference for private clouds.  
 
 
 
Use case: personal data in cross border clouds 
 
Storing personal data in public clouds is problematic when data is legally considered as 
 
sensitive. In such cases, clouds usage is difficult due to varying national legal requirements 
 
Use case: science data in the cloud 
 
(e.g. supervision of the infrastructure by health care practitioners for health data). 
The scientific community has a clear need for powerful, high capacity and dependable 
Similarly, national laws can differ on information security requirements, such as the need 
 
infrastructure that can be used to advance their research without exposing it to data loss, 
 
to have a data protection officer or to audit all data centres, which are legal requirements 
corruption or intrusion. Secure scientific clouds can meet these requirement, and several 
 
projects within the EU have been set up to satisfy this demand, including the Helix Nebula 
 
in some Member States, but not in others.  
The lack of full EU harmonisation of data protection rules is a recurring legal barrier. 
 
project and through GEANT. However, further work is needed to integrate existing science 
 
clouds, to promote their adoption, and to enhance their usability. 
 
Secure clouds for science applications offer clear benefits in terms of benefits of scale, 
 
 
integrity and confidentiality. Further EU work is urgently needed to achieve this goal.  
                                                            
6 See the more detailed information in sections 1 and 2 of the working document prepared by the working groups of the ECP. Note that the 
 
inputs in this working document represent the positions of individual contributing members of the working groups, and do not 
indicate any consensus from the ECP as a whole. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11

 
 
 
 
 
Use case: national archives 
 
Archiving laws in Spain require any documents generated and stored by the public sector 
to be retained, and prohibits moving them from their original archives without a prior 
 
Ministerial Order. This can be interpreted as a restriction on moving data to a location 
 
outside the country (including cloud services with international data centres) without such 
 
an order.    
 
In many cases, there is ambiguity in the law on what is legally possible. In such cases, 
 
uncertainty often leads to negative decisions on new technologies, even if there is no 
 
overriding justification for this.   
 
 
 
While based on a limited set of use cases, the examples above illustrate that barriers vary from use case to use 
case, and include legal issues, operational concerns, and technological challenges. A recurring concern is the 
perceived vulnerability of data in the cloud to seizure by authorized public authorities, and more broadly to 
questions of general jurisdiction and applicable law. Current EU legislation generally favours policies where 
service providers are subject to the laws of their country of establishment7. While this rule is sound in principle, it 
raises the challenge of making cloud users’ data subject to foreign law, and typically also foreign jurisdiction. This 
may not be palatable or viable for certain cloud users, including in the public sector.  
 
The requirements of each cloud use case differ, and are jointly defined by their data type (e.g. health data being 
particularly sensitive), by data usage (e.g. IP protected data requiring licenses for each use) and by the need for 
enforcement (e.g. financial data requiring very strict controls). Cloud services that are able to satisfy all three 
categories of requirements for a use case can be considered fit for purpose. This requires appropriate risk 
management practices, in which the risks inherent to each use case are correctly understood, and in which the 
resulting requirements can be rationally identified.  
The challenge is then to achieve a common understanding of these requirements and their role in enabling cloud 
use cases. To address this issue, this paper proposes the concept of the Trusted Cloud Europe: a framework for 
defining best practice and cloud requirements, linking them to use cases, and applying them in practice. 

                                                            
7 This is e.g. also enshrined in the European eCommerce Directive’s country of origin rule, albeit with exceptions in relation to data 
protection and consumer protection. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As shown above, the requirements and related barriers differ strongly from use case to use case:  
Use case: national archives 
 
Archiving laws in Spain require any documents generated and stored by the public sector 
to be retained, and prohibits moving them from their original archives without a prior 
 
Ministerial Order. This can be interpreted as a restriction on moving data to a location 
rns 
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outside the country (including cloud services with international data centres) without such 
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While based on a limited set of use cases, the examples above illustrate that barriers vary from use case to use 
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√ 
√  
perceived vulnerability of data in the cloud to seizure by authorized public authorities, and more broadly to 
questions of general jurisdiction and applicable law. Current EU legislation generally favours policies where 
Health care and legal services 
√ 
 
√ 
 
√ 
√ 
 
√ 
√ 
 
service providers are subject to the laws of their country of establishment7. While this rule is sound in principle, it 
raises the challenge of making cloud users’ data subject to foreign law, and typically also foreign jurisdiction. This 
Media and entertainment 
√ 
√ 
√ 
√ 
√ 
√    √  
may not be palatable or viable for certain cloud users, including in the public sector.  
Financial services 
√ 
 
√ 
√ 
√ 
√ 
 
√ 
√ 
 
 
The requirements of each cloud use case differ, and are jointly defined by their data type (e.g. health data being 
National archiving 
√      √  √  
particularly sensitive), by data usage (e.g. IP protected data requiring licenses for each use) and by the need for 
enforcement (e.g. financial data requiring very strict controls). Cloud services that are able to satisfy all three 
Manufacturing/consumer  
 
√ 
 
 
√ 
 
 
 
 
 
categories of requirements for a use case can be considered fit for purpose. This requires appropriate risk 
management practices, in which the risks inherent to each use case are correctly understood, and in which the 
- Summary of known requirements across various sectors, ‘√’ indicates a known priority issue - 
resulting requirements can be rationally identified.  
 
The challenge is then to achieve a common understanding of these requirements and their role in enabling cloud 
Based on this limited exercise, the table above would suggest that the most ubiquitous requirements (spanning 
use cases. To address this issue, this paper proposes the concept of the Trusted Cloud Europe: a framework for 
the most sectors) are data protection compliance, information security, and jurisdiction/enforcement. When 
defining best practice and cloud requirements, linking them to use cases, and applying them in practice. 
applicable requirements cannot be met in cross border public clouds, there is a strong tendency to use only 
private clouds, or at least only cloud solutions within national borders. As a solution for some use cases, this may 
be acceptable. For the EU cloud market as a whole however, this is a problem that needs to be resolved. 
While more systematic fact finding is desirable to obtain a comprehensive overview of requirements across 
                                                            
sectors, these initial inputs show that a set of measures are needed to overcome the current fragmentation in 
7 This is e.g. also enshrined in the European eCommerce Directive’s country of origin rule, albeit with exceptions in relation to data 
European cloud markets, addressing requirements in relation to data types, data usage and enforcement, through 
protection and consumer protection. 
the Trusted Cloud Europe framework. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13

 
 
 
 
Supporting the digital single market through Trusted Cloud Europe 
 
The sections above have described some of the challenges currently experienced in the European cloud market by 
stakeholders, including citizens, businesses and public administrations. The global goal is to achieve a European 
single market for cloud computing.  
This can be achieved by building a set of best practices and common understanding of the requirements that 
should to be met for each specific use case. This is beneficial to both cloud providers and cloud users: cloud 
providers can more easily ensure that their cloud services meet the requirements of specific use cases, and cloud 
users can more easily choose cloud services that are suited for their use case. The Trusted Cloud Europe is a 
framework for establishing these best practices, linking them to use cases, and applying them in practice.  
The TCE framework is a non-legislative and voluntary initiative: it relies on voluntary adherence and participation 
from cloud providers and cloud users that see a benefit in participating in it, in order to support the development 
and uptake of the cloud and unlocking the accompanying benefits.  
In this section, we will explore how a single market for cloud services can be formed. This requires two groups of 
action: 
•  Firstly, a flexible common framework of best practices needs to be created, at the legal, technical and 
operational level. This common framework, consisting of legal and operational guidelines as well as 
technical standards, can be voluntarily used by cloud providers to show that their offering is in 
accordance with the state of the art, and can be used by buyers of cloud services (in the public or private 
sector) in order to determine more easily whether a cloud service meets the needs of their use case.  
•  Secondly, systematic consensus building is required, through public consultations, workshops, 
coordination groups etc., targeting al  stakeholders, including citizens, public administrations, the cloud 
industry and cloud users. This would result in a common understanding on issues such as risk 
management, security requirements, privacy needs, enforcement methods, procurement practices, and 
any need for legislative reform, all of which can differ from use case to use case. 
The framework formed by these two pillars together – building best practices and building consensus on their use 
in practice – collectively make up the Trusted Cloud Europe. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Supporting the digital single market through Trusted Cloud Europe 
 
 
Action 1: Building best practices and promoting their cross border mutual recognition  
The sections above have described some of the challenges currently experienced in the European cloud market by 
When addressing questions of adherence to legal norms, data control, security certification and accountability, it 
stakeholders, including citizens, businesses and public administrations. The global goal is to achieve a European 
is important to recognise the impact of existing achievements and ongoing work. These offer some of the quickest 
single market for cloud computing.  
solutions, and have often already been implemented and tried and tested through existing cloud services. Others 
still require some finalisation, or are not well-known or correctly understood by aspiring cloud customers.  
This can be achieved by building a set of best practices and common understanding of the requirements that 
 
should to be met for each specific use case. This is beneficial to both cloud providers and cloud users: cloud 
The fol owing actions can be recommended to address this goal: 
providers can more easily ensure that their cloud services meet the requirements of specific use cases, and cloud 
 
users can more easily choose cloud services that are suited for their use case. The Trusted Cloud Europe is a 
 
framework for establishing these best practices, linking them to use cases, and applying them in practice.  
1.  Identify best practices, in terms of technical, legal and operational assurances commonly offered by 
leading cloud service providers and measures generally available to cloud customers, and promote 
The TCE framework is a non-legislative and voluntary initiative: it relies on voluntary adherence and participation 
these more systematically. In many cases depending on the type of cloud computing, existing inputs are 
from cloud providers and cloud users that see a benefit in participating in it, in order to support the development 
suitable, including security certification against existing and often global standards8, data protection 
and uptake of the cloud and unlocking the accompanying benefits.  
compliance against the EU Standard Contractual Clauses9, or existing outsourcing techniques based on 
In this section, we will explore how a single market for cloud services can be formed. This requires two groups of 
Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM), Information Lifecycle Management (ILM), automatic replication 
action: 
facilities, and media migration and validation practices. Best practices may also relate to appropriate 
technological security and access control solutions, including - where proportionate - strong encryption 
•  Firstly, a flexible common framework of best practices needs to be created, at the legal, technical and 
technologies, systematic logging, time stamping, and automated breach detection measures. The key 
operational level. This common framework, consisting of legal and operational guidelines as well as 
ambition is to establish a coherent toolbox of best practices, thus empowering cloud users to choose the 
technical standards, can be voluntarily used by cloud providers to show that their offering is in 
practices which are most appropriate to their use case. 
accordance with the state of the art, and can be used by buyers of cloud services (in the public or private 
sector) in order to determine more easily whether a cloud service meets the needs of their use case.  
•  Secondly, systematic consensus building is required, through public consultations, workshops, 
coordination groups etc., targeting al  stakeholders, including citizens, public administrations, the cloud 
industry and cloud users. This would result in a common understanding on issues such as risk 
management, security requirements, privacy needs, enforcement methods, procurement practices, and 
any need for legislative reform, all of which can differ from use case to use case. 
The framework formed by these two pillars together – building best practices and building consensus on their use 
in practice – collectively make up the Trusted Cloud Europe. 
 
                                        
                                                           
 
 
                   
8 See 
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15

 
 
 
 
 
2.  Establishing new best practices and guidelines to steer the market towards customer friendly practices. 
Key ongoing actions include the standardization of SLAs, the Safe and Fair Cloud Contract initiative, the 
drafting of a data protection Code of Conduct10
, which should be endorsed by the Article 29 Working 
Party in order to ensure its legal authority, and the development of a Meta-framework of security 
certification schemes
 that can be used to compare and assess cloud computing security certification 
offerings. 11 Such best practices and similar security/privacy cloud-specific international standards should 
form a basis for adherence with EU security and privacy legal norms.  
3.  Facilitating the cross-border recognition of these best practices. Adherence to these best practices 
should be verifiable and auditable without extensive case-by-case checks, since ad-hoc checks are not 
always financially or operationally viable, especially for citizens or SMEs that lack the know-how and 
economic resources to conduct such checks. Therefore, the use of self-declaration, third party audits and 
one-stop-shop certification/trust marking schemes should be supported where appropriate as a tool to 
make adherence against the aforementioned best practices, accessible to as broad a market as 
possible.  
Any endorsed certification/trust marking practices should be industry driven and customer 
centric, voluntary, lean and affordable, technology neutral and based on global standards wherever 
possible, in order to avoid needlessly increasing costs, especially for SMEs. 
 
It is clear that the economic potential of European cloud services depends on the ability to avoid any semblance 
of a ‘Fortress Europe’ model where access to the European cloud market is de  facto  restricted to providers 
established in the EU. Non-European cloud providers should be able to access the European cloud market on 
equal terms, and offer services that adhere to the best practices proposed as a part of the Trust Cloud Europe 
framework, i.e. functional requirements in relation to data type, data usage and enforceability of European laws 
and fundamental principles.  
The Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership encourage Member States, cloud users and the cloud 
industry 
to contribute to the identification and completion of best practices, and to support their use wherever 
appropriate
. All stakeholders should seek to educate users on the meaning and impact of these best practices, 
and their suitability for particular use cases.  

                                        
                                                           
 
 
                   
10
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16

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Steering Board furthermore encourages the EU, Member States and cloud industry to seek out opportunities 
2.  Establishing new best practices and guidelines to steer the market towards customer friendly practices. 
to  support adherence to best practices (including both self-declarations of compliance and third party 
Key ongoing actions include the standardization of SLAs, the Safe and Fair Cloud Contract initiative, the 
certification), and to promote the use and value of appropriate certification schemes. A flexible and innovation 
drafting of a data protection Code of Conduct10, which should be endorsed by the Article 29 Working 
friendly approach will be crucial during these efforts, as the risk of elevating existing practices to the status of 
Party in order to ensure its legal authority, and the development of a Meta-framework of security 
obligations – thus creating future legacy problems and disrupting the potential for new innovations – must be 
certification schemes that can be used to compare and assess cloud computing security certification 
avoided.   
offerings. 11 Such best practices and similar security/privacy cloud-specific international standards should 
form a basis for adherence with EU security and privacy legal norms.  
The definition of best practices and the facilitation of compliance assessment are two key pillars of the Trusted 
3.  Facilitating the cross-border recognition of these best practices. Adherence to these best practices 
Cloud Europe framework, allowing the TCE to become a recognizable brand and a mark of quality for cloud 
should be verifiable and auditable without extensive case-by-case checks, since ad-hoc checks are not 
vendors, thus creating an additional selling proposition on the global market for cloud services.  
always financially or operationally viable, especially for citizens or SMEs that lack the know-how and 
 
economic resources to conduct such checks. Therefore, the use of self-declaration, third party audits and 
one-stop-shop certification/trust marking schemes should be supported where appropriate as a tool to 

Action 2 – Building consensus on the needs of specific use cases and on appropriate solutions. 
make adherence against the aforementioned best practices, accessible to as broad a market as 
possible.  
Any endorsed certification/trust marking practices should be industry driven and customer 
As shown in the examples above, several challenges still exist that disrupt the cross border offering of cloud 
centric, voluntary, lean and affordable, technology neutral and based on global standards wherever 
services across the internal market. A one-size-fits-all solution to cloud computing does not seem credible or 
possible, in order to avoid needlessly increasing costs, especially for SMEs. 
viable, as the needs for specific data or service types may vary quite widely. Personal data may require a higher 
 
level of protection than other types of data, and within the broad spectrum of personal data certain categories of 
It is clear that the economic potential of European cloud services depends on the ability to avoid any semblance 
information (e.g. health information or financial data) may be more sensitive. Rational risk management practices 
of a ‘Fortress Europe’ model where access to the European cloud market is de  facto  restricted to providers 
will therefore be key to ensuring that the needs of individual use cases can be correctly understood and 
established in the EU. Non-European cloud providers should be able to access the European cloud market on 
addressed. This is of particular importance for public sector cloud users, who have clear needs that are directly 
equal terms, and offer services that adhere to the best practices proposed as a part of the Trust Cloud Europe 
connected to their public interest function. 
framework, i.e. functional requirements in relation to data type, data usage and enforceability of European laws 
and fundamental principles.  
This can be chal enging for cloud providers who may be confronted by different requirements from Member State 
to Member State, but also for cloud users who may see their cloud ambitions blocked by obstacles that may not 
The Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership encourage Member States, cloud users and the cloud 
be justified. In order to reduce geographic fragmentation, it would be beneficial to build a consensus on how the 
industry to contribute to the identification and completion of best practices, and to support their use wherever 
needs of specific use cases can be satisfied by particular best practices. This can be done through public 
appropriate. All stakeholders should seek to educate users on the meaning and impact of these best practices, 
consultations, workshops, setting up coordination groups etc., targeting all stakeholders. Specifically:   
and their suitability for particular use cases.  
•  Consultations and workshops need to target non-legislative regulators, supervisory bodies, professional 
bodies and trade associations. This stakeholder group is just as influential as formal legislators in allowing 
or disallowing cloud services. These bodies should be encouraged to ensure that their guidelines and 
policies are at least cloud neutral (i.e. enable cloud services) wherever this is compatible with their goals. 
Furthermore, national and sector-specific bodies should create coordination groups to align their rules 
                                                            
and exchange best practices. In this way, geographic fragmentation could be avoided. They should be 
10 See https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/cloud-select-industry-group-code-conduct for an overview of the Code of Conduct activities.  
encouraged to educate their members on permissible and proper cloud adoption.   
11 See https://resilience.enisa.europa.eu/cloud-computing-certification/certification-in-the-eu-cloud-strategy and 
https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/cloud-select-industry-group-certification-schemes  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17

 
 
 
 
•  Consultations and workshops similarly need to target cloud users, including citizens, SMEs and larger 
businesses, either directly or via representative bodies such as consumer protection organisation, data 
protection/privacy protection associations, or NGOs, since their data may be entrusted to the cloud. 
Education and awareness raising will be key to ensure that cloud users are able to ask the right questions 
– where are my data hosted, how are they secured, what are my rights and how can I exercise them – 
which can only be meaningfully raised and understood with sufficient understanding of the cloud 
computing paradigm. In addition, these consultations should examine how enforcement can be made 
more accessible
. Given that particularly citizens and SMEs have limited resources for engaging in legal 
proceedings, enforceability depends on the establishment of a credible and accessible dispute resolution 
mechanism. This does not imply that the most stringent enforcement is necessary for any cloud service, 
irrespective of its scope or intended use, but rather that cloud users must have access credible and 
understandable options for recourse in case of incidents. 
•  Finally, consultations and workshops need to target Member States, in order to determine which 
barriers (if any) they encounter in adopting cloud computing, and in order to share best practices where 
available. Alignment, reform and harmonization of legal frameworks and policies may be appropriate in 
some cases where legislation creates unnecessary barriers to the internal market. 
Several ongoing 
actions already support this goal. The ongoing harmonization of EU Data Protection Rules is a key 
example: national legal divergences are a challenge for vendors, which smaller providers sometimes 
struggle to manage. Inversely, cloud users (including public administrations and business users) hesitate 
to entrust their data to clouds, for fear of compliance issues and liability. The Steering Board welcomes 
the harmonization efforts, and stresses the importance of a common interpretation of data protection 
rules in Europe, as foreseen within the ongoing negotiations on a EU Data Protection Regulation, as an 
essential condition for a single market for cloud computing.  
 
Col ectively, these consultations and workshops should help citizens, businesses and Member States to build a 
consensus on their challenges, as dictated by their individual interests and backgrounds, and to seek common 
solutions, building on best practices in the cloud market. An example of the latter are cloud-active procurement 
policies
 which have been adopted by some Member States. While details vary from country to country, such 
policies generally require administrations to at least consider cloud technologies (including both public and 
private clouds) for their IT procurements, and to ensure that their requirements do not needlessly exclude cloud 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
•  Consultations and workshops similarly need to target cloud users, including citizens, SMEs and larger 
technologies12. The objective of such policies is to change the mindset of procurers, to stimulate cloud adoption, 
businesses, either directly or via representative bodies such as consumer protection organisation, data 
and to ensure that the benefits of the cloud can be maximized by re-using successful services whenever possible.  
protection/privacy protection associations, or NGOs, since their data may be entrusted to the cloud. 
Education and awareness raising will be key to ensure that cloud users are able to ask the right questions 
Such policies and practices allow laws, policies, and al  related requirements to converge step by step around the 
– where are my data hosted, how are they secured, what are my rights and how can I exercise them – 
needs of specific use cases, thus facilitating access to the internal cloud market for cloud providers which adhere 
which can only be meaningfully raised and understood with sufficient understanding of the cloud 
to these requirements.  
computing paradigm. In addition, these consultations should examine how enforcement can be made 
This gradual approach appears most viable to address concerns that are felt in particular by the public sector. 
more accessible. Given that particularly citizens and SMEs have limited resources for engaging in legal 
Most Member States are presently exploring their options for the use of cloud technology (e.g. by deploying 
proceedings, enforceability depends on the establishment of a credible and accessible dispute resolution 
virtualization techniques and application stores within their own private IT infrastructures), preparing for the 
mechanism. This does not imply that the most stringent enforcement is necessary for any cloud service, 
moment that public cloud services can be verified to be reliable and secure, and that privacy protection can be 
irrespective of its scope or intended use, but rather that cloud users must have access credible and 
guaranteed. Member States will be empowered in making the choice between replacing or amending their own 
understandable options for recourse in case of incidents. 
internal infrastructure by rented infrastructure from an external cloud provider. 
•  Finally, consultations and workshops need to target Member States, in order to determine which 
Examples of expected convergences and alignment opportunities include notably the following:  
barriers (if any) they encounter in adopting cloud computing, and in order to share best practices where 
available. Alignment, reform and harmonization of legal frameworks and policies may be appropriate in 
•  Alignment of procurement rules and practices: Procurement rules in some Member States can make it 
some cases where legislation creates unnecessary barriers to the internal market. Several ongoing 
difficult to sell cloud solutions to the public sector. This is burdensome to public administrations, which 
actions already support this goal. The ongoing harmonization of EU Data Protection Rules is a key 
can be barred from technologically and economically advantageous solutions, but also for cloud 
example: national legal divergences are a challenge for vendors, which smaller providers sometimes 
providers, who are faced with different requirements from country to country. By sharing best practices, 
struggle to manage. Inversely, cloud users (including public administrations and business users) hesitate 
Member States can ensure that their procurement legislation and policies wil  become cloud enabled
to entrust their data to clouds, for fear of compliance issues and liability. The Steering Board welcomes 
Furthermore, they could work towards developing common approaches to public procurement of cloud 
the harmonization efforts, and stresses the importance of a common interpretation of data protection 
computing, or towards the mutual recognition of any existing national accreditation schemes, so that 
rules in Europe, as foreseen within the ongoing negotiations on a EU Data Protection Regulation, as an 
providers do not need to seek different certifications, accreditations or approvals in different Member 
essential condition for a single market for cloud computing.  
States. Similarly, Member States can share effective national budgeting policies to ensure that pay-as-
you go models
 (moving from capex to opex) can be enabled. 
 
•  Reduction of data location restrictions: Member State practices and in some instances national laws 
Col ectively, these consultations and workshops should help citizens, businesses and Member States to build a 
restrict the possibility of storage and processing of certain data (especially public sector data) outside 
consensus on their challenges, as dictated by their individual interests and backgrounds, and to seek common 
their territory. If common requirements can be found for similar use cases, Member States can choose to 
solutions, building on best practices in the cloud market. An example of the latter are cloud-active procurement 
gradual y phase out data location restrictions when they are deemed unnecessary. This does not imply 
policies which have been adopted by some Member States. While details vary from country to country, such 
that data controls should be abandoned; it is often possible and advisable to replace  formal legal 
policies generally require administrations to at least consider cloud technologies (including both public and 
requirements (such as geographic location of the data) by the corresponding functional requirements 
private clouds) for their IT procurements, and to ensure that their requirements do not needlessly exclude cloud 
(such as ensuring the accessibility and security of the data). State-of-the art security technologies could 
be regarded for some use cases as an alternative to data location restrictions. This goal oriented approach 
                                                            
12 In some cases, Member States have opted for ‘cloud first’ policies, which sometimes include stronger support for cloud technologies, e.g. 
by requiring procurers to prioritize cloud computing purchases where possible, or to justify any decision not to use cloud computing 
when a suitable cloud solution was available. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19

 
 
 
 
is technologically neutral, conducive to supporting innovation and new technologies, and enables public 
policy objectives to be more effectively reached.  
•  Establishment of common templates to address jurisdiction and enforcement concerns. Some of these 
concerns (notably on surveillance by national security bodies) can only be addressed in the longer term 
and exceed the remit of the European Cloud Partnership. However, practical solutions may develop as a 
result of consultations with Member States, the cloud industry and cloud users, which are able to address 
some of these concerns. For instance, Member States could voluntarily establish and accede to 
multilateral cooperation agreements, to clarify under which conditions they (or their authorized public 
sector bodies) wil  access data hosted by cloud providers established in their country
. Such opt-in 
agreements may also include rules with respect to cooperation obligations by cloud providers, or on the 
enforcement of foreign legal decisions. Such agreements would be aligned with applicable EU and 
national laws and jurisprudence, notably EU data protection law and especially the envisaged cooperation 
between national data protection authorities under the new EU Data Protection Regulation.  
•  Setting up public sector pilot cloud services at EU level: the public sector faces specific challenges and 
needs which are linked to their public policy objectives. This also implies that cloud solutions need to be 
tailored towards these unique needs. As a natural step in the alignment process, Member States could 
pilot public sector cloud applications with EU assistance, with a view to creating common building 
blocks and ensuring that fragmented national approaches and duplication of efforts are avoided
. Within 
the ECP, representatives of the Member States were polled on suggestions for pilot cases, with the 
following policy areas suggested as being particularly conducive to cloud pilots13:  
•  Public sector document management and communication. This would e.g. include national archives, 
library management, e-mail/e-delivery of documents towards the public sector, or public sector 
information (PSI) portals. Such use cases focus on the public sector need for confidentiality, 
trustworthy storage, and redundant capacity that would benefit from a distributed (cloud based) 
solution.  
•  Scientific research and data analysis, in the form of a  science cloud which could support the 
European research community through significant virtualized storage and processing power, 
supporting ‘big data’ analysis, data mining, advanced analytics and science grids in a secure and 
trustworthy manner.   
                                                            
13 For more details, see the working document, section 3. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
is technologically neutral, conducive to supporting innovation and new technologies, and enables public 
Inputs for such pilots are already available, including via projects such as Helix Nebula and GÉANT 
policy objectives to be more effectively reached.  
(science clouds), Hermes Preservation Services (digital archiving), CloudForEurope (cloud computing for 
the public sector in general), the technical solutions created by various large scale pilots (such as STORK, 
•  Establishment of common templates to address jurisdiction and enforcement concerns. Some of these 
PEPPOL, SPOCS and epSOS14), the secure communications network S-TESTA, and a legal framework that 
concerns (notably on surveillance by national security bodies) can only be addressed in the longer term 
would underpin the sustainability of some of the required services (electronic identification, signing, time 
and exceed the remit of the European Cloud Partnership. However, practical solutions may develop as a 
stamping, delivery, etc.) through the proposal for a Regulation on Electronic Identification and Trust 
result of consultations with Member States, the cloud industry and cloud users, which are able to address 
Services15. The main goal would therefore be to bring the existing building blocks together, to identify and 
some of these concerns. For instance, Member States could voluntarily establish and accede to 
address any remaining gaps, and to bring them to an operational stage. 
multilateral cooperation agreements, to clarify under which conditions they (or their authorized public 
sector bodies) wil  access data hosted by cloud providers established in their country
. Such opt-in 
The primary challenge for these pilots is funding, with many Member States noting that new pilots are 
agreements may also include rules with respect to cooperation obligations by cloud providers, or on the 
unlikely to be viable without EU level funding. Funding may be found under a future grant agreement as 
enforcement of foreign legal decisions. Such agreements would be aligned with applicable EU and 
part of Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP) or Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI), e.g. as part of 
national laws and jurisprudence, notably EU data protection law and especially the envisaged cooperation 
Specific Challenges from Horizon 2020 work programme16. The execution of these pilots would also 
between national data protection authorities under the new EU Data Protection Regulation.  
support and expand research and development efforts around cloud computing in Europe, contributing to 
the development of a strong and innovative European cloud industry offering.  
•  Setting up public sector pilot cloud services at EU level: the public sector faces specific challenges and 
needs which are linked to their public policy objectives. This also implies that cloud solutions need to be 
 
tailored towards these unique needs. As a natural step in the alignment process, Member States could 
pilot public sector cloud applications with EU assistance, with a view to creating common building 
The Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership requests the Commission to assist in setting up and 
blocks and ensuring that fragmented national approaches and duplication of efforts are avoided. Within 
executing the aforementioned consultations with cloud users, the cloud industry and public administrations, in 
the ECP, representatives of the Member States were polled on suggestions for pilot cases, with the 
order to build a consensus on the proper application of best practices to meet the needs of specific use cases.  
following policy areas suggested as being particularly conducive to cloud pilots13:  
The EU, Member States and industry bodies should be encouraged to seek cross border alignment of their rules, 
policies and practices
, in order to ensure that the internal market for cloud services operates effectively.  
•  Public sector document management and communication. This would e.g. include national archives, 
library management, e-mail/e-delivery of documents towards the public sector, or public sector 
 
information (PSI) portals. Such use cases focus on the public sector need for confidentiality, 
trustworthy storage, and redundant capacity that would benefit from a distributed (cloud based) 
solution.  
•  Scientific research and data analysis, in the form of a  science cloud which could support the 
European research community through significant virtualized storage and processing power, 
supporting ‘big data’ analysis, data mining, advanced analytics and science grids in a secure and 
trustworthy manner.   
                                                            
14 See http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/egovernment for details on these large scale pilots 
15 See http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2012:0238:FIN:en:PDF for the proposed Regulation. 
                                                            
16 The aforementioned CloudForEurope initiative has been funded following a successful response to a Call for Proposals under the FP7 
13 For more details, see the working document, section 3. 
work programme. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21

 
 
 
 
Concluding remarks 
 
As this paper has shown, there is a need for action to support the development and adoption of cloud computing 
in Europe. A single digital market, free of needless barriers or restrictions should be the ultimate objective, in 
which al  cloud users have access to high quality, secure and trustworthy cloud services. This goal can be achieved 
by relying on the identification and consistent application and promotion of best practices, and by building a 
consensus between citizens, businesses and administrations on how these should be applied, consistent with 
legal norms and policies.  
Collectively, these actions should ensure that the potential benefits of cloud services can be unlocked to as wide 
an audience as possible, without unique dependence on potentially lengthy legislative reform. Voluntary 
certification by third parties or self-declaration against identified best practices could act as a mark of quality for 
cloud vendors, and thus create an additional sel ing proposition on the global market. This wil  also make it easier 
for aspiring cloud users to choose a high quality partner that adheres to European best practices and 
expectations.  
The European Cloud Partnership cal s upon policy makers at the European and national level, and upon cloud 
providers and cloud users, to support this approach and to implement the proposed actions towards 
establishing the Trusted Cloud Europe framework, and thus enabling a single digital market for cloud services in 
Europe.  

Furthermore, the Steering Board of the ECP is conscious of the importance of establishing a broad consensus on 
the appropriate road forward. Therefore, the Board expresses its desire to set up a broader consultation around 
its observations, involving cloud users and cloud providers, in order to identify the right actions for the future

The building of a single market for cloud computing is an urgent objective. Cloud computing is not a technology of 
the future, it’s the technology of today. The actions aim to ensure that results can be provided that cloud vendors 
and cloud users can adopt right away, and that will help grow the market and drive new innovations. This requires 
voluntarism, and the genuine desire from Member States and cloud businesses to drive progress through all of 
the actions described above.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Concluding remarks 
The European Cloud Partnership thus recognizes that timing is of the essence, and emphasizes that the proposed 
actions must be initiated as soon as practicable. Provisionally, the following time table can be presented: 
 
 
As this paper has shown, there is a need for action to support the development and adoption of cloud computing 
Action 
Owner 
Deadline 
in Europe. A single digital market, free of needless barriers or restrictions should be the ultimate objective, in 
which all cloud users have access to high quality, secure and trustworthy cloud services. This goal can be achieved 
Finalisation of a model Code of Conduct, and obtaining its endorsement by the Article 29  Industry and  Ongoing. 
by relying on the identification and consistent application and promotion of best practices, and by building a 
Working Party 
users 
Finalisation 
consensus between citizens, businesses and administrations on how these should be applied, consistent with 
by end 2014 
legal norms and policies.  
Finalisation of SLA guidelines and the Safe and Fair Cloud Contract initiative guidance at  Industry and  Ongoing. 
the EU level (including issues of reversibility/interoperability) 
users 
Finalisation 
Collectively, these actions should ensure that the potential benefits of cloud services can be unlocked to as wide 
by end 2014 
an audience as possible, without unique dependence on potentially lengthy legislative reform. Voluntary 
certification by third parties or self-declaration against identified best practices could act as a mark of quality for 
Finalisation of ongoing data protection harmonization efforts in Europe, as foreseen  EU, MS, 
Ongoing. 
cloud vendors, and thus create an additional sel ing proposition on the global market. This wil  also make it easier 
within the ongoing negotiations on a EU Data Protection Regulation 
Industry and  Finalisation 
cloud users 
in 2014-
for aspiring cloud users to choose a high quality partner that adheres to European best practices and 
2015 
expectations.  
Organising consultations with cloud users (citizens, business and public EU, MS, 
Finalisation 
The European Cloud Partnership cal s upon policy makers at the European and national level, and upon cloud 
administrations) to ensure acceptance of the Code, SLA guidelines and Cloud Contract  Industry and  by end 2014 
providers and cloud users, to support this approach and to implement the proposed actions towards 
initiatives 
cloud users 
establishing the Trusted Cloud Europe framework, and thus enabling a single digital market for cloud services in 
Implementing and supporting certification mechanisms (in the broad sense, i.e.  EU, MS and  Finalisation 
Europe.  
including self-declaration, third party audits and one-stop-shop certification/trust  Industry 
by mid-2015 
marking schemes) against best practices, including in relation to security, Code of 
Furthermore, the Steering Board of the ECP is conscious of the importance of establishing a broad consensus on 
Conduct about Security and against the CoC and SLA / Fair Contract 
the appropriate road forward. Therefore, the Board expresses its desire to set up a broader consultation around 
its observations, involving cloud users and cloud providers, in order to identify the right actions for the future

Uptake of the CoC, SLA/Fair Contract and security certification by Industry (if finalised  Industry Finalisation 
successful y) 
by mid-2015 
The building of a single market for cloud computing is an urgent objective. Cloud computing is not a technology of 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU and 
Initiation by 
the future, it’s the technology of today. The actions aim to ensure that results can be provided that cloud vendors 
groups etc., targeting professional bodies and trade associations at the EU level to  Industry 
early 2015 
and cloud users can adopt right away, and that will help grow the market and drive new innovations. This requires 
ensure that their (non-legislative) guidelines and policies are cloud neutral  
voluntarism, and the genuine desire from Member States and cloud businesses to drive progress through all of 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
the actions described above.  
groups etc., targeting cloud users (citizens, businesses and public administrations) to  Industry and  early 2015 
ensure that they are transparently informed and to find effective enforcement  users 
mechanisms. 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
groups etc., targeting Member States to identify any explicit and implicit legal roadblocks  Industry and  early 2015 
to cloud computing in key cloud use cases. 
users 
Study on data categorisation from the perspective of MS, in order to identify required  EU,  MS  and  Initiation by 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23

 
 
 
 
The European Cloud Partnership thus recognizes that timing is of the essence, and emphasizes that the proposed 
actions must be initiated as soon as practicable. Provisionally, the following time table can be presented: 
 
Action 
Owner 
Deadline 
Finalisation of a model Code of Conduct, and obtaining its endorsement by the Article 29  Industry and  Ongoing. 
Working Party 
users 
Finalisation 
by end 2014 
Finalisation of SLA guidelines and the Safe and Fair Cloud Contract initiative guidance at  Industry and  Ongoing. 
the EU level (including issues of reversibility/interoperability) 
users 
Finalisation 
by end 2014 
Finalisation of ongoing data protection harmonization efforts in Europe, as foreseen  EU, MS, 
Ongoing. 
within the ongoing negotiations on a EU Data Protection Regulation 
Industry and  Finalisation 
cloud users 
in 2014-
2015 
Organising consultations with cloud users (citizens, business and public EU, MS, 
Finalisation 
administrations) to ensure acceptance of the Code, SLA guidelines and Cloud Contract  Industry and  by end 2014 
initiatives 
cloud users 
Implementing and supporting certification mechanisms (in the broad sense, i.e.  EU, MS and  Finalisation 
including self-declaration, third party audits and one-stop-shop certification/trust  Industry 
by mid-2015 
marking schemes) against best practices, including in relation to security, Code of 
Conduct about Security and against the CoC and SLA / Fair Contract 
Uptake of the CoC, SLA/Fair Contract and security certification by Industry (if finalised  Industry Finalisation 
successful y) 
by mid-2015 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU and 
Initiation by 
groups etc., targeting professional bodies and trade associations at the EU level to  Industry 
early 2015 
ensure that their (non-legislative) guidelines and policies are cloud neutral  
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
 
groups etc., targeting cloud users (citizens, businesses and public administrations) to  Industry and  early 2015 
ensure that they are transparently informed and to find effective enforcement  users 
 
mechanisms. 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
 
groups etc., targeting Member States to identify any explicit and implicit legal roadblocks  Industry and  early 2015 
to cloud computing in key cloud use cases. 
users 
 
Study on data categorisation from the perspective of MS, in order to identify required  EU,  MS  and  Initiation by 
assurances from a legal and technological perspective (including enforcement) 
users 
early 2015 
 
 
Selection and initiation of selected cloud pilots 
EU, MS and  Initiation by 
 
 
Industry 
end of 2015 
 
   
 
Ultimately, all of Europe needs to form a single market for cloud computing based on best practices and a 
common understanding of these best practices and their role in enabling cloud computing, in order to become a 
leader in trustworthy cloud provision and cloud adoption in the global market. This is the only way to maintain a 
strong and competitive economy in a challenging environment.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24

 
 
 
 
The European Cloud Partnership thus recognizes that timing is of the essence, and emphasizes that the proposed 
actions must be initiated as soon as practicable. Provisionally, the following time table can be presented: 
 
Action 
Owner 
Deadline 
Finalisation of a model Code of Conduct, and obtaining its endorsement by the Article 29  Industry and  Ongoing. 
Working Party 
users 
Finalisation 
by end 2014 
Finalisation of SLA guidelines and the Safe and Fair Cloud Contract initiative guidance at  Industry and  Ongoing. 
the EU level (including issues of reversibility/interoperability) 
users 
Finalisation 
by end 2014 
Finalisation of ongoing data protection harmonization efforts in Europe, as foreseen  EU, MS, 
Ongoing. 
within the ongoing negotiations on a EU Data Protection Regulation 
Industry and  Finalisation 
cloud users 
in 2014-
2015 
Organising consultations with cloud users (citizens, business and public EU, MS, 
Finalisation 
administrations) to ensure acceptance of the Code, SLA guidelines and Cloud Contract  Industry and  by end 2014 
initiatives 
cloud users 
Implementing and supporting certification mechanisms (in the broad sense, i.e.  EU, MS and  Finalisation 
including self-declaration, third party audits and one-stop-shop certification/trust  Industry 
by mid-2015 
marking schemes) against best practices, including in relation to security, Code of 
Conduct about Security and against the CoC and SLA / Fair Contract 
Uptake of the CoC, SLA/Fair Contract and security certification by Industry (if finalised  Industry Finalisation 
successful y) 
by mid-2015 
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU and 
Initiation by 
groups etc., targeting professional bodies and trade associations at the EU level to  Industry 
early 2015 
ensure that their (non-legislative) guidelines and policies are cloud neutral  
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
 
groups etc., targeting cloud users (citizens, businesses and public administrations) to  Industry and  early 2015 
ensure that they are transparently informed and to find effective enforcement  users 
 
mechanisms. 
European Commission
Establishing a Trusted Cloud Europe –  
Consensus building through public consultations, workshops, setting up coordination  EU, MS, 
Initiation by 
 
A policy vision document by the Steering Board of the European Cloud Partnership
groups etc., targeting Member States to identify any explicit and implicit legal roadblocks  Industry and  early 2015 
to cloud computing in key cloud use cases. 
users 
Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union
 
Study on data categorisation from the perspective of MS, in order to identify required  EU,  MS  and  Initiation by 
2014 – A4 – 28 pages
assurances from a legal and technological perspective (including enforcement) 
users 
early 2015 
ISBN 978-92-79-36734-2
 
doi:10.2759/44445
 
Selection and initiation of selected cloud pilots 
EU, MS and  Initiation by 
 
 
Industry 
end of 2015 
 
   
 
Ultimately, all of Europe needs to form a single market for cloud computing based on best practices and a 
common understanding of these best practices and their role in enabling cloud computing, in order to become a 
leader in trustworthy cloud provision and cloud adoption in the global market. This is the only way to maintain a 
strong and competitive economy in a challenging environment.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



KK-01-14-281-EN-N
For further information
European Commission

Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content & Technology
Directorate Net Futures
Software & Services, Cloud
B-1049 Brussels
[correo electrónico]
28