Esta es la versión HTML de un fichero adjunto a una solicitud de acceso a la información 'Financing the distribution of dairy products as part of the response to humanitarian crises'.

Ref. Ares(2018)4147635 - 07/08/2018
HIP/Decision Reference
Agreement number:
Action type
Non-emergency action
Document type
Submission date
1.1 Name of Humanitarian organisation
1.2 Title of the Action
Emergency Food Assistance to People Affected by Unrest in Syria
1.3 Narrative summary
The Syria crisis is described as the worst humanitarian and protection crisis in the world. Since its start,
mover 11 million have been forced to flee from their homes. A consequence of the conflict,
displacement is one of the main drivers of household food insecurity.
Over five years of conflict have resulted in economic recession, damage to vital infrastructure, and
increased poverty levels, which eroded the development of sustainable livelihoods and caused costly
losses for both current and future generations. One third of the Syrian population now lives in poverty
and over half the working age population is unemployed. Human development gains have witnessed a
dramatic reversal, as infrastructural damage and economic recession have left healthcare facilities,
schools and other essential services unable to meet the population's needs.
In response to the conflict in Syria, in 2011 WFP launched an emergency operation in October 2011 to
provide life-saving food assistance to the conflict affected population. Initially targeting 50,000 people,
WFP progressively scaled-up its response to a rapidly deteriorating humanitarian crisis. Currently, WFP
is targeting up to 4,5 million vulnerable conflict-affected people on a monthly basis, through a
combination of general food assistance, livelihoods recovery interventions, specialised nutrition
programmes and education support.
Under this action, ECHO's contribution would allow WFP procure 17,500 mt of milk produced in the EU,
to be delivered to schools across the country in support of 500,000 pre-primary and primary school
children during the 2016-17 and 2017-18 academic years, along with the fortified date bars, as part of
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the existing Fortified School Snacks Programme. 
1.4 Area of intervention
World area Country
Aleppo, Homs, Rural Damascus,
Damascus, Tartous, Al-Hasakeh, Hama,
1.5 Dates and duration of the Action
Start date of the Action
Duration of the Action in months
Start date for eligibility of expenditure
Justify the duration of the eligibility period before the start date
2.1 Presence in the area
WFP has had a continued presence in Syria for almost 50 years, providing more than USD 1 billion
worth of food assistance into the country through development and emergency operations. Prior to the
current conflict, WFP, together with its partner organization the Syrian Arab Red Crescent (SARC),
responded to emergency food needs following consecutive droughts, assisted in the implementation of
school feeding programmes and provided assistance to Iraqi refugees seeking sanctuary in Syria.
2.2 Synergies with other actions
Under this action, the ECHO contribution of EUR 30 million will enable WFP to procure 17,500 mt of
milk to be distributed, along with fortified snacks, to school children as part of the Fortified School
Snacks Programme (FSSP). The FSSP was launched by WFP in August 2014 in an effort to contribute
to the overall objective of the No Lost Generation Initiative, an inter-agency response strategy led by
UNICEF to ensure the education and protection rights of children and youth are not compromised by the
conflict. The strategy recommends a range of interventions to maintain and improve access to learning
and protection, and provide children with learning and development opportunities necessary for life after
the crisis ends. The FSSP is identified as an integral component of the education package, in its role to
support a return to learning and encourage regular classroom attendance.
Furthermore The FSSP is implemented by WFP as part of its Emergency Operation to people affected
by the current crisis in Syria. Starting with an initial 50,000 people in October 2011, WFP's emergency
food assistance has progressively increased in response to the widespread devastation caused by the
conflict, and is currently targeting up to 4.5 million vulnerable people on a monthly basis through a
combination of general food assistance and early recovery interventions. This is part of the 2016 Syria
Humanitarian Response Plan to reach 7.5 million people with food assistance out of the 8.7 million
people in need (PIN) identified by the WoS Food Security Sector.
In addition to the emergency food assistance and livelihoods support, WFP implements nutrition
programmes, including supplementary feeding programmes aimed to prevent or treat acute malnutrition
and micronutrient deficiencies among children under the age of five, and a cash-based transfer scheme
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providing fresh food vouchers for vulnerable pregnant and lactating women (PLW) to improve their
dietary diversity and micronutrient intake.
3.1 Needs and risk analysis
3.1.1 Date(s) of assessment
During 2015, WFP conducted two significant food security assessments were carried out in cooperation
with FAO, the Government of Syria, and NGOs. The FAO/WFP Crop and Food Security Assessment
Mission (CFSAM) was conducted in May 2015, the first one since 2013. WFP was able to conduct a
Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Assessment (FSA), the first-ever household food
security survey in Syria, between May and June 2015.
As part of the Education Sector, WFP supported a "Syria Education Sector Analysis" conducted by
UNICEF between April and May 2015 in partnership with the Ministry of Education (MoE) and CBS.
In addition, WFP regularly conducts monitoring visits to gather household-level information on food
consumption patterns, access to food and coping capacity among assisted households, as well as data
on food market prices to produce monthly market price bulletins.
3.1.2 Assessment methodology
Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission (CFSAM)
The 2015 CFSAM was based on a combination on interviews and focus group discussions at national
and governorate level with key stakeholders including all relevant ministries and departments. Primary
data was collected through households gathering information on agriculture; food, livelihoods, and
agricultural needs; local food market conditions, and household food security. In addition to the
information gathered, other sources of information were used for triangulation including
vegetation-related satellite imagery (NDVI and ASIS), records and reports from MAAR and the Central
Bureau of Statistics, and reports published by the UN and other agencies.
Food Security Assessment (FSA)
The FSA is a baseline survey that provides an in-depth picture of the food security situation and the
vulnerability of households in a given country. The FSA uses the consolidated approach for reporting
indicators (CARI) of food security to assess the multiple dimensions of food insecurity, namely the
nutrition quality of food consumption, household resilience to shocks (coping capacity), poverty and food
poverty status, and livelihood coping capacity. These combine to give a holistic picture of the prevalence
of food insecurity in Syria. Overall, the assessment sought to map out the number of food insecure
households, identify underlying causes of food insecurity, and establish a baseline to monitor food
security outcomes against. The data collected for the 2015 FSA enables WFP to implement improved
evidence-based programming and the data was also used for the 2016 Humanitarian Needs Overview
The FSA collected primary data through household interviews and focus group discussions covering
more than 19,000 in 301 sub-districts/neighbourhoods in 12 governorates. The survey was conducted
from three regional hubs - Damascus (Syria), Amman (Jordan) and Gaziantep (Turkey) - and included
active participation of partners. The sampling frame and the sample design is representative at the
national, governorate, district and urban and rural levels. Due to access and security constraints, it was
not possible to conduct the survey in Ar Raqqa and Deir Ezzor governorates.
Syria Education Sector Analysis 2014-2015
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[Please see Annex I to read the rest of the text.]
3.1.3 Problem, needs and risk analysis
The Syria crisis is described as the worst humanitarian and protection crisis in the world. Since its start,
more than 250,000 people have lost their lives and over 11 million have been forced to flee from their
homes. Of these, over 4.8 million have become refugees outside of the country, while 6.5 million are
displaced internally. A consequence of the conflict, the massive level of displacement is one of the main
drivers of household food insecurity.
Five years of conflict have resulted in economic recession, damage to vital infrastructure, and increased
poverty levels, which eroded the development of sustainable livelihoods and caused costly losses for
both current and future generations. One third of the Syrian population now lives in poverty and over
half the working age population is now unemployed.
According to CFSAM's findings, the agricultural sector has suffered significant losses due to the
negative consequences of the conflictReduced access to land, shortage and high cost of agricultural
inputs and labour, destruction of standing crops and difficulty in marketing products due to insecurity and
movement restrictions have all drastically compromised human, physical and financial capacity to carry
out adequate food production to meet the national food requirements. Similarly, the livestock sector has
suffered substantially since 2011, due to the combined effect of reduced access to pasture, scarcity and
high cost of fodder and inadequate veterinary services.
Insufficient food production, combined with reduced government subsidies and currency depreciation,
led to steady and sharp food prices increases Since the onset of the crisis the prices of the main food
commodities have increased substantially both in nominal and in real terms. The average prices of
wheat flour, lentils and sugar have more than tripled since 2011. The nominal price of rice rose by 54
percent during the first half of 2015 only. The prices of fresh products such as milk have witnessed even
more dramatic increases, up to 500 percent when compared to pre-crisis levels.
On average, the cost of a standard food basket is now three times higher compared to pre-crisis levels,
while income levels have remained stagnant, further reducing the purchasing power of Syria families
and their ability of poor households to meet their food needs.
Accordingly, food insecurity in Syria has deteriorated over recent years and has now reached worrying
levels. According to results of the 2015 Food Security Assessment (FSA), one third of the Syrian
population is acutely food insecure and do not have adequate access to food. In addition, more than half
of the population is at risk of becoming food insecure.
In all governorates surveyed, the overwhelming majority of people are either already food insecure or at
risk of becoming food insecure. Across the country, people living in rural areas are more food insecure
in comparison to urban areas. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) give rise to the greatest concern
because they are the most vulnerable and the most food insecure. More than 40 percent of IDPs and
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returnees are food insecure. That compares to about 30 percent of the resident population. Further
analysis by gender of the head of household shows that female-headed households have a higher rate
of food insecurity than male headed-households. The protracted crisis has further eroded household
resilience and capacities to cope with food deprivation. A significant proportion of these were found
using extreme coping strategies leading to long-term and irreversible consequences, including reducing
the quantity and quality of food consumed, selling assets, going into debt and withdrawing children from
These observations are confirmed by findings from WFP monitoring activities. In the last quarter of
2015, monitoring data indicated that about 11 percent of female and 5 percent of male headed
household had poor food consumption score, due to low frequency in consumption of vitamin and
protein-rich food such as meat and dairy food items. Data analysis for the first quarter of 2016 show the
same trend, with 10 percent of female and 7 percent male headed households showing poor food
consumptions core. This is mainly due to limited income to complement food assistance, as the majority
of the households were noted to be relying on unsustainable income sources including petty trading and
casual labour. Dietary change and rationing are among the most widespread coping strategies applied
by food insecure households. Almost all interviewed households reported consuming cheaper, lower
quality and less preferred food, as the first coping strategy employed when they face food shortages.
Other food consumption-related coping strategies include limiting portion sizes at meals times and
reducing the number of meals. According to the FSA, approximately 35 percent of the surveyed
households had either low or medium dietary diversity, with their diet consisting mainly of cereal, sugar
and oil, whereas vegetables are consumed a maximum of three days per week. Fruits and meat are
rarely consumed by these households, and the consumption of dairy products is also limited, with
households with low dietary diversity indicators consuming them only one or two times a week. WFP
programme monitoring findings confirm the low consumption of dairy products, including milk, among
WFP assisted beneficiaries, with the majority of interviewed households consuming these food items
less than three days per week.
Human development gains have also witnessed a dramatic reversal, as infrastructural damage and
economic recession have left healthcare facilities, schools and other essential services unable to meet
the population's needs. The 2014 Human Development Index ranks Syria at 118, a considerable fall
from 2005 in which the country held the rank of 106. A particularly notable consequence has been a
dramatic degradation of the social service infrastructure, with a specific decline in educational services.
According to the 2015 Humanitarian Needs Overview, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
reports an acute paucity of functioning learning spaces, citing more than 4,000 schools across the
country as either damaged, destroyed, used as IDP shelters or occupied by various parties to the
conflict. Reportedly, of 22,000 schools pre-crisis, only 17,480 schools remain functional, and these
facilities operate on multiple shifts to accommodate the significant need for learning space.
[Please see Annex I to read the rest of the text.]
3.1.4 Response analysis
In response to the conflict in Syria, WFP and its partners have been providing life-saving support to
conflict-affected families in all 14 governorates of Syria, though due to access constraints, WFP is
currently operating in 12 governorates. Starting with an initial 50,000 people in October 2011, WFP's
emergency food assistance has progressively increased in response to the widespread devastation
caused by the conflict. In 2016, WFP aims to provide general emergency food assistance to 4 million
people across the country. A further 500,000 are planned to be assisted through early recovery
interventions initiated in 2016 to restore, protect and promote livelihoods and increase households'
resilience to future shocks. This is part of the 2016 Syria Humanitarian Response Plan to reach 7.5
million people with food assistance out of the 8.7 million people in need (PIN) identified by the WoS
Food Security Sector.
In addition to the emergency food assistance and livelihoods support, WFP implements nutrition
programmes,including supplementary feeding programmes aimed to prevent or treat acute malnutrition
and micronutrient deficiencies among children under the age of five, and a cash-based transfer scheme
providing fresh food vouchers for vulnerable pregnant and lactating women (PLW) to improve their
dietary diversity and micronutrient intake.
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Since August 2014, WFP has been implementing a Fortified School Snacks Program (FSSP) in Syria to
support crisis-affected children in attaining educational goals. The programme seeks to enhance
enrolment while improving attendance for 500,000 school children. Currently, the programme targets
pre- and primary school children in areas with a high concentration of IDPs and low education
performance, as reflected by key education indicators (enrolment and attendance rates).On each school
day, conditional upon attendance, each child in targeted schools receives a fortified date bar (80
g)which ensures a caloric transfer of 340 Kcal. Acknowledging the poor consumption of dairy products
observed among vulnerable households across the country, during the 2016-17 and 2017-18 academic
years WFP aims to distribute 200 ml rations of UHT milk, providing 120 Kcal, along with the fortified date
bars to children benefiting from the FSSP. This will improve the milk consumption levels among the
assited children and bring the total kcal delivery to almost 500 kcal. or 30% of the daily energy
requirement for school children.
The programme is implemented in schools benefitting from UNICEF support to enhance learning
outcomes, where UNICEF provides school supplies and learning materials. Additionally, school
rehabilitation efforts by UNICEF aim to increase the number of learning spaces. The programme is
coordinated with the Ministry of Education on technical aspects.
Results highlighted by monitoring data collected in 2015 illustrate the positive impact of the FSSP and
the overall importance of UNICEF and WFP working jointly together in schools. When compared to
baseline data collected in 2014, attendance rates among boys in assisted schools showed and increase
from 82 to 87 percent. Among girls the improvement is even more significant, with an increase from 81
to 91 percent. Similarly, retention rates were recorded at high levels, 96 percent, with no significant
differences between boys an girls.
Under this action, ECHO's donation will enable WFP to boost the nutritional content of the school
snacks provided to children by including fortified milk, enriched with essential minerals and vitamins.
The contribution would allow WFP procure 17,500 mt of milk produced in the EU (at a commodity cost
of USD 1,500 per mt) , to be delivered to schools across the country in support of 500,000 pre-primary
and primary school children during the 2016-17 and 2017-18 academic years, as part of the existing
FSSP programme. Each academic year starts in mid-September and ends in early May, with a total of
140 school days. In addition to the fortified date bars currently provided to school children in assisted
schools, each child will receive a 200 ml of UHT milk, which will provides a caloric transfer of 120 kcal.
3.1.5 Previous evaluation or lessons learned exercise relevant for this Action
No Brief summary
3.2 Beneficiaries
3.2.1 Estimated total number of direct beneficiaries targeted by the Action
3.2.2 Estimated disaggregated data about direct beneficiaries (only
for individuals)

Estimated %
% of female
% of male
of target
Infants and
20 %
49 %
51 %
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Infants and
20 %
49 %
51 %
young children
(0-59 months)

Children (5-17
80 %
49 %
51 %
Adults (18-49
- %
- %
- %
Elderly (> 50
- %
- %
- %
3.2.3 Does the action specifically target certain groups or vulnerabilities?
Yes If yes, which groups or vulnerabilities?
Infants and young children - Children - Male - Female
3.2.4 Beneficiaries selection criteria
The Fortified School Snack Programme (FSSP) aims to provide fortified school snacks to all boys and girls
of the pre-primary and primary school children(aged 4-12 years). Targeted schools are selected in
sub-districts with high food security indicators, as identified by the FSA, as well as poor education
indicators and high concentration of IDPs.
Moreover, in order to maximize the impact of the support to education and ensure a comprehensive sector
approach, WFP selects schools that are assisted by UNICEF. Schools are selected in clusters to minimise
pulling children from neighbouring schools to benefit from the programme whereas clustering of schools is
also expected to create impact in concentrated geographic zones. Targeted governorates include Aleppo,
Homs, Rural Damascus, Damascus, Tartous, Al-Hasakeh, Hama, Lattakia, and Ar Raqqa and Deir Ezzor
when access becomes feasible. (See a tentative preliminary list of targeted schools attached).
WFP works in close co-ordination with UNICEF and other education sector partners to support the delivery
of a comprehensive package in targeted schools, which include psycho-social support, school supplies,
teacher trainings and risk management trainings. Bearing in mind growing concerns over the safety of
children in light of volatile security conditions in the country, UNICEF and other education sector partners
are supporting protection related initiatives, including a sensitization campaign for children and teachers on
the threats and mitigation measures that can be adopted. Other initiatives include the establishment of
safe havens in schools, and the development of emergency response plans and general safety protocols.
3.2.5 Beneficiaries involvement in the Action
3.2.6 More details on beneficiaries
4.1 Principal objective
The FSSP in Syria aims at improving regular access to education, while increasing micronutrient intake
of children through the regular provision of fortified school snacks. The program also directly contributes
to the local economy through the local purchase of datebars. At present, WFP locally buys 10 percent of
its annual requirements for the programme.
4.2 Specific objective
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4.2.1 Specific objective - Short description
To increase enrolment, attendance and retention rates in targeted schools. 
4.2.2 Specific objective - Detailed description
The FSSP aims to increase enrolment, attendance and retention rates, specifically targeting areas with
a high concentration of IDPs, high food insecurity and low education performance, by providing fortified
date bars as well as UHT milk produced in the EU to children on each school day in selected areas.
In parallel to the educational objectives of the programme, WFP will continue to positively impact the
local economy by leveraging the demand of the programme to enhance local production capacities and
increase local procurement.
4.2.3 Specific objective - Indicators Specific objective indicator (1/4)
Number of children (disaggregated by gender and age) provided with fortified date bars and UHT milk on
school days
Target value 
Source and method of data collection
Implementing partners' monthly distribution reports Specific objective indicator (2/4)
Attendance rate (boys) in assisted schools
Target value 
> 80
Source and method of data collection
WFP monitoring reports (baseline 82) Specific objective indicator (3/4)
Attendance rate (girls) in assisted schools
Target value 
> 80 
Source and method of data collection
WFP monitoring reports (baseline 81) Specific objective indicator (4/4)
Average Kcal transfer per child per school day
Target value 
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Source and method of data collection
Implementing partners' monthly distribution reports
4.3 Results
Result (1/1) - Details
Nutritious foods (fortified date bars and UHT milk) distributed in sufficient quantity, quality and timely to
targeted school children
Education in emergencies
Formal education
Safe and accessible learning environements
Estimated total amount
Result (1/1) - Beneficiaries
Estimated total number of direct beneficiaries targeted by the Action
Individuals per
Total individuals
Beneficiaries type
IDP - Population - Returnees
Does the Action specifically target certain groups or vulnerabilities?
Specific target group or vunerabilities
Infants and young children - Children - Male - Female
More comments on beneficiaries
• Under the FSSP, WFP will target 500,000 pre-primary and primary school children living in areas with
high food insecurity levels, poor education indicators and high concentration of IDPs. Targeted schools will
be identified in coordination with UNICEF.

Result (1/1) - Indicators
Result 1 - Indicator 1
Type / Subsector
Number of days in which UHT milk was distributed (as percentage of school days)
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Target value
Source and method of data collection
Implementing partners' monthly distribution reports
Each academic year has 140 school days.
Result 1 - Indicator 2
Type / Subsector
Tonnage of fortified foods distributed (as percentage of planned)
Target value
Source and method of data collection
Implementing partners' monthly distribution reports
Over the reporting period, WFP plans to distribute 32,400 mt of fortified foods to a maximum of 500,000
pre-primary and primary school children. This includes 14,550 mt of fortified date bars for 17,537,524 EUR
and 17,457 mt of UHT milk for 23,122,320 EUR. 
Result (1/1) - Indicators comments
Additional comments on indicators
Result (1/1) - Activities
Result 1 - Activity 1
Short description
Procurement and delivery of commodities to targeted schools 
Detailed description
 The fortified date bars will be procured from regional or local manufacturers, while the milk will be
of EU origin. Once arriving at the entry ports, these commodities are transported by contracted
transport companies to WFP storage facilities inside the country, and subsequently dispatched to
targeted schools on a monthly basis. Please see section 6.1 of this proposal for additional details
on WFP supply chain system. 

Result 1 - Activity 2
Short description
Storage and handling of commodities
Detailed description
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Result 1 - Activity 3
Short description
Daily distribution of nutritious foods (fortified date bars and UHT milk) to pre and primary school children in
the targeted schools 
Detailed description
Please see the tentative distribution plan attached. 
Result 1 - Activity 4
Short description
Distribution and post-distribution monitoring in targeted schools by WFP monitors or designated
Detailed description
Please see section 8.1 of this proposal for further details on the monitoring activities
4.4 Preconditions
• Access to functioning education facilities is provided by the responsible authorities in Syria and
humanitarian actors. • Continuing conflict will not further impede access to assess needs and deliver food
commodities to targeted beneficiaries. • No pipeline breaks of food commodities or disruptions to the
supply chain are encountered, enabling the timely and regular provision of food items • Regular monitoring
is ensured to project sites through field visits to participating schools. 
4.5 Assumptions and risks
1. Deterioration of security conditions. Security incidents including mortars and rocket attacks and clashes
continued to increase during 2015. Risk to staff safety continue and represent the greatest threat to
sustaining WFP operations in Syria. Further deterioration of the security environment may force WFP to
reduce its footprint inside the country by deploying both national and international staff to work from
alternative locations. 2. Diversification of service providers. The conflict has heavily affected the Syrian
public and private sectors' capacity and disrupted the previously existing supply-chain network, leading to
a scarcity of service providers needed by WFP in order to carry out its operations. 3. Delays in
procurement, delivery and import procedures. Delays in tendering, contracting suppliers and delivery to
Syrian ports by the EU milk producer may result in delays in the implementation of the milk distirbutions.
Additionally, delays in customs clearance procedures may result in the commodity to be held at the port,
reducing the permissible shelf life of the commodity for import into Syria. 4. Deterioration of the commodity
during transport and storage. Due to the sensitivity of milk as a commodity, losses might occur while
transporting and handling the commodities from ports to WFP warehouses and then to recipient schools.
While in storage there is a risk of spoilage since most schools have inadequate storage conditions and milk
may be susceptible to direct sunlight, moisture or a humid environment. 5. Unstable, irregular and
insufficient funding. Late and insufficient resources might compromise WFP's ability to implement the
activities at planned levels. 6. Manipulation of aid for political, military or financial gain. Aid manipulation or
diversion by parties to the conflict for political, military or financial gain continues to represent a significant
risk in Syria operational environment. 7. Constraints to humanitarian access. Access restrictions continue
to affect the ability to assess humanitarian needs, as well as to deliver assistance through available
modalities (cross line, cross border and regular) in many areas. In particular, deliveries through the
Nusaybin border crossing have been severely compromised since September 2015, affecting WFP's ability
to implement planned activities in Al-Hasakeh governorate. 8. Limited capacity of Cooperating Partners.
The implementation and diversification of WFP's portfolio of assistance under this EMOP may be
constrained by limited technical and other capacities of its partners. 9. Looting or misappropriation of WFP
food. A deterioration in the security situation and fragmentation of conflict may further shrink humanitarian
space and increase attacks on humanitarian convoys, heightening the risk of food losses. 10. Negative
media portrayal of WFP and its cooperating partners. The risk of any part of the United Nations system
being perceived to direct humanitarian assistance to either side of the conflict due to propaganda or
negative media coverage may discredit the reputation of the United Nations in Syria and increase threats
against assets and staff. 
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4.6 Contingency measures
1. Deterioration of security conditions. Staff safety remains a key priority for WFP. Remote
management plans have been developed, including the use of WFP's Lebanon and Jordan offices,
should a further deterioration of the security condition force WFP to reduce its footprint within the
country. Security Risk Assessments (SRA) are periodically undertaken by the security team to
identify programme, vulnerability and threat levels. The SRA informs the Minimum Operating
Security Standards (MOSS), which sets the required standards and mitigation measures for
operations in volatile environments. The MOSS dictates the standard operating procedures (SOP)
in operational areas such as emergency communication systems, security management system,
vehicle and staff movements, medical support services, security of premises and facilities,
security trainings and briefings and residential security measures. Accordingly, a series of
mitigation measures are currently in place, including the use of armoured vehicles for all official
movements inside Syria, vehicle GPS tracking systems, regular radio checks, security clearances,
an effective warden system, evacuation plans for international staff and relocation of local staff to
residences to safer areas. Moreover, WFP staff are required to take specific security trainings to
minimize the risks on the ground. Moreover, drivers get a defensive driving training specifically
tailored to drivers in a hostile environment. In addition, as the security situation on the ground
remain fluid and unstable, WFP coordinates regularly with relevant local actors and partners on
the ground to ensure that all staff movements and missions take place within minimum security

2. 2. Diversification of service providers. WFP continuously assesses potential suppliers in order to
foster increased competition and reducing the risk of relying on too few providers. WFP will
continue to build the capacity of smaller companies. During 2015, WFP Logistics was able to
increase the number of commercial transport providers.

3. Delays in procurement, delivery and import procedures.  The programme team will coordinate
closely with the Procurement and Logistics unit to ensure that tendering and contracting timelines
are strictly adhered to and port based WFP staff maintain close coordination with port customs

4. Deterioration of the commodity during transport and storage.  Close coordination will take place
with WFP logistics staff to ensure that port staff and transporters are aware of milk transport and
handling guidelines along with being capacitated where necessary. In addition, WFP will provide
prefabricated storage facilities to schools lacking adequate storage facilities. Moreover, WFP will
undertake regular programme implementation capacity building trainings for school teachers and
principals in order to enhance schools' commodity management school capacities.

[Please see Annex I to read the rest of the text]
4.7 Additional information on the operational context of Action
Widespread insecurity and other access restrictions continue to constrain regular and sustained
humanitarian access in several parts of the country. As the situation of the ground remains fluid, shifting
conflict lines and outbreaks of fighting might further shrunk or modify access patterns particularly in high
conflicts regions of the country.
Approximately 4.5 million people live in areas that are subject to movement restrictions or entirely cut off
from the rest of the country. In these areas, estimates suggest that more than half the population, 2.5
million people, are facing severe hunger, including almost 500,000 people in 18 locations besieged by
different parties to the conflict. WFP, in coordination with other UN agencies and local cooperating
partners, continues to put in place efforts to deliver life-saving assistance to the population in need in
these areas, through all available access modalities, including cross-border and cross-line deliveries. In
April 2016, WFP started conducting emergency airdrops to provide life saving food assistance for 100,000
Page 12

people living in the government-held parts of Deir Ezzor city, which have besieged by surrounding ISIL
forces for over two years
Deliveries to areas under the control of ISIL are currently not viable, as all plans to deliver assistance to
these areas have been suspended due to the inability to work independently and monitor activities. This is
preventing WFP from reaching Ar-Raqqa and most of Deir Ezzor governorates, as well as in pockets of
northern rural Aleppo, southern rural Al-Hasakeh and north-western rural Hama.
Since the end of 2015, the continued closure and interrupted access through borders surrounding
Al-Hasakeh are affecting the delivery of humanitarian supplies to the governorate, compromising WFP
capacity to implement the planned activities, including the FSSP in targeted schools. WFP continues to
advocate all parties to enable humanitarian deliveries through all viable international borders providing
access Al-Hasakeh governorate. 
The unstable security situation in Aleppo city and along the key supply lines also leads to recurrent
temporary suspensions of access to the city, causing disruptions in the implementation of planned
activities in the city, including the FSSP currently targeting schools in the western part of the city.
5.1 Gender-age markers
5.1.1 Marker Details

Does the proposal contain an
adequate and brief gender and age

Is the assistance adapted to the
specific needs and capacities of
different gender and age groups?

Does the action prevent/mitigate
negative effects?
Do relevant gender and age groups
adequately participate in the
design, implementation and
evaluation of the Action?

Initial mark
5.1.2 Additional comments and challenges
The conflict takes a heavy toll on women and children in particular. The conflict has increasingly compelled
women to become the primary caretakers for their families, as men are engaged in fighting, arrested or
killed. With scarce employment opportunities, women are struggling to support their families economically.
WFP monitoring data revealed that female-headed households tend to have worse food consumption score
and dietary diversity indicators when compared to their male counterparts. In addition, households where
women are the primary breadwinners tend to resort more often to negative coping coping strategies,
including sending children to beg or to work for food. Acknowledging the impact of the crisis on women,
WFP and partners, while not specifically targeting assistance on the basis of gender, aim to facilitate its
receipt by women by affording priority at distribution sites. Moreover, through the provision of a food basket
sufficient for all family members, WFP tried to ensure that the needs of women (who often eat less and
last) are met and that the limited resources can be spent on other needs. There are serious protection
related concerns for children and adolescents including early marriage among girls and the recruitment of
adolescent boys by armed groups. Child labour is considered to be a problem in 55 percent of the country.
WFP education support programme aims at encouraging school enrolment and attendance, thus reducing
the exposure of children and adolescents to serious protection concerns. 
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5.2 Resilience
5.2.1 Marker Details

Does the proposal include an
adequate analysis of shocks,
stresses and vulnerabilities?

Is the project risk informed? Does
the project include adequate
measures to ensure it does not
aggravate risks or undermine

Does the project include measures
to build local capacities
(beneficiaries and local

Does the project take opportunities
to support long term strategies to
reduce humanitarian needs,
underlying vulnerability and risks?

Initial mark
5.2.2 How does the Action contribute to build resilience or reduce future risk?
WFP assistance in Syria addresses the immediate food needs of vulnerable conflict-affected families
thereby reducing the use of negative coping strategies which would jeopardise their food security and lead
to long-term and irreversible impact. In 2016, WFP initiated livelihood recovery and resilience building
initiatives, to strengthen households' capacity to withstand future shocks. Moreover, WFP provides
specialised support to beneficiaries with specific nutrition needs such as young children and pregnant and
lactating women. The fortified school snacks programme creates an incentive for children to attend school,
and WFP is launching a pilot programme for children working/begging on the streets, contributing to
prevent the loss of an entire generation.
The use of cash based transfers will be scaled up and introduced across all programme activities, which
will inject resources into the local economy and improve the ability of local producers to market their
produce. Livelihood and recovery activities will be progressively expanded where feasible during 2016, to
reach an estimated 500,000 beneficiaries in accessible parts of the country.
In 2015, WFP started working with local food manufactures to produce the date bars for the fortified school
snacks programme. The local procurement initiative is a key component of WFP livelihoods and resilience
strategy, which contributes to enhance local food production, promote local employment and boost the local
economy. In 2016, WFP aims to further expand the local procurement, by supporting local manufacturers
to increase their capacity and enhance their quality standards .
6.1 Human resources and Management capacities
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Over the course of the action, WFP operations in Syria will continue to be under the Regional Bureau
based in Cairo which provides overall strategic guidance, while management of the operations at
country level will be the responsibility of the Country Office. WFP Syria has a total of 
 staff, including
internationals and 
 nationals, located inside Syria (in Damascus and in four sub-offices) as well
as in Jordan and Turkey to manage cross-border operations.
WFP programmes within Syria are implemented through a complex logistics network, which maintains a
high degree of flexibility to adapt to the fluid security and access situation on the ground. Food
commodities, procured by WFP or received as in-kind donations, are imported into Syria through the
primary supply corridors of Beirut, Tartous and Lattakia. In addition, since 2014 commodities are
shipped also through the Nusaybin crossing point on the border with Turkey, as well as through three
crossing points on the Turkish and Jordanian borders approved with the passing of UN Security Council
Resolution 2165. 
Upon arrival in Syria, food commodities are stored in WFP facilities located in Tartous, Lattakia, Homs,
Rural Damascus and Al-Hasakeh and subsequently dispatched to governorates allocated to each centre
according to respective strategic advantages. For cross-border deliveries, commodities are transported
directly at handover points to partners within Syria, due to the lack of WFP storage facilities in the areas
covered through cross-border operations. 
Commodities are delivered to WFP partners for distribution to beneficiaries on the basis of monthly
allocation plans. For transport inside Syria, WFP utilises existing commercial transport settings,
encouraging local capacities where possible. Distributions are carried out by WFP implementing
partners on the basis of agreed plans. 
The FSSP is managed by an international programme officer, under the guidance of the Head of
Programme, who will be solely responsible for this programme. Support will also be provided by senior
programme assistants and food monitors based in WFP's five field offices in Damascus, Tartous,
Aleppo, Qamishly and Homs as well as by third party project facilitators.
Technical coordination with the Ministry of Education ensures that trained school administrators, as well
as staff from the relevant NGO partners, support programme implementation - daily handling and
distribution of school snacks to children, as well as provide quantitative reports to WFP on distribution
figures and daily attendance of children. WFP staff will conduct monitoring visits to school to verify
school snack distributions as well as random checks of enrolment and attendance records. In high risk
areas where WFP staff cannot access, contracted and vetted third-party monitors, trained by WFP, will
carry out monitoring activities on behalf of WFP (see section on M&E below for details).
6.2 EU Aid Volunteers
6.3 Equipment and goods
WFP has a comprehensive procurement plan in order to maintain a reliable supply-chain for the Syria
operation, subject to predictable operational planning and the timely confirmation of adequate funding.
Accordingly, food commodities will continue to be procured from nearby regional sources where
possible. To minimize any potential negative impact on the local market, local procurement is currently
limited to salt and ready-to-eat rations that are readily available in the local market at competitive prices,
and, since late 2014, to the fortified date bars used for the FSSP.
WFP is currently seeking to gradual expand the local procurement of fortified date bars, as well as of
commodities used for other WFP activities. The expansion will be subject to thorough assessments of
the local production capacity and market surveys, to avoid creating market distortions and ensure a
beneficial impact on the local economy.
The ECHO contribution will be used to procure 17,500 mt of milk produced in the EU. The commodity
will be delivered to WFP at the Syrian ports in the form of Tetrapak packages, each containing 200 ml of
milk, with a shelf life of six month.
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milk, with a shelf life of six month.
Moreover, WFP will continue to purchase non-food items locally to the extent possible despite the
existing challenges i.e. the unstable exchange rate, the prohibition of dealing with foreign currencies in
the country, lack of non-food items stocks, etc. Mitigations measures undertaken include having as
many long-term agreements (LTAs) as practically and feasibly possible, continuous market surveys and
identification of additional qualified suppliers through regular expressions of interests.
6.4 Use of HPCs
6.6 Specific security constraints
Syria represents an increasingly challenging and unstable operational environment, as the country
continued to witness a progressive deterioration of the security conditions, despite repeated political
efforts to end the crisis. Over 2,000 mortar and rocket attacks were recorded across the country during
2015. In addition, Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and Vehicle-borne Improvised Explosive Devices
(VBIED) continue to constitute a significant threat along transport routes and in several areas of the
country, making indirect fire the most significant risk to WFP staff, items and premises. WFP security
constantly monitors the situation and closely coordinates with local authorities on the ground to ensure
the safety and security of WFP convoys. In addition, additional security measures are put in place at
critical times, such as staff movement restrictions and the adoption of flexible working modalities to
reduce staff exposure to security threats. 
Adding to the ongoing violence and widespread insecurity, the proliferation of armed actors active on
the ground require intensified efforts from WFP and other international humanitarian actors operating
inside Syria to ensure the necessary coordination and negotiations are in place to guarantee the safety
of their personnel and operations. Moreover, the progressive growth and expansion of radical Islamist
groups using overt anti-UN rhetoric has increased the direct threat to UN personnel, in particular when
conducting deliveries to high conflict areas of the country. 
6.7.1 Are there Implementing Partners ?
6.7.2 Implementing Partner added value
6.7.4 Coordination, supervision and controls
WFP is coordinating the implementation of the programme in primary schools across the country with
the Ministry of Education, to provide immediate assistance and support a sustainable approach. The
programme is managed by WFP and supported by WFP-trained education functionaries or authorized
local and international organizations in targeted schools to ensure the safety of children and staff. In
addition, in Damascus city and in Hama (Salamiyeh district) the FSS programme is implemented also
through two NGOs, a local NGO and 
 respectively, which are also involved in
the implementation of other WFP activities. 
All WFP partners are vetted through a Due Diligence process managed by WFP HQ Legal Division and
are selected on the basis of specific criteria such as organizational strength, impartiality, operational
capacity and ability to reach affected populations in targeted locations. WFP's due diligence process
aims at ensuring that each partner be compatible and consistent with WFP's mandate and with the
principles laid out in the United Nations Global Compact and the WFP Code of Conduct. The Due
Diligence process is based upon a qualitative case-by-case basis analysis for each potential agency's
partner, and the research methodology is based upon investigating specific exclusionary criteria. For
Syria in particular, political and religious affiliation, neutrality and terrorism, corruption and human rights
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Syria in particular, political and religious affiliation, neutrality and terrorism, corruption and human rights
abuses were key factors considered in partner selection.
Implementing partners have been sensitized to project implementation so that programme objectives
and implementation modalities to support implementation are made clear. Partners were trained on all
aspects relating to the management of the school feeding programme (including implementation,
logistics and monitoring aspects) and were sensitized on its objectives. Further sensitization and
diversification of the implementing partners portfolio is planned as the program is scaled up. 
WFP requires all cooperating partners to provide monthly distribution reports and related information
and data reflecting quantity of food distributed and number of children assisted within the month.
Subsequently, this data will be verified by WFP and the organization will regularly report on agreed key
indicators .
Implementing Partners
6.8 Are there any subdelegatees?
6.8.1 Subdelegatees explanation
7.1 Operational coordination with other humanitarian actors
WFP works closely with a multiplicity of stakeholders, including other food assistance organizations, UN
agencies sharing common coordination and response mechanisms. The UN response in Syria is led by
the Humanitarian Country Team, which involves international NGOs accredited in Syria and provides
strategic and policy guidance. An inter-sectoral working group (led by OCHA) comprising 8 sectors and 2
active clusters, provides operational guidance and support to the operation in Syria.
WFP is an active member of the Education Sector Working Group participating in all coordination
meetings and contributes towards defining sector strategies and priorities. The FSSP is positioned as a
component of the overarching effort to improve the condition of children in Syria where the program will
complement other partners who work to enhance quality of education, quality of teaching and
instruction, rehabilitation of infrastructure and provision of supplies. Under the global MOU and field level
agreement with UNICEF, collaboration is ensured in education and nutrition sectors. Within the
education sphere, WFP is targeting schools assisted by UNICEF to strengthen complementarities,
ensure that education quality issues are addressed and enhance achievement of project objectives.
Regular operational coordination meetings between WFP and UNICEF are held at national and
sub-national levels on a quarterly basis to address implementation challenges, outstanding issues and
discuss targeting and monitoring strategies. In addition, these meetings provide a platform to enhance
coordination and information sharing with UNICEF social protection, nutrition, child protection and
WASH teams, to facilitate a holistic approach and integrate cross-cutting issues into to the design and
implementation of the education support initiatives. Moreover, WFP contributed to Education Sector's
assessment conducted in 2015, supporting the development and review of the questionnaires and
assessment forms.
Coordination with UNDP and UNICEF has been formally organized through a programme steering
committee whereby an effective coordination mechanism is established leading to complementarity of
different interventions as well as delivering a comprehensive package of support to targeted children. In
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this manner the positive impact of WFP's education support on children's access to education and
learning will be maximized.
WFP, as co-lead with FAO of the Food Security and Agriculture Sector, continues to coordinate with
other food sector members, at central and decentralized levels, to ensure identified gaps are
addressed.The Food and Agriculture sector which includes six members (WFP, UNRWA, FAO, TDH,
ACF and AKDN) and ICRC as observers. Recently Sub National Level Coordination Structures were
established in Qamishly, Homs, Tartous and Aleppo. Since September 2014, a Whole of Syria (WoS)
approach was adopted as a result of UN Security Council Resolution 2165 and the increased need for
coordination among actors resulting from the expansion of UN presence in areas reached through
cross-border operations. Through dedicated coordination in Amman, the WoS coordination platform
brings together operations led by hubs in Damascus, Jordan and Southern Turkey into a single
framework, in order to maximize efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian activities and ensure
greater accountability
[Please see Annex I to read the rest of the text]
7.2 Action listed in
UN Consolidated Appeal Process
Flash Appeal
ICRC / IFRC appeal
Not applicable
If other, please specify
7.3 Coordination with National and local authorities
The Syrian Government provides a key support on a range of technical and operational areas such as
conducting assessments, sharing of secondary data, approvals for the dispatch and monitoring of
assistance, and minimizing security risks for humanitarian convoys The coordination structure is
replicated at local level, through local relief committees and local directorates, to further facilitate and
harmonise the humanitarian response, as well as maximize the efficiency of resources on the ground.
Technical cooperation with the Ministry of Education is central to the implementation of WFP's
education support programme. The MoE provides technical support in all operational areas, ranging
from data sharing, list of targeted schools, coordination mechanisms and implementation. Through its
governorate level departments, the MoE is responsible for the management of the education system,
and facilitates implementation of the FSSP. Trained school administrators support the FSSP
implementation, managing commodities delivered to the targeted schools and handling the daily
distribution of fortified school snacks to children, as well as providing quantitative reports to WFP on
distribution figures and daily attendance of children. Regular quarterly as well as ad-hoc co-ordination
meetings are held with representatives of the MoE at national and sub-national levels to address
implementation challenges, discuss commodity management, reporting requirements and capacity
building needs. In addition, high-level coordination with the MoE and the Planning and International
Cooperation Council (PICC) takes place to address strategic and policy level issues, including medium
and long term strategic planning, strengthening national capacities and ensuring alignment with national
Page 18

policies and priorities.
7.4 Coordination with development actors and programmes
At present, WFP is coordinating with development agencies on the ground such as FAO, who will
continue to provide agriculture and livestock support packages to vulnerable households, and UNDP,
who will continue to implement quick-impact projects to enhance community resilience and will expand
micro-financing projects to small and medium enterprises to support the local economy. 
8.1 Monitoring of the Action
WFP conducts direct-monitoring of its activities where the security situation permits to ensure that
assistance reaches beneficiaries through dedicated monitoring teams, consisting of nineteen staff
members based in five offices across Syria. In highly insecure areas monitoring is conducted by Project
Facilitators from Third Party Monitoring companies that are contracted and trained to conduct such
monitoring exercise. 
The progress and results of activities will be systematically monitored through an internal monitoring and
reporting framework in place for each governorate in which the project progress is assessed against set
targets, timeliness factors, number of beneficiaries reached against the planned. Progress against set
targets will be regularly measured and action will be taken to address any issues in implementation as
they arise. 
For monitoring of the activities implemented under the FSSP, each WFP or third-party monitor
completes a standard monitoring checklist that captures quantitative information on attendance,
enrolment, storage conditions and facilities at school. They are also used to collect information used in
qualitative analysis regarding the state of implementation and challenges faced. An important
component of the checklist concerns results emerging from brief focus group discussions held with
children. Outcome and output level results are measured through indicators in the logical framework
while M&E data will be disaggregated by sex to take gender considerations into account. 
Following the successful implementation of a baseline survey in 2014, a follow-up survey will be
conducted in to measure programme results. The 2014 baseline survey was carried out in a
representative sample of 150 schools in the governorates of Rural Damascus, Tartous and Aleppo. The
baseline survey captured enrolment and attendance related data along with information on basic
facilities, infrastructure, hygiene, school supplier while inquiring about reasons for drop outs and low
8.2 Evaluations
Internal evaluation
External evaluation
External audit
8.2.1 Further details
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8.3 Studies carried out in relation to the Action (if relevant)
Explain the content of these studies
9.1 Standard visibility
A. Display of EU Humanitarian Aid visual identity on
A1. Signboards, display panels, banners and plaques
A2. Goods and equipment
Please provide additional details on section A
WFP's response to the Syria Crisis is a complex humanitarian operation in a challenging conflict zone.
Many areas in Syria remain difficult to access due factors such as active fighting; besiegement; the
presence of hostile armed groups; and road closures. Movement is further complicated by tedious and
time consuming approvals whereas, collecting communication material such as photographs and video
footage can prove to be a highly sensitive undertaking. It must also be mentioned that EU branding
within Syria will not be possible. This is due to the volatile context and overall complexity in Syria, with
its own implications and risks of having marked commodities where markings may result in sabotage by
certain groups. It is important to keep in mind that Syria is a very politically charged environment with an
ever-increasing number of armed groups on the ground who are not under the command and control of
the main parties in the conflict. Furthermore, it is important to understand that donor branding, in all its
forms, poses a serious risk for the safety and security of our staff and partners from groups who may
have grievances related to certain donor countries. However, despite these challenges WFP will take all
necessary steps to ensure that the activities highlighted in the plan below are successfully completed,
while remaining mindful of the safety of WFP staff along with Syrian children.
B. Written and verbal acknowledgement of EU funding and partnership through
B1. Press releases, press conference, other media outreach
B2. Publications, printed material (for external audiences, not operational
B3. Social media
B4. Partner's website (pages related to EU funded projects)
B5. Human interest blogs, photo stories
B6. Audiovisual products, photos
B7. Other
Please provide additional details on section B
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The overall communication objectives will be to highlight the achievements and impact of the FSSP
funded by ECHO; increase the visibility among beneficiaries through available communication channels
of the ECHO-funded FFSP to conflict-affected children in Syria; ensure ECHO visibility requirements are
met while remaining sensitive to the operating environment of Syria. All communication activities will be
closely coordinated with UNICEF and WFP will participate wherever possible. 
Target groups and specific activities will include: 
General Public (EU and abroad): raise awareness of the ECHO contribution in support of WFP's
FSSP for conflict-affected children in Syria and to highlight the impact and achievements of the
programme. A combination of communication tools will feature messages targeted to the EU
public/external audience various media platforms. 

Press releases in English and Arabic will be published periodically and/or at strategic moments such as
the commencement of the academic year, on WFP's website and
WFP will produce and publish human interest stories in both English and Arabic on its website and
social media outlets. These stories will highlight the impact of ECHO support on children's education.
These may include stories focusing on specific beneficiaries, staff, or project achievements. Stories will
be published during the academic year and promoted on social media to generate additional visibility.
WFP will generate audiovisual content and use it to promote the ECHO contribution through all
available social media platforms: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, You Tube, Tumblr etc. in addition to
producing a short film focusing on schools and children inside Syria.
Children inside Syria: ensure that school children are aware of the objectives of the programme
and that they understand the link between access to education and nutritious school snacks.
Wherever possible, WFP will highlight the role of ECHO in the implementation of the project.
Posters and banners will be displayed in school premises highlighting the link between
education and nutritious school snacks. Posters and Banners have been developed in this
regard and will be distributed to all targeted schools. 

Media: using all available communication platforms, WFP will disseminate general information
about affected Syrian children and the benefits and accomplishments of the ECHO-supported
FSSP. Mentions of ECHO support will be made when possible - WFP spokespeople will mention
the ECHO supported FSSP when doing media interviews about Syria and the region.

9.2 Do you foresee communication actions that go beyond standard obligations?
10.1 Estimated expenditure
incurred incurred
(max 7%)
Total costs
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10.3 Funding of the Action
Direct revenue
of the action
Contribution by
Contribution by 23.301.335,96
other donors
Contribution by
requested from

% of total
funding (*)
Total funding
(*) Rounding to the second decimal. To compute the final payment, the real percentage until four decimals will be

10.4 Explanation about 100% funding
If other, please explain
10.5 Contribution in kind
10.6 Financial contributions by other donors
10.7 VAT exemption granted ? (applicable only to NGO's)
Please specify
11.1 Specific derogations
# Derogation
1 WFP request the following derogation in the Special Conditions regarding the exchange rate to be used. When the EC
contribution is made of several installments, the expenditures incurred will be reported using the average of the
exchange rate at the date of the contribution confirmation and the rate of each pre-instalments when recorded in the
accounts of Organisation.
11.2 Permanent derogations
# Derogation
1 Without prejudice to the provisions of the General Conditions, an amount of up to EUR 6 000 from the amount
indicated in Article 3.2 of this Agreement may be used within a central visibility fund commonly established by the
International Organisation and the Commission for visibility activities targeting the European public and highlighting the
partnership of the International Organisation and the Commission in the field of humanitarian aid. In such a case, with
the Final Report, the International Organisation shall also submit an annual report on the use of the central visibility fund.
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12.1 Name and title of legal representative signing the Agreement
Ms Krystyna Bednarska - Director BRU
12.2 Name, address, e-mail and phone of the contact person(s)
Office location
Krystyna Bednarska
[correo electrónico] 
13.1 Possible comments
Page 23