EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE
Brussels, 30 October 2014
European Union Military Staff
European Union Military Committee
No. Prev. doc.: -
Draft European Union Concept for EU-led Military Operations and Missions
LtCol (GS) Thomas SENGESPEICK
Tel: 02 584 5078
Delegations will find attached the 4th revised draft European Union Concept for EU-led Military
Operations and Missions, reflecting the discussion during the EUMCWG on 27 October 2014 on
the second part of the concept (until paragraph 42).
As requested by the EUMCWG para 10, 36a and 39b were verified and corrected by the LEGAD.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
EUROPEA UIO COCEPT FOR
EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS and MISSIOS
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
link to page 7 link to page 8 link to page 8 link to page 9 link to page 10 link to page 11 link to page 12 link to page 25 link to page 32
EUROPEA UIO COCEPT FOR
EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS and MISIOS
TABLE OF COTETS
A. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................7
B. AIM ..............................................................................................................................................8
C. SCOPE .........................................................................................................................................8
D. ASSUMPTIONS ..........................................................................................................................9
E. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ...............................................................................................10
G. CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................................................12
H. CONDUCT ................................................................................................................................25
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
European Security Strategy (15895/03, dated 8 December 2003).
Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union (Official Journal of the European
Union, dated 9 May 2008).
The Requirements Catalogue 2005 (13732/05 dated 7 November 2005).
Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy - Providing Security in a
Changing World- (17104/08, dated 10 December 2008).
Host Nation Support Concept for EU-led military operations (7374/12, 6 March 2012).
EU Concept for Air Operations in support of the Common Security and Defence Policy
(8569/11, dated 5 April 2011).
EU Maritime Security Operations (MSO) Concept (8592/12, dated 10 April 2012).
EU Concept for Contractor Support to EU-led Military Operations (00754/14, dated 4 April
EU Concept for CBRN EOD in EU-led Military Operations (8948/08, dated 29 April 2008).
EU Concept for Personnel Recovery in Support of the CSDP (15408/11, dated 13 October
Concept for Countering Improvised Explosive Devices (C-IED) in EU-led Military
Operations (13839/1/12, dated 18 October 2012).
EU Military Concept on environmental protection and energy efficiency for EU-led military
operations (13758/12, dated 14 September 2012).
Revised Guidelines on the Protection of Civilians in CSDP Missions and Operations
(14940/10, dated 18 October 2010
EU Concept for the Use of Force in EU-led Military Operations (17168/2/09, dated
2 May 2011).
"Promoting Synergies between the EU Civil and Military Capability Development"
(15475/09 dated 9 November 2009).
Suggestions for crisis management procedures for CSDP crisis management operations
(7660/2/13, 18 June 2013)
EU Concept for Military Planning at the Political and Strategic level (10687/08, dated
16 June 2008).
Interim EU Military Rapid Response Concept - main body and Annex A (00601/3/14, dated
27 June 2014).
EU Battlegroup Concept (13618/1/06, dated 11 December 2012).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
EU Maritime Rapid Response Concept (15294/07, dated 15 November 2007).
EU Air Rapid Response Concept (16838/07, dated 21 December 2007).
EU Concept for Force Generation (10690/08, dated 16 June 2008).
Council Decision setting up the Political and Security Committee (2001/78/CFSP, dated
22 January 2001).
EU Framework Nation Concept (16276/10, dated 22 November 2010).
EU Concept for Military Command and Control (10688/5/08, dated 24 September 2012).
EU Concept for CIS for EU-led Military Operations (9971/12, dated 15 May 2012).
AA. Military Information Security Concept for EU-led Crisis Management Operations (6630/05,
dated 21 February 2005).
BB. Council Decision 2013/488/EU of 23 September 2013 on the security rules for protecting EU
Classified information (OJ L 274, M15.10.2013, p. 1), as amended.
CC. EU Concept for Cyber Defence for EU-led military operations (18060/12, dated
20 December 2012).
DD. ISTAR Concept for EU Crisis Management and EU-led Crisis Management Operations,
(7759/07, 23 March 2007).
EE. EU Concept for Military Intelligence Structures in EU Crisis Management and EU-led
Military Operation/Missions (Revision 2, 16361/13, dated 18 November 2013).
FF. EU Concept for Strategic Movement and Transportation for EU-led Military Operations
(9798/12, dated 11 May 2012).
GG. EU Concept for Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSOI) for EU-led
Military Operations (9844/12, dated 11 May 2012).
HH. EU Concept for the Implementation of a European Union Air Deployable Operating Air Base
(6908/1/10, dated 19 March 2010).
European Union Concept for Special Operations (00962/3/14 REV3, dated 28 July 2014).
EU Concept for Military Information Operations (6917/08, EXT 1 dated 2 February 2011).
KK. EU Concept for Psychological Operations (7314/08, dated 5 March 2008).
LL. EU Concept for Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) for EU-led Military Operations
(11716/1/08, dated 3 February 2009).
MM. EU Concept for Logistic Support for EU-led Military Operations (3853/11, dated
4 April 2011).
NN. Military Engineering Concept for EU-led Military Operations (11242/12, dated 12 June 2012)
OO. Comprehensive Health and Medical Concept for EU-led Crisis Management Missions and
Operations (00559/6/14, dated 30 April 2014).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
PP. EU Military Lessons Learned (LL) Concept (12322/1/11, dated 30 Mar 2012).
QQ. European Union Maritime Security Strategy (MSS) (11205/14, dated 24 June 2014)
RR. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Countermeasures Concept for EU-
Led Military Operations (11845/14, dated 11 July 2014)
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Maintaining freedom, security and prosperity in Europe requires that Europe fulfils its
potential as a global actor and security provider. In today's world, single states find great
difficulty in dealing alone with the new emerging security challenges, ranging from energy
security to climate change to economic competiveness to international terrorism, but the
European Union (EU) as a whole and by offering a frame for MS participation can address
these risks in a comprehensive manner. By connecting the different strands of EU external
policy, such as diplomacy, security, trade, development, humanitarian aid, the EU can tackle
global security challenges, relating to its responsibility, goals and interests, in a joined up way
using its Comprehensive Approach to crisis management. The Common Security and
Defence Policy (CSDP) supports the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) in
order to strengthen the EU's contribution to international peace and security and upholding
and developing international law. Furthermore, the European Security Strategy (ESS) (Ref A)
highlights the requirement for the EU to share in the responsibility for global security with
partners such as UN, NATO and AU and to be able to sustain several operations
Under the authority of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security
Policy (HR), current EU crisis management organisations such as the European Union
Military Staff (EUMS), the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) and the Crisis
Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD) work within the structure of the post Lisbon
European External Action Service (EEAS) in order to plan and conduct CSDP operations and
The Treaty on European Union (Ref B)1 and the ESS contain the range of tasks for potential
CSDP operations and missions. The range and scope of these tasks are further developed in
the Illustrative Scenarios, (Ref C) (Assistance to Humanitarian Operations, Separation of
Parties by Force, Stabilisation, Reconstruction and Military advice to third countries, Conflict
Prevention and Evacuation Operations (non-permissive/segregated environment).
1 Treaty on European Union, Article 42 & 43
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
The EU is a global actor, ready to share the responsibility for global security. To make these
ambitions credible, deployments must be able to support diplomacy and other means for
conflict resolution anywhere in the world. Hence, it is envisaged that military power
combined with civilian instruments, in symmetric and asymmetric scenarios, needs the
capability to project mission tailored forces and expertise, with short preparation time, over
strategic distances into remote regions, including austere areas of operation.
CSDP operations are, by nature, conducted outside the EU in distant theatres, which may
offer little or no Host Nation Support (HNS). Such operations could be described as
expeditionary in that they involve the projection over extended lines of communications of
independent, specially designed and prepared, sustainable EU military and /or civilian
instruments with the ability to work autonomously. Examples include EUFOR Tchad/RCA,
EUCAP NESTOR and EU NAVFOR Op ATALANTA.
The purpose of this document is to provide to inter alia military commanders, military staffs,
EU civilian staffs, external actors etc., an overarching conceptual framework for EU-led
Military Operations and Missions.
An EU-led military operation or mission will involve a number of phases which could include
planning, pre-deployment, deployment, initial entry, implementation, transition and re-
deployment. An analysis of the phases for EU-led military operations and missions is
included in this work.
Due to its overarching nature, this framework concept draws on and provides coherence for
the existing family of EU military concepts.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Dependent on scales, EU military components and HQs may be required. These may include
Land, Air, Maritime and Special Operations components to create a Joint and Combined
effect and are considered within the scope of this document. The nature of a crisis requiring
an EU-led military operation or mission will determine the necessary combination of
[In accordance with the Treaty on European Union and its article 42. 1, EU-led military
operations and missions may be conducted outside the Union for peace keeping, conflict
prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the
United Nations Charta.(CY proposal)] or [In accordance with the EU Treaty and recent EU
military operations and missions, EU-led military operations and missions will be conducted
outside EU territory]. To be decided by EUMCWG during the next discussion.
It must be assumed that EU-led military operations and missions will be conducted in austere
conditions. In this context the term "austere" implies one or a combination of the following
in-theatre conditions; an unstable security situation, extended lines of communication, a
scarcity of basic infrastructure, limited Host Nation Support (HNS) and health hazards
emanating from natural or man-made sources.
Any Crisis Response intervention is likely to be part of a wider and continuous EU
engagement (Comprehensive Approach) in that State or Region and coordinated through the
EEAS. The local impact on the area of engagement goes beyond the immediate effects of the
CSDP operation or mission. The impact on the political, economic, cultural and social
dimensions should be considered in planning and conduct.
Depending on the nature of the crisis, EU-led military intervention could be executive2
(military operation) or non-executive (military mission). A military operation may involve a
Standard Military Response, a Generic Military Rapid Response or an Express Response
2 Executive: the operations mandated to conduct actions in replacement of the host nation; non-executive: the operation is supporting
the host nation with an advisory role only.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Despite its success in CSDP operations, the EU today faces increasingly complex threats and
challenges (Ref D) such as but not limited to, the proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction, transnational terrorism and organised crime, cyber security, illegal migration,
border management, food and water insecurity, energy security, climate change and
instability due to fragile states. Hybrid Threats in which adversaries employ an
interconnected, unpredictable mix of traditional warfare, irregular warfare, terrorism and
organised crime for political, military or other purposes must also be considered. Therefore,
the EU, employing, where necessary, a selection or all of the instruments at its disposal in a
comprehensive manner, must be able to act as early as possible and if practicable before the
onset of a crisis.
Increased complexity in the global security environment requires that, for CSDP operations,
EU-led military forces, whether acting alone or as part of a wider palette of EU instruments,
must be mission tailored and capable of operating in a non-linear and multidimensional
engagement space. EU-led military forces must therefore be able to coordinate and employ
lethal and non-lethal actions, as part of the EU's comprehensive approach.
The increasing tendency by adversaries to take full advantage of the widespread availability
of advanced technology and to employ asymmetric means (e.g. Improvised Explosive
Devices) has serious implications for the conduct and tempo of EU-led military operations
The design and implementation of clear, coordinated strategic communication, including a
clear indication of the desired end state, is critical to establish and sustain support for the
entire duration of EU-led military operations and missions within the populations of the Host
Nation and the Member States (MS) and across the wider global audience. The strategic
communication must match with the overall InfoOp campaign within theatre.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Unity of Political Direction and Guidance. EU complex engagements will require the
coordinated leadership of EU instruments in the framework of the EU comprehensive
approach. During the planning phase and duration of a mission in order to ensure alignment,
complementarity and sequencing of all the required instruments it is vital that all instruments
have a shared understanding of the mission and a common purpose throughout all levels and
phases of the engagement. The Political Framework for Crisis Approach (PFCA) should set
the political context, clearly articulating what the crisis is why the EU should act and what
instruments could be available. This PFCA is essential to give CSDP and other actors the
ability to "hook-in" to commonly agreed overall strategy and objectives. It must be ensured
that a clearly defined end state is given.
Complementary Effects in the Theatre. EU actors must ensure that the effects they create in
the theatre are not fragmented or competing but complementary. This requires collaboration
and coordination between all EU in-theatre instruments, alongside bilateral MS assistance –
"the whole is greater than the sum of its parts."
Integrated and continuous planning at strategic level. Increased competence of the EU at the
strategic level to plan and conduct military operations without lags or gaps affects EU's
effectiveness and credibility. The capability for the upper military layer to assess and control
at any time the subordinate layers in close interaction with non-military EU actors and with
due respect to the distinctive responsibilities of the tactical/operational levels of command is
a factor in success and efficiency in using all available EU means and instruments.
Unity of Effort in Theatre. To achieve complementary effects in theatre, unity of effort and
maximum cooperation between EU military and civilian actors should be ensured, through an
EU comprehensive approach. This will firstly require shared awareness doctrine, procedures
and training, including multi-layer exercises to ensure the principle is understood and
secondly requires leadership and coordination to ensure its application.
Cooperation and Coordination. Cooperation and coordination between all relevant EU actors,
MS, non-EU TCNs, relevant international organisations and Third States is a prerequisite for
the efficient and effective conduct of EU-led operations.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Multi-nationality. The provision of troops and resources for EU-led military operations
should be based on the principle of multi-nationality. Actors for such operations could
include a combination of personnel from MS, non-EU European NATO countries and other
countries which are candidates for accession to the EU or other Third-States as decided by the
Council or the PSC. However, the key criteria for such operations remain interoperability and
Interoperability. Interoperability aims at providing compatibility between EU Military and
Civilian instruments with a view to improved operational effectiveness. A solid culture of
confidence, connectivity and cooperation between EU military and non-military at the
strategic level can be developed through a more structured interaction. The December
European Council discussion on defence highlighted the importance of the EU working
closely together with key partners such as NATO, UN and AU. This means working in
concert to tackle global security challenges both at the strategic level and on the ground.
Interoperability between civilian and military instruments from the EU and other key
organisations is important.
Legal Requirements. EU-led military operations and missions will be conducted in
accordance with the basic legal framework as laid down in the Council Decision, relevant
International Law (in particular International Humanitarian Law (IHL), International Human
Rights Law (IHRL), International Refugee Law (IRL), mission-related international
agreements3 and arrangements, relevant EU Member States' Domestic Legislation) and in
addition consideration of Host Nation Law.
Characteristics. Because EU-led military operations and missions may involve the projection
of forces, with their requisite support, over extended lines of communication into distant and
austere theatres of operation, it follows that such forces must be agile, versatile, flexible,
highly trained, self-sufficient and interoperable. Troop Contributing Nations (TCNs) are
3 In particular status of forces agreements (SOFA) and/or status of mission agreements (SOMA).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
responsible for the training of military forces for EU-led military operations and missions.
Experience has indicated an increased likelihood that future EU-led military operations and
missions will be centred in urban areas - operating in urban areas has its own unique
characteristics with respect to intelligence collection, force protection and force organisation
(recent examples are Bangui and Mogadishu).
Scale. The forces for EU-led military operations and missions must be mission-tailored for
each specific operation in order to accomplish the mission. Supplies, equipment and
infrastructure must be limited and designed to operational necessity.
Host Nation Support (Ref E). The success of CSDP operations is highly dependent on the
capacity to generate, deploy, sustain and redeploy EU-led Forces. Contractor Support to
Operations (CSO)/Host Nation Support (HNS) - Adequate military logistics complemented
and reinforced with civilian capabilities and resources are necessary to flexibly meet the
broad range of operational requirements that CSDP operations may involve. These
requirements are especially demanding during the phases of deployment/redeployment and
also for the sustainment of the Force during operations. External support, if available, from
the State(s) hosting all or part of the EU-led Force or via Contractor Support to Operations
(CSO) might facilitate the completion of the logistic functions. The main difference between
the concepts of HNS and CSO is the commercial nature under a civil contract on which the
latter is based, while the former is the outcome of a formal agreement/arrangement
established among the Nations or between the EU and the HN. CSO has become vital for all
kinds of military and civilian CSDP engagements. Cost effectiveness leads to an increased
need for CSO. Communication between all interested parties, in particular with IOs and
NGOs, is a prerequisite in order to achieve coherent planning; this communication is
coordinated by the relevant HQ.
Air domain. Within the framework of the EU, Air Power is defined as the capacity to project
power in the air to shape and influence the course of CMO (Ref F). In the context of EU-led
operations it may be employed as a stand-alone military operation or as part of a complex
engagement and could form part of a Standard Military Response and / or a Military Rapid
Response. Air capabilities are versatile and can be used from the outset of a Crisis
Management Operation (CMO) to pursue tactical, operational or strategic objectives, in any
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
combination or all three simultaneously. Air Power offers unique capabilities that must be
fully considered and integrated into all military planning.
Land domain. Land Power is the capacity to project power on the ground to shape and
influence the course of CMO. Land forces will always operate in a complex and demanding
environment due to many factors (e.g. terrain, threats, hazards, population, involvement of
national and internal organizations, governmental and non-governmental structures and other
actors in the region). The understanding of this environment is essential to overcome its
complexity, particularly in the land domain, as part of the EU multidimensional response. In
land operations and missions a special emphasis must be placed on the human dimension of
the response in order to be credible, well-accepted and effective. In an EU military operation
the land forces can be taken as a symbol of EU's commitment in the region. It can also
facilitate other EU or multinational actions in the area, secure or seize areas of responsibility
and build third state capabilities by mentoring, advisory and training assessment.
Maritime domain. The EU's prosperity, its development and well-being are critically
dependant on international trade and other multiple activities performed at sea (e.g. fisheries,
energy resources exploitation). However, these maritime activities are highly vulnerable to
threats and challenges to the security of the maritime environment (Ref G). Within the
framework of EU, maritime forces can be used to project power at sea and from the sea in
accordance with the EU Maritime Security Strategy (Ref QQ) and its Action Plan and in
accordance with all relevant EU concepts. In this regard maritime capabilities under the
auspices of CSDP could be called upon to perform a variety of tasks ranging from traditional
war fighting operations to specific tasks in support of the Member States maritime security.
Sea power has the ability to concentrate forces for a longer period f time in areas far from the
home base with a relative self-sustained logistic capacity, high flexibility and without
involvement of third countries. The MS maritime forces can contribute to the EU response
providing inter alia Naval Diplomacy, Crisis Response along with Maritime Deterrence and
Defence. The use of maritime capabilities for EU-led military operations and missions should
be considered during the planning phase (Ref G).
Force Protection (FP). FP involves all measures and means to minimise the vulnerability of
all in-theatre EU personnel and EU instruments, facilities, equipment, operations and
activities to any threat and, in all situations, to preserve freedom of action and operational
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
effectiveness. EU in-theatre actors could be exposed to a number of threats and dangers
which could include, but are not limited to, missile attack, small arms fire, mines, Improvised
Explosive Devices (IEDs), technological risks and Chemical, Biological, Radiological and
Nuclear (CBRN) attack. Due to their nature, EU-led operations and missions will require a
dynamic FP policy consisting of active, passive and recuperation measures and means. One
of the challenges for such operations is to achieve the highest degree of force protection while
maintaining a light and agile footprint. In a complex engagement, involving armed EU
military instruments, the military will normally have a primary role in the provision of FP. In
specific circumstances, this role could be filled by appropriate EU civilian actors such as the
Police or Gendarmerie or even Private Security Companies (Ref H)4, with utmost caution to
the effects on the HN, both intended and unintended, when choosing such services. However,
all in-theatre EU actors must be aware of and contribute to the FP policy, which may involve
addressing the following areas:
Security. In-theatre security encompasses a wide range of activities and procedures
which address the security of Personnel, Installations, Information, Equipment and Lines
Mine Awareness and Countering Improvised Explosive Devices (C-IED). The increased
use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in conflicts worldwide is significantly
impacting on the number of casualties of civilian and military actors as well as
indigenous populations. Therefore, there is a distinct possibility that IEDs will present a
considerable threat to EU-led military operations and missions. C-IED involves three
lines of operation namely attacking the Networks, Defeating the Device and Preparing
the EU in-theatre actors (Ref K).
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Defence. CBRN devices,
whether manufactured or improvised, with or without explosive components, industrial
and technologic risks constitute a real and permanent threat to EU-led operations, the
indigenous population and the operational environment (Ref I).
Air and Missile Defence. The air and / or missile threat exists through all phases of an
EU-led military operation from deployment through Reception, Staging, Onward
Movement and Integration (RSOI) to re-deployment.
Personnel Recovery. The isolation, capture and /or exploitation of personnel during EU-
led operations could have a significant negative impact on operations security, morale of
4 For limitations see EU Concept for Contractor Support to EU-led military operations (00754/14, dated 4 April 2014).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
in-theatre EU personnel and public support. In order to mitigate the risks, the EU
therefore requires a system to recover military and civilian personnel. (Ref J).
Environmental Awareness. Environmental Awareness is an important factor in
maintaining the health and well-being of all EU in-theatre actors and the local
population by preventing inadvertent damage to the natural environment and/or to
significant cultural or historic resources. Environmental Awareness should be considered
in all phases of EU-led military operations and missions and in pre-deployment training
Use of Force.
The authorisation of, and control on, the use of force for EU-led military operations and
missions is an essential part of the political guidance and strategic direction for such
operations, which is exercised by the Political and Security Committee (PSC) under the
authority of the Council and the High Representative (HR).
EU-led military operations and missions must be consistent with the provisions of
international, EU and national law applicable in the situation in which EU forces are
called upon to operate. Guidance on the use of force for each EU-led military operation/
mission is included in the Crisis Management Concept (CMC), the Military Strategic
Options (MSOs), the Initiating Military Directive (IMD), the Concept of Operations
(CONOPS) and the Operation Plan (OPLAN) pertaining to that operation.
Authorised use of force for mission accomplishment will be laid down in Rules of
Engagement (ROE), which are directives to military commanders and forces (including
individuals) that define the circumstances, conditions, degree, and manner in which
force, or other actions, which might be construed as provocative, may, or may not, be
applied. Depending on the ROE /legal framework, the OpCdr will select different COAs.
This highlights the need for a LEGAD advisory team to be associated with the planning
from the outset. The framework and principles governing the use of force by units and
individuals of EU-led military operations/ missions are defined in the EU Concept for
the Use of Force in EU-led Military Operations and in the EU Concept for Contractor
Support to Operations (in cases where the use of force applies also to Private Security
Companies) (Ref H & N).
Joint Targeting. A well-developed, flexible joint targeting process applying a full spectrum
approach that blends a variety of capabilities to generate a range of physical and
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
psychological effects will allow the European Union to meet the challenges of contemporary
operations. Using strategic direction operational-level targeting focuses on determining
specific effects to generate and synchronise specific lethal and non-lethal actions, to satisfy
the Joint Force Commander's objectives.
Fratricide Prevention. The possibility of the death of in-theatre EU actors due to "friendly
fire" must be avoided or, at the very least, reduced to the absolute minimum by the
implementation of measures and procedures such as in-theatre coordination, liaison,
situational awareness and use of friendly force tracking systems.
Protection of Civilians.
a. The Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), which consists of treaties and customary
international law, attempts to provide protection for those involved in or affected by
armed conflict or occupation, including combatants and non-combatant members of the
population and to regulate the conduct of armed conflict. It is based on four fundamental
principles, namely: military necessity, humanity, proportionality and distinction between
combatants and civilians and between military objectives and civilian objects (Ref M).
b. Efforts to protect non-combatant members of the population can enhance FP of in-theatre
EU actors. However, in certain situations it can be difficult to balance FP and civilian
protection. Guidelines for the protection of civilians should be included in the planning of
EU-led military operations and missions and must be complied with in theatre.
a. The ongoing and future development of EU military capabilities that are robust,
deployable, sustainable, interoperable and usable is taken forward through the Capability
Development Plan (CDP), which is produced in close cooperation between EU Member
States (MS), the European Defence Agency (EDA), Crisis Management and Planning
Directorate (CMPD), the European Union Military Committee (EUMC) and the
European Union Military Staff (EUMS). The CDP provides an analysis of capability
needs, capability trends and potential capability shortfalls as well as a database of
national plans and priorities. It helps MS to develop their national capability plans and to
identify and exploit areas of common interest.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
b. The CDP takes the following factors into consideration:
Prioritised military capability shortfalls and their associated risks as identified
within the framework of the Headline Goal Process.
An estimate of capability requirements for 2025 based on global strategic
research, available technology and potential threats.
Current plans and programmes of MS.
Lessons Learned from operations regarding capabilities.
c. Capability development for civilian missions is mainly achieved by building on the
Civilian Headline Goal 2010 & beyond which utilises the results of the Civilian
Headline Goal 2008 and the experience gained from CSDP civilian missions.
d. Work on the promotion of synergies in the development and use of civilian and military
capabilities for EU crisis management operations (Ref O) is ongoing and addresses such
areas as, inter alia, logistic support, CIS, medical support, security and force protection,
information sharing, intelligence, contracting (e.g. Support Coordination Board) and
lessons learned. Such synergies aim to provide a more comprehensive operational
capability for EU-led military operations and missions as well as providing a more
efficient use of resources.
Preparation and Decision Making.
a. The EEAS contributes to the monitoring and early warning of potential crises that may
require the intervention of EU-led operations through bodies such as the EU INTCEN,
the CMPD, the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC), the EUMS and
through the EU Conflict Early Warning System.
b. The EUMC assesses the risks of potential crises and makes recommendations to the
PSC, either at the latter's request or on its own initiative acting within the guidelines
forwarded by the PSC (Ref P). As a crisis intensifies so too does the requirement for
accurate information to enable further assessments and planning. A Fact-Finding
Mission (FFM) or Information Gathering Mission (IGM) may be dispatched to the crisis
area in order to verify facts and assess the need for further EU action. Having analysed
all available information the PSC may decide that EU action is appropriate triggering the
activation of the Crisis Management Procedures (CMP).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
For EU-led military operations and missions planning is an iterative process in which all
factors relevant to the impending mission are analysed. It is conducted at the following
The Political and Strategic Level (EU Institutional level) (Ref Q).
The Military Strategic Level (OHQ level).
The Military Operational Level (FHQ level).
The Tactical Level (Component Headquarters level).
For Eu-led military operations the OpCdr and OHQ operate at the Military Strategic and
the FCdr and FHQ at the Operational level. For EU-led military missions currently the
Council's practise is to appoint an EU Mission Commander (MCdr) and designate a
Mission Headquarters (MHQ) which performs functions on both the strategic and
Advance planning, including civil-military coordination, for military crisis management
is conducted by:
Non-specific CSDP EEAS elements (inter alia: Geographic, Conflict Prevention,
MD CROC, EU Delegations), within the context of developing, implementing and
reviewing the EU's overarching, regional or thematic strategies.
CMPD through co-ordinating and ensuring the political-strategic framework for
military and civilian CSDP instruments.
EUMS for military input to the political-strategic planning and development of
military strategic options and contingency plans in support of CMPD.
CSDP planning may also engage with other services, Commission (FPI, ECHO,
DEVCO, HOME), MS embassies etc.
Following detection of the crisis the PSC will provide political and strategic guidance
for further action and planning, initiating the Political Framework for Crisis Approach
(PFCA). By definition the PFCA then sets out the political context, articulates what the
crisis is, why the EU should act and what instruments could be available, and are best
suited for that action. It acts as a tool for the CA in that it potentially gets all
stakeholders (Security Policy and Conflict Prevention Directorate, Geographical desks
and Commission) at the table.
As regards options for CSDP engagement the PSC may then task CMPD to develop a
Crisis Management Concept (CMC), which may then result in Military Strategic
Options (MSOs) and an Initiating Military Directive (IMD). These products allow the
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
development of a CONOPS and an OPLAN by the OpCdr/ MCdr. Even after being
mandated, the responsiveness of the nominated EU military commanders and HQs is
subject to operational lags. There is a continuous requirement to train staff in EU
procedures, working practices and familiarity with the content of early planning stages;
partly due to lack of institutional memory and corporate knowledge.
The specific legal framework for the conduct of EU-led military operations and
missions is established in the relevant Council Decisions. Normally a Status of Forces
Agreement (SOFA) and/or a Status of Mission Agreement (SOMA) will be required
with the authorities of the countries in which the operation is being conducted. Pending
the conclusion of a SOFA/SOMA, the HN may decide to issue an Unilateral Declaration
binding it as an interim solution. The SOFA / SOMA ensure adequate legal status
(rights and obligations, privileges, immunities and facilities) for in-theatre EU-led
actors. It often contains general provision on HNS and therefore must be taken into
account in the development of HNS arrangements (Technical Arrangements (TAs),
Requirements and Statement of Requirements)5.
Response and Scale.
For EU-led military operations and missions the urgency and nature of the crisis will
determine the scale and timing of the response. A standard Military Response, which is
derived from the Helsinki Headline Goal 2003, is regarded as the ability to deploy a
large scale force within 60 days. The Readiness Status and Response Times are outlined
in the Interim EU Military Rapid Response Concept - main body and Annex A (Ref R).
In short the concept outlines that a Standard Military Response Time is a period of up to
60 days, a generic Military Rapid Response Time is a period up to 25 days and an
Express Response Time is a period up to 10 days after the EU decision to launch the
An EU Battlegroup (EU BG), which could be used for a stand-alone EU-led military
operation or for the initial phase of a larger operation, is a particular form of RR in
which the ambition regarding deployment is that forces should start implementing their
mission on the ground no later than 10 days after the EU decision to launch the operation
(Ref S). One of the factors governing the deployment of an EU BG is its limited size and
therefore its limited capability.
5 In EU practice, a TA can directly derive from a SOFA/Unilateral Declaration. There is - in general - no need to conclude or adopt
any additional document as an intermediate step (such as a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)).
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Air Power has the ability to concentrate force over long distances in a short time and can
contribute to an immediate response option across the whole spectrum of Crisis
The use of air, land and maritime assets and associated resources for a RR in an EU-led
military operation are governed by the Interim EU Rapid Response Concept (Ref R).
Force Generation (FG). FG is the process where the military assets and capabilities required
for an EU-led military operation are designated by Troop Contributing Nations (TCN) and/ or
International Organisations6 and made available to the OpCdr to meet the requirements of the
operation. It comprises the identification and the activation of the required assets and/or
capabilities and ends with their TOA by TCN to the OpCdr. TCN are those MS and, after a
Council decision, third States providing military assets or capabilities for a particular
operation (Ref V). The three phases of FG for EU-led military operations and missions,
namely, Identification, Activation and Deployment, and the associated principles and
procedures, are described in detail in the EU Concept for Force Generation.
Command and Control (C2).
The Political and Security Committee (PSC), under the authority of the Council and the
HR, exercises the political control and strategic direction of EU-led military operations
and missions, based on the advice and recommendations of the EUMC (for military
operations) and where appropriate PMG (Ref W).
Responsibility for the conduct of an EU-led military operation lies with the OpCdr, who
is authorised to exercise operational command or operational control over assigned
forces. In addition to FG, the OpCdr is also responsible for the development of the
Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and the Operation Plan (OPLAN). The OpCdr, who
is supported by an OHQ, which is outside the JOA, coordinates the deployment,
sustainment and redeployment of the EU-led military force. Responsibility for the
conduct of an EU-led military mission lies with the MCdr, who is authorised by Council
to exercise command over assigned forces and mission tailored MHQ in theatre.
The OHQ for a particular EU-led military operation is designated by the Council from
one of the following options; one of the five EU OHQs (UK OHQ (PJHQ) Northwood,
6 The Berlin + arrangements set the conditions for the release, monitoring and return or recall of NATO assets and capabilities for
their use in an EU-led military operation.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
FR OHQ (CPCO) Mt Valérien, DE OHQ (RFOC) Potsdam, IT OHQ (JOHQ) Rome and
EL OHQ Larissa), the EU OPSCEN Brussels or an EU OHQ at SHAPE (Berlin+).
An EU-led military operation may also have recourse to a Framework Nation7, which
could include a significant contribution to military strategic planning, operational level
planning, the mounting, deployment, execution, support and redeployment of the forces
for the operation (Ref X).
The EU FCdr, acting under the authority of the OpCdr, executes the EU-led military
operation within the JOA. The Component Commanders (CC) of an EU-led military
operation, acting under the authority of the EU FCdr, are responsible for making
recommendations to the FCdr on the employment of their forces and assets and for
planning, coordinating and conducting operations. The Principles, Structure, Command
Options, Responsibilities and Coordination relating to C2 for EU-led military operations
are described in greater detail in the EU Concept for Military Command and Control
Communications and Information Systems (CIS).
CIS Planning for EU-led military operations and missions should include consideration
of all levels of command from the Political Strategic to the Tactical and additionally,
where necessary, other national, international and non-governmental organisations. The
object is to enable the passage of information in a timely manner throughout both the
EU military and civilian chains of command and across inter-organisational
relationships, in order that timely decisions can be taken and implemented at the
The non-fixed C2 structure for EU-led military operations and missions can mean that
there are different CIS solutions for each operation. The responsibilities, planning
factors and options for CIS for EU-led military operations are described in the EU
Concept for CIS for EU-led Military Operations (Ref Z).
For complex engagements involving EU military and civilian instruments, shared and
interconnected networks and systems would result in overall improvements in
operational efficiency and effectiveness.
As the EU does not have a standing military Command and Control (C2) structure, clear
and effective arrangements are needed to facilitate the successful CIS support of these
7 A Framework Nation is defined as: "A Member State (MS) or a group of MS that has volunteered to, and that the Council has
agreed, should have specific responsibilities in an operation over which the EU exercises political control".
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
operations. To secure the information exchange between and at all levels of the military
C2 structure an agreed set of general information security regulations and procedures
must be available. Information Security planning as an integral part of the overall CIS
planning has to ensure adequate security right from the start of an operation.
The Military CIS Concept for EU-led CMOs identified the need to develop an
Information Security Concept and this need was reinforced by the objectives stated in
the ECAP 2004 roadmap. The concept (Ref AA) describes the overarching and common
security requirements agreed by MS and EU GSC (General Secretariat of the Council).
While also taking into consideration MS (Member States) security directives this
concept is based on EU Council’s Security Regulations and EU Accreditation Process.
These documents are the foundation for Information Security within the EU. Full
interoperability between all participants of an EU operation, civil and military, must be
achieved. The Concept reinforces the need for EU, MS, TCNs and other organisations
to implement common information security policies, procedures and standards. In
addition it describes common information security criteria, protective principles,
responsibilities and identifies planning factors to support military C2 structures in EU-
The EU has established an autonomous capacity to lead military operations within the
range of tasks defined through CSDP. These tasks require decision making based on
situational awareness. Such situational awareness relies on adequate information that is
increasingly provided by computer networks. When military action is considered
appropriate, the shape and size of the military assets and capabilities required need to be
assigned to each operation. EU network communication is therefore required between
decision-makers in Brussels down through the chain of command to the tactical level,
external to Brussels and MS, within the JOA and other locations. Therefore, network
communications extend beyond the military domain cross geographic, organisational
and functional boundaries and into the diverse civilian entities within CSDP. The
integrity of computer networks and security of information on networks used at all
levels of EU-led operations is critical to achieving the required political and strategic
effects. Computer networks therefore need to be defended to preserve their integrity and
The tasks as defined through CSDP require command and control (C2) and decision
making based on situational awareness. Such situational awareness is significantly
dependant on information provided through Communication and Information Systems
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
(CIS) and computer networks. Increasingly too, military capability in its widest sense is
reliant on computers and networks to operate. This increase in reliance on computer
networks allows us to exploit the benefits of improved Network Enabled Capability
(NEC) and is therefore not just a CIS issue: it affects all arms. The Cyber Defence
Concept supersedes the EU Concept for Computer Network Operations in EU-led
military operations (13537/1/09, 17 March 2010), but does not necessarily address all
aspects of Computer Network Operations (CNO), by taking account of the wider
context of cyberspace which is defined as the fifth operating environment. An EU
Concept (Ref CC) elaborates more on the measures and standards that will improve
overall Cyber Defence. The integrity of computer networks and the security of the
information on the networks used during EU-led operations is critical to achieving the
mission. Cyberspace in general and computer networks in particular, need to be
defended to ensure information assurance. Cyber Defence is one capability that, when
combined with other measures, such as IT security, physical security and personnel
security provides information assurance. In addition the Concept provides a definition
of Cyber Defence terminology sets out responsibilities and principles for CSDP
Operations and Missions and offers EU Member States, institutions and agencies
guidance for the development of military capability requirements for use on EU
missions (Ref CC).
The European External Action Service (EEAS), supported by the General Secretariat of
the Council and European Commission, is responsible for providing all required CIS,
including the provision of information assurance. As a minimum this comprises the
necessary communications links at the Political Strategic levels including the links to all
offered OHQs and FHQs, in their fixed location, the EU SATCEN and other EU actors
in theatre. These CIS and links must be available on a permanent basis to reduce
planning and reaction time in a crisis situation, and must include centrally provided
services to enhance interoperability and information flows. Links to NATO (SHAPE)
are also essential on a permanent basis for potential Berlin Plus operations. EEAS must
also provide the necessary CIS for Fact Finding Missions and other such missions so
that deployed personnel can conduct their mission to the necessary level of
confidentiality as well as being able to communicate that information remotely with
EEAS organisations and possibly OHQs.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
44. Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance. (ISTAR) contributes to
early warning, risk assessment, situational awareness and target intelligence and thus supports
the decision making and planning activities in the framework of EU crisis management. Its
products such as warnings, risk assessments and comprehensive analysis are needed on a
permanent basis and must be tailored to the user's requirements and securely processed and
disseminated wherever feasible on a near real time basis. They complete the Common
Operational Picture (COP) and the situational awareness of decision-makers. The principles
for the application of ISTAR in support to EU-led Crisis Management Operations are
elaborated further in the EUMS Concept (Ref DD).
45. Intelligence. The provision of timely, accessible, relevant, comprehensive and accurate
intelligence and identification of potential threats is essential in order to support EU-led
military operations and missions. Intelligence from all sources, which include all CSDP actors
both in theatre and in Brussels, MS particularly TCN and third parties will play a key role.
The nature and scope of the EU-led military operation or mission will determine intelligence
requirements and the intelligence architecture to be utilised therein (Ref EE).
The initial introduction of EU-led military forces into a JOA is often the period of
greatest risk for such forces. Entry is normally accomplished using all available means
and capabilities which include the singular or combined employment of airborne,
seaborne or overland movement. The presence or creation of some entry points such as
an available air or sea port, an assailable coastline, a suitable and supportable drop zone
or an accessible frontier is essential for a successful entry phase. Forcible entry
involving the seizure of a lodgement area in a hostile environment by military forces
employing combative means is the most difficult form of entry and may only have to be
considered in the most extreme circumstances. However, the vast majority of EU-led
military operations will involve the introduction of EU-led forces into a permissive
environment or an environment that has not yet turned hostile.
Initial entry is often associated with preliminary operations which are carried out in-
theatre prior to the arrival of the main body of EU-led military forces. Such operations
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
could include the establishment of logistic nodes, lines of communication, Intelligence,
Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and CIS architecture. Preliminary operations
could also involve the conduct of SOF operations, which in essence can form the Initial
Entry Force (IEF).
47. Strategic Movement and Transport (M&T).
It is essential that EU-led military forces arriving in a JOA or a Forward Mounting Base
(FMB) do so in the correct sequence and in accordance with the OpCdr's intent. The
sequenced arrival into theatre of EU-led military forces and their requisite supplies is not
just dependent on the volume and availability of transport but also on the capacity of the
reception facilities and other factors which include political, security, protection and
operational/ tactical planning issues associated with the operation.
M&T support for EU-led military operations is the collective responsibility of relevant
EU actors and Troop Contributing Nations (TCNs). This M&T responsibility extends
through all phases of an operation and includes strategic planning and deployment,
Reception, Staging and Onward Movement, Integration (RSOI), sustainment and
Permanent structures which facilitate the high-level planning and coordination of M&T
for EU-led military operations include the EU Movement Planning Cell (EUMPC) and
the Multinational Movement Coordination Centres8 (MMCCs). Other M&T structures
normally activated during the planning phase of the operation include the EU Movement
Coordination Centre (EUMCC), FHQ Logistic Staff (CJ-4 LOG), the National
Movement Coordination Centre (NMCC) and the National Support Element (NSE). The
EU Concept for Strategic Movement and Transportation for EU-led Military Operations
highlights the principles, responsibilities and procedures relating to M&T for EU-led
military operations (Ref FF).
Where possible, the coordinated use of strategic airlift and in-theatre movement facilities
should be employed for complex engagements involving both EU civilian and military
8 The Athens Multinational Sealift Coordination Centre (AMSCC) and Movement Coordination Centre Europe (MCCE) in
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
48. Reception, Staging and Onward Movement, Integration (RSOI). RSOI is part of the process
that enables EU-led military forces and associated materiel deploying in the JOA to become
operational (Ref GG).
Reception. This is the process whereby EU-led military forces and their requisite
materiel arriving in the JOA via land, air or sea strategic / tactical lift are received,
offloaded, marshalled and cleared prior to staging.
Staging. Staging is the assembly, temporary holding and organisation of EU-led military
forces and their requisite materiel into formed units in preparation for onward movement
and further activities.
Onward Movement. This is the process of moving EU units from reception facilities and
staging areas to the final destination.
Integration. This is the synchronised transfer of operationally ready units into the
Combined Joint EU force. Integration can occur at any point along the strategic
deployment and RSOI continuum and is complete when the FCdr has established C2
over the unit.
49. Deployment Models. The varied nature of EU-led military operations or missions requires
that consideration be given to the different options for the deployment and employment of
forces. Employment / deployment options will be influenced by factors such as the nature of
the mission, the security situation, the components specific requirements, the political
environment, the economic implications, the in-theatre infrastructure and associated
geographical and climatic conditions. Any one or a combination of the following
employment/ deployment can be adapted for EU-led military operations or missions:
Strategic Deployment conducted directly into a JOA. RSOI of EU-led forces takes place
in the JOA.
Strategic Deployment to a Forward Mounting Base (FMB). RSOI of EU-led forces takes
place to the maximum extent possible in the FMB, which is located within the JOA
either on land or at sea.
RSOI conducted at the Port of Embarkation (POE). Forces are subsequently strategically
deployed directly into the JOA. This option is particularly applicable to Rapid Response
and initial entry operations.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
50. EU Air Deployable Operating Base (DOB).
An EU Air DOB, an operating base from where joint air operations are conducted to
accomplish or support one or several EU-led Crisis Management Operations, may be
required to ensure the overall success of EU-led military operations. Selection of the
most suitable location for the EU Air DOB will depend on factors such as the projected
duration of the operation, the risk assessment, the access to the base, the envisaged HNS
and the political and legal arrangements required to use an international airport or
existing air base. Ideally the establishment, at the tactical level, of an EU Air DOB
should be the responsibility of a Framework Nation, in accordance with the principles of
the EU Framework Nation Concept.
The EUMS is responsible for the initial planning in relation to the establishment of an
EU Air DOB. This responsibility transfers to the OHQ as soon as the Initiating Military
Directive has been released to the OpCdr. The procedures, mechanisms and command
and control structures associated with the activation, sustainment and recovery of an EU
Air DOB are described in greater detail in the EU Concept for the Implementation of a
EU Air Deployable Operating Base (Ref HH).
51. EU Sea Deployable Operating Base (DOB).
The joint use of seaborne platforms to project, support and sustain EU-led military
forces could offer significant advantages for the conduct of EU-led military operations
or missions. Such platforms could be located either over the horizon, in sight of shore, in
port or utilising some combination of the three locations.
Sea basing could help to ensure the expeditious deployment of the force with requisite
support into a demanding environment. Depending on the nature of the operation sea
basing could range in size from a single ship up to and including an entire fleet and
could support an element of or the entire EU-led military force.
Sea basing can be used throughout all phases of an operation from initial entry to re-
deployment and can provide capabilities such as Command and Control,
Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Reconnaissance
(ISTAR), Sea Point of Disembarkation (SPOD), Force Protection (FP), Air Defence
(AD), Naval Fire Support (NFS), as well as medical facilities, supplies and RSOI
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
52. In-Theatre Operations.
In-theatre responsibility for the execution of EU-led military operations rests with the
FCdr, acting under the authority of the OpCdr. Such operations are normally carried out
by conventional EU military forces. However, when conventional military assets and /or
capabilities may not be able to fulfil the mission or tasks, there may be a need to conduct
special operations either independently or as part of a larger military effort. Special
Operations Forces (SOF), which are designated by MS and non-EU TCNs provide a
flexible, versatile and unique capability, whether employed alone or complementing
other forces or agencies, to attain military-strategic or operational objectives (Ref II).
Throughout the continuum of an EU-led military operation or mission, particularly a
complex engagement, the role of the military may change from "supported" where the
military have a primary role to that of "supporting" where the military have a secondary
role in support of other EU in-theatre instruments. The main role of forces involved in
EU-led military operations will invariably involve security operations but it is also
possible that such forces could be directed in support of other post-conflict tasks9.
In a complex engagement the in-theatre coordination of EU military and civilian
operations is vital in order to achieve the overall strategic political objectives.
53. Information Operations (Info Ops).
Info Ops for EU-led military operations and missions is a military function that provides
advice and coordination of military activities affecting information and information
systems10 in order to support the in-theatre mission and the political objectives of the EU
(Ref JJ). The successful integration and coordination of the following core and
supporting capabilities and functions will influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial
human and automated decision making while protecting that of the EU, thus facilitating
the Info Ops campaign.
Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) (Ref KK).
Operations Security (OPSEC).
Electronic Warfare (EW).
9 UN Indicative post-conflict tasks: Infrastructure, Employment, Economic Governance, Civil Administration, Elections, Political
Process, DDR, Rule of Law, Human Rights, Capacity Building.
10 In this context information systems comprise personnel, technical components, organisational structures, and processes that
collect, analyse, assess, create, manipulate, store, retrieve, provide, display, share, transmit and disseminate information.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Key Leader Engagement.
54. Civil Military Cooperation (CIMIC) (Ref LL).
The purpose of CIMIC in EU-led military operations and missions is to establish and
maintain cooperation between the in-theatre EU military component, (local)
governmental organisations and civilian actors, including IOs and NGOs.
b. CIMIC, as an operational function, seeks to create the best possible moral, material,
operational and tactical conditions for the achievement of the military mission. CIMIC
core functions are grouped into the following areas: Civil-Military Liaison, Support to
the Civil Environment and Support to the Military Force.
55. Logistic Support.
Personnel, materiel and infrastructure are the main focus areas in terms of logistic
support for EU-led military operations and missions. In all categories the nature and
expected operational timeframe will be critical determinants of the overall logistic
footprint. However, irrespective of these determinants, successful EU-led military
operations and missions will require robust real-time logistic support.
The required logistic support for an EU-led military operation or mission has to be
identified early in the planning process and includes consideration of the legal
framework, existing multinational logistic solutions, strategic lift, availability of HNS,
Contractor Support to Operations and protection of the entire logistic chain. Early
planning also involves the production by the OpCdr of a sustainability statement
outlining common criteria to be adopted by national contingents. This statement, which
is agreed at the earliest stage by TCNs, is required to identify available logistic units and
associated assets as well as maintenance and medical policies.
TCNs are ultimately responsible for the provision of resources for national forces. TCNs
retain full command over their own logistic forces within the national force contribution
but the TOA specifies the command relationship of such forces to the OpCdr. However,
multinational support arrangements and common logistics C2 structures optimise the
logistic footprint and contribute to operational success.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Early establishment of logistic infrastructures is essential in order to properly manage
the RSOI process for personnel and materiel. There are different ways to manage the
logistic supply flow into the JOA, which depending on the nature of the mission could
involve transportation by air, sea or overland.
Although logistic support to EU-led military operations is a national responsibility there
is a requirement to coordinate and synchronise this function at the operational level.
Multinational logistics and solutions will be sought at the earliest stages of the
operational planning process and implement prior to the deployment for operations.
Even though National Support Elements (NSEs) come under the command of their own
national authorities and are not part of the EU-led military force, they should cooperate
with the FHQ. Cooperation and centralisation of services among NSEs can produce
significant savings. The coordination of logistic support between relevant EU actors,
TCNs, and where appropriate, other states, IOs and organisations is essential.
For a complex engagement the in-theatre logistics for all CSDP actors could be
coordinated in an EU Logistics Centre (EULC) which could be jointly staffed by
military and civilian logistics personnel. The principles, characteristics, guidelines,
modes, finance and responsibilities relating to the provision of logistic support for EU-
led military operations and missions are contained in the EU Concept for Logistic
Support to EU-led Military Operations (Ref MM & NN).
56. Health and Medical (H&M) Support.
The aim of H&M Support in EU-led military operations and missions is to support same
by conserving manpower, preserving life and health and minimising residual physical
and mental disabilities. Appropriate medical support makes a major contribution to both
force protection and morale through the prevention of disease, rapid evacuation and
treatment of the sick, wounded and injured and the return to duty of as many individuals
Contributing MS and non-EU TCNs are ultimately responsible for the provision of
H&M Support to their forces involved in EU-led military operations or missions.
However, coordination, and in some circumstances, integration of medical assets and
capabilities will optimise the provision and use of limited resources and prevent
unnecessary redundancies. On TOA the OpCdr has the shared responsibility for the
H&M Support of all forces assigned to the operation. Where required, H&M support
resources and personnel for EU-led civilian missions are normally sourced through the
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
Calls for Contributions (CfC) process which is initiated by the CPCC. Medical
capabilities and capacities assigned to an EU-led military operation or mission must be
sufficient and have the same level of readiness, deployability and sustainability as the
personnel they support.
In preparing the H&M inputs to the OPLAN and CONOPS the OpCdr is assisted by his
Medical Adviser, who is the senior medical staff officer in the OHQ with responsibility
for setting the OpCdr's medical policy and ensuring that he and his staff are aware of the
health and medical implications associated with the EU-led military operation or
mission. For EU-led civilian operations the CivOpCdr is assisted by the HoM in
determining the level of H&M Support required for the mission. The Principles,
Guidelines, Organisation and Functional Areas for H&M Support for EU-led military
operations and missions are described in greater detail in the Comprehensive Health and
Medical Concept for EU-led Crisis Management Missions and Operations (Ref OO).
57. In-theatre Coordination. In addition to the normal organisational and coordinating functions
provided by the HQ staff for EU-led military operations and missions, further in-theatre
coordination, particularly for complex engagements is necessary. There is a requirement for a
focal point, where planning, conduct, support and other functions of the EU engagement can
be coordinated in theatre e.g. Intelligence, Operations and Logistics. This measure should
only be considered where it facilitates the attainment of common goals by in-theatre EU
military and civilian actors in a comprehensive manner. It should not be imposed as an
additional, complicating factor, requiring more resources, if not needed. Ideally, this focal
point should be a single facility with appropriate communications, information systems and
meeting rooms where institutions and actors, involved in the engagement, can coordinate their
58. Transitional Phases.
The desired end state for EU-led military operations and missions will normally include
the provision of outcomes such as a Safe and Secure Environment, Rule of Law, Stable
Governance, Sustainable Economy and Social Well-Being. The attainment of the end
state for a complex engagement could involve progression through a number of
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
transitional phases ranging from pre-conflict, high-intensity operations, post-conflict
stabilisation and reconstruction to long-term development.
Throughout this continuum of phases the aim is to lessen the dependency on EU military
instruments with an associated and gradual increase in emphasis on EU civilian
instruments. However, irrespective of this aim, there is always a possibility of increased
military intervention at any stage throughout a complex engagement due to factors such
as in-theatre volatility or a change in the security situation.
Notwithstanding the possibility of fluctuations in the roles of EU military and civilian
instruments throughout the continuum of a crisis, the principal goal must be the
facilitation of the transfer of authority to the legal civilian authorities of the host nation
as part of the wider political process. Transition must form an integral part of Advance
and Crisis Response Planning for EU-led military operations and missions.
Every EU-led military operation and mission will have its own internal phases which
require sequential execution. Advance Planning (where applicable), Crisis Response
Planning, training, exercises, leadership and lessons learned will all help to ensure that
the transition between the deployment, employment and redeployment phases of EU-led
operations is seamless.
59. Termination / Redeployment / Recovery.
The decision to terminate an EU-led military operation or mission is made by the
Council based on an evaluation by the PSC which includes advice from the EUMC and
CIVCOM. In the event that such an operation had recourse to NATO assets and
capabilities, the PSC informs the NAC. The PSC also requests the EUMC to evaluate
lessons learned (LL) on the basis of the reports by the OpCdr and the EUMS. (Ref PP)
Redeployment should be regarded as a separate operation aimed at achieving an efficient
and ordered exit from theatre. The redeployment of military and /or civilian instruments
from an EU-led military operation or mission must be carefully planned as early as
possible and, ideally, before the deployment phase is complete. Such planning will be
dependent on the nature of the EU operation and the requirements of possible follow-on
operations by the EU or other organisations such as the UN. Post-engagement EU
residual commitments must be properly managed.
Recovery planning will, for example, determine what equipment and supplies will be left
in-theatre for follow-on operations and what will actually be recovered. Where it is
intended that EU supplies and equipment should be used for non-EU follow-on missions
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4
this must be the subject of clear and unambiguous written agreements between the
relevant organisations. NSEs assist the in-theatre logistic function in the withdrawal and
recovery of EU-led military forces, equipment and supplies. Where applicable, full
settlement must be made with all agencies and organisations that provided in-theatre
support to the EU-led military operation or mission.
The withdrawal of EU-led military forces from the JOA is executed by the FCdr under
the authority of the OpCdr. For EU-led civilian operations this function is carried out by
the HoM under the authority of the CivOpCdr.
EEAS 00990/4/14 REV4